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Full text of "Proceedings of the general meetings for scientific business of the Zoological Society of London"

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PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF LONDON. 




PART IV. 
1836. 



PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY. 

BY R. AND J. E. TAYLOK, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



LIST 



or 



CONTRIBUTORS, 

With References to the several Articles contributed by each. 



page 
Bennett, E. T., Esq. 

Remarks upon a series of the Indian Antelope {Antilope 

cervicapra, Pail.) 34 

On the Brush-tailed Kangaroo (Macropus perdcillatus. 
Gray) 41 

Bennett, Frederick Debell, Esq. 

Notes on the anatomy of the Spermaceti Whale {Physeter 
macrocephalus, Lac.) 127 

Bennett, G., Esq. 

Notes relating to the habits of the Spermaceti Whale, and 

to a large species of Grampus, called the Killer 53 

Observations on a species of Glaucus, referred to G. hexa- 
pterygius of Cuvier 113 

B' I • i /■ Donation of Birds from Swan River 85 
reton, Lieut, j 

Broderip, W. J., Esq. 

Description of some new species of Shells belonging to 
the genera Spondyhis, Valuta, Conus, Purpura, and Bulinus . 43 

Burton, E., Esq. 

Description of a new species of Pipra 113 

Cuvier, M. F. 

Memoir on the genera Diptts and Gerbillus 141 

DuGMORE, Rev. H. 

Note respecting a Sea Eagle (Haliatus albicilla, Sav.), in 
the possession of Lieut. -Col. Mason, of Neeton Hall near 
Swaffham, Norfolk 49 



IV 



Fuller, E., Esq. page 

Notice of the rearing of two hybrids from a Barn-door Hen, 
ha^ing a cross from a Pheasant, and a Pheasant cock 84 

Garner, R., Esq. 

On the anatomy of the Lamellibranchiate Conchiferous 
animals 12 

Gould, Mr. J. 

Characters of some new species of Birds in the Society's 

Collection 5 

On a new genus of Birds, Kittacincla , . 7 

Exhibition of Trogon resplendens and T. pavoninus 12 

Characters of some new Birds in the Society's Collection, 

including two new genera, Paradoxornis and Acti7iodura. ... 17 
Exhibition of Birds from North Africa presented to the 

Society by Sir Thomas Reade, with other specimens sent by 

M. Temminck to Mr. Gould 59 

Characters of two new species of Birds constituting a new 

genus, Aplonis ; 73 

Characters of a new species of Ortyx from Mexico and two 

new species of Zosterops from New South Wales 75 

Characters of three new species of the genus Strix 140 

Characters of some new species of Birds belonging to the 

genera Tamatia and Cursorius 80 

Characters of some new species of Birds from Swan River 85 
Exhibition of Birds allied to the European Wren, with 

characters of new species 88 

Characters of new species of Birds from New South Wales 104 
Exhibition of the specimens figured in the first part of 

Mr. Gould's work on the 'Australian Birds,' with characters 

of the new species 142 

Gray, J. E., Esq. 

Memoir on the genus Moschus of Linnaeus, with descrip- 
tions of two new species 63 

Observations upon the tufts of hair obsen'able upon the 
posterior legs of the genus Cervus, as a character of that 
group, and as a means of subdividing it into natural sections 66 

Characters of some new species of Mammalia in the So- 
ciety's Collection, with remarks upon the dentition of the 
Carnivora, and upon the value of the characters used by M. 
Cuvier to separate the plantigrade from the digitigrade Car- 
nivora 87 

Remark upon the habits of the Cuckoo 104 

On a pecuharity in the structure of the ligament in some 
bivalve shells 104 

Remarks upon a specimen of Argonauta with an Ocythoe 
from the Cape of Good Hope 121 



V 

Gheen, Capt. page 

Note describing a specimen of the Barn-door Hen which 
had assumed the Cock plumage 49 

Harvey, J. B., Esq. 

Note upon the thickening of the lip of Rostellaria pes Peli- 
cani, Lam 46 

Letter referring to a collection of marine productions, in- 
cluding a specimen of Capros Aper, Lacep., and a new species 
of Tubularia (T. gracilis, Harv.), collected on the south coast 
of Devonshire, and presented by the writer to the Society . . 54 

Notice of the occurrence of four specimens of Velella lim- 
bosa. Lam., on the beach at Teignmouth 79 

Exhibition of Fossils from Devonshire, and some species of 
Ophiura and Asterias from that coast 104 

Note respecting a specimen of the Electric Ray caught at 
Teignmouth 109 

Henning, Lieut., R.N. 

Note addressed to Col. Sykes mentioning the capture of 
an Albatross by means of a hook 63 

Heron, Sir R., Bart. 

Notes on the breeding of Curassows at Stubton 1 

Hodgson, B. H., Esq. 

On some Scolopacidce of Nipal 7 

On the lachrymal sinus in Antilope Thar, and Cervus Ari- 
stotelis 39 

Notice of seven species of Vespertilionidcc observed in the 
central region of Nepal 46 

Description of a new species of Cervus (C. Barhaiya, Hodg.) 46 

Mackay, R., Esq. 

Letter describing the habits of a Vulture {Vultur Papa, 
Linn.) 107 

Martin, Mr. W. 

Notes of the Dissection of a Vulpine Opossum (Phalangista 
Vulpina, Cuv.) 2 

Notice of a rudimentary canine tooth in a female of a species 
of Deer from South America 4 

Notes on the visceral and osteological anatomy of the Ca- 
riatna {Dicholophus cristatus. 111.) 29 

Notes on the anatomy of Buflfon's Touraco {Corythaix 
Buffonii, Vaill.) 32 

Description of a new Mammal, (Cynictis melamcrus, Mart.) 55 

Notes on the anatomy of the Koala {Phascolarctos fuscus, 
Desm.) . 109 

Description of two species of the genus Cercoleptes 82 

Description of a new species of the genus Felts 107 



Martin, Mr. W. (continued.) page 

Description of the osteology of the Sea Otter {Enhydra 

marina, Flem.) 59 

Notes on the dissection of the Chilian Bush Rat (Octodon 
Cumingii, Benn.) /O 

Ogilby, W., Esq. 

Observations upon the opposable power of the thumb in 
certain Mammals, considered as a zoological character, and 
on the natural affinities which subsist between the Bimana, 

Quadrumana, and Pedimana 25 

Remarks upon the lachrymal sinus in the Indian Antelope 

(Antilope Cervicapra, Pall.) 38 

Remarks upon the probable identity of Cynictis melanurus 
Mart., with a species noted by Boshman under the name of 

Kokebog 56 

Remarks upon Chironectes Yapock, Desm . 56 

Remarks upon two Antelopes {Koba and Kob of Buffon) . . 102 

Remarks upon Canis Himalaicus, Ogilb 103 

Remarks upon some rare or undescribed Ruminants in the 

Society's Collection 119 

On the generic characters of Ruminants 131 

Owen, R., Esq. 

Descriptions of some new or rare Cephalopoda collected by 
Mr. George Bennett 19 

On the shell and animal of Argonauta hians. Lam 22 

Remarks on the secretion in the lachrymal sinus of the 
Indian Antelope {Antilope Cervicapra, Pall.), with a tabular 
view of the relations between the habits and habitats of the 
several species of Antelopes and their suborbital, maxillary, 
post-auditory, and inguinal glands 36 

On the morbid appearances observed in the dissection of 
the Chimpanzee {Simla Troglodytes, Linn.) 41 

Notes on the anatomy of the Wombat {Phascolomys Wom- 
bat, Per.) 49 

Reference to Hunter's opinion respecting the productive 
powers of Hybrids 85 

On a new Orang {Simla Morio) 91 

Anatomical descriptions of two species of Entozoa, from the 
stomach of a Tiger {Felis Tigris, Linn.), one of which forms 
a new genus, Gnathostoma 123 

Reid, James, Esq. 

Description of anew species of the genus Perameles {P. La- 
gotis) 129 

RiJppELL, Dr. 

On the existence of canine teeth in an Abyssinian Antelope 
{A. montana, Rvipp.) 3 



Vll 

Sthic'KLANd, H. E., Esq. page 

List of Birds noticed in Asia Minor in the winter of 1835, 

and in the spring of 1836 97 

Exhibition of a skin of a variety of the common Fox (Cams 
Vulpes, Linn.), from Smyrna, and a specimen of the Argo- 
nauta, brought to Mr. Stricldand with the animal alive .... 102 

Thibaut, M. 

Letter relative to the capture of the Giraffes 9 

Vigors, N. A., Esq. 

Characters of a new and singular form among the Tinamous 
(Tinamotis Pentlandii, Vig.) 79 

Characters of two new Parrots in the Society's Collection 
{Psittacus augustus, and Ps. Guildingii, Vig.) 80 

Remarks upon the productive powers of female Hybrids. . 84 

Waterhouse, G. R,, Esq. 

Description of a new genus {Myrmecobius) of Mammiferous 
animals from New Holland, probably belonging to the Mar- 
supial type 69 

On a second specimen of Myrmecobius 131 

Williamson, W. C, Esq. 

Notes on the appearance of rare Birds in the vicinity of 
Scarborough 76 

Yarrell, W., Esq, 

Notice of the Dottrell (Charadrius Morinellus, Linn.) 
breeding at Skiddaw, and of the gray Snipe (Macrorampkus 
griseus. Leach,) having been obtained near Carlisle 1 

Exhibition of part of Mr. Yarrell's collection of British 
Fish, with observations upon the method made use of in pre- 
paring them 47 

Remarks upon the productiveness of Hybrids 84 

Notice of a large Carp taken at the Mere near Payne's Hill 
in Surrey 109 



PROCEEDINGS 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



January 12, 1836. 

William Yan-ell, Esq., in the Chaii'. 

A NOTE addressed to the Secretary by Sir Robert Heron, Bart. M.P. 
was read. It referred to the writer's success in the breeding of Ctt- 
rassows in the last summer at Stubton. 

From two individuals in his possession, the male of which is en- 
tirely black, and the female of the mottled reddish brown colour 
which is regarded as characteristic of the Crax rubra, Linn., Sir R. 
Heron has hatched in the last year six young ones in three broods of 
two eggs each : the eggs were placed under turkeys and common 
hens. Respecting one of them no notes were made ; but the other 
five were all of the red colour of the female parent. Two of these, 
which were at two or three weeks old very strong, being still in the 
flower-garden, were killed it the night by a rat that had eaten its 
way into the coop in which they were. Two others were sent to 
the Earl of Derby, who wanted hens. The remaining one is now 
nearly, if not quite, full grown ; and Sir R. Heron proposes to place 
it with the old pair. 

" There is one great peculiarity," Sir R. Heron remarks, " attend- 
ing the old pair. Their principal food is Indian corn and greens, 
both which they eat in common : but whenever any biscuit is given 
to them, as an occasional treat when visitors are here, the male breaks 
it and takes it in his mouth ; waiting, however long, until the hen 
takes it out of his bill ; which she does without the slightest mark 
of civility, although on excellent terms with him. This proceeding 
is invariable." 

Mr. Yarrell, on behalf of T. C, Heysham, Esq., of Carlisle, ex- 
hibited the egg, the young bird of a week old, one of a month old, 
and the adult female of the Dottrell, Charadrius Morinellus, Linn., 
obtained on Skiddaw in the summer of 1835. Several pairs were 
breeding in the same locality. 

He also stated that a specimen of the grey Snipe, Macroramphtts 
griseus, Leach, a young bird of the year, has been obtained near 
No. XXXV^II. — Proceedings ok the Zoological Sr>ciETY. 
W 



Carlisle in the past year. This is the third recorded instance of 
the occurrence of the species in England. 

The following notes by Mr. Martin of a dissection of a Vulpine 
Opossum, Phalangista Vulpina, Cuv., were read. 

" This animal, which died a short time since at the Gardens of the 
Society, was a female. In the length of the body it measured 1 foot 
4-1- inches, exclusive of the head, which from nose to occiput measured 
3-I- inches : the tail somewhat exceeded 1 1 inches. There was no 
abdominal pouch : the mammcE were two in number, about a quarter 
of an inch apart, very small, pointed, and retracted within the skin. 
The body was loaded with fat, and a layer of. that substance, fully 
half an inch in thickness, lined the abdominal and psoas muscles. 

" On leaving the pylorus, the duodenum was found to dip down 
to about the middle lumbar vertebra, where it crossed the spine, and 
then making an acute turn ascended till it reached the pylorus, where 
it again turned down abruptly, and lost, in the convolutions of the 
succeeding portion, or jejunum, its distinctive appellation. 

" The stomach was large and simple, with a considerable cardiac 
pouch ; when distended with air, its circumference measured 8^ 
inches, and the great curvature 13. 

" The omentum was very extensive, and loaded with fat. 
" The. pancreas was thin and indefinite, blending with the fat of 
the mesentery. It consisted of a main portion or body lying beneath 
the stomach, whence it spread to the mesenteiy, a broad slip adhering 
to the duodenum for about 2 inches. 

"The liver was not unlike a fig-leaf in general outline, being deeply 
split into six distinct lobes, — three on the right, and three on the left, 
besides the lobulus Spigelii. In the middle fissure was seated the gall- 
bladder, its fundus being visible in situ naturali. The shape of this 
vesicule wa.s, as usual, oval. It was filled with yellow bile. Its duct, 
which measured altogether 2^ inches, received, at about half an inch 
from its commencement, several very small hepatic ducts, and en- 
tered the duodenum, with the pancreatic, 3 inches below the pylorus. 
" The spleen consisted of three processes or radii from a central 
body : one of these processes adhered to the cardiac portion of the 
stomach ; another floated in the omentum ; and the third, bound by 
the mesentery, just covered the left kidney. 

" The total length of the intestines was 11 feet 8 inches; the 
length of the small intestines being 6 feet 10, and of the large 4 feet 
10. The mean diameter of the small intestines was half an inch. 
I'he mean diameter of the large at their origin was three quarters 
of an inch ; but they contracted as they proceeded to one quarter, 
and the rectum subsequently enlarged to three quarters. The narrow 
part was filled with irregular knotted faces. There were no longi- 
tudinal bands or sacculi. The texture of the large intestines was 
thin, and the circular fibres very distinct. The ceecum was long and 
convoluted on the mesentery, and narrowed gradually to a point ; its 
length was 1 foot 4-f inches. 

"The right kidney was higher than the left. The suprarenal 



capsules adhered to their uyt-per apex. These bodies were firm, of 
small size, flat, and hollow. The length of the kidneys was 1+ inch ; 
their breadth three quarters. The tubuU converged to a single point, 
not elevated into a distinct papilla. 

" The lungs consisted of three lobes on the right and two on the 
left side. Daubenton, in his description of a species of Phalanger, 
states that he found but one lobe on the left side, which was a little 
notched in the middle, but in the present animal the lobes were 
fairly separate. 

" The heart was elongated and pointed, the right ventricle not 
extending to the apex. Its length was 1-i- inch. 

"The anal, or rather common, opening, was surrounded by four 
large glandular follicles, full of creamy fluid of a rank disagreeable 
odour. The two on each side communicated together by means of 
a very fine tube, hardly larger than a hair. The vagina was longi- 
tudinally furrowed, its length to the orifices of the lateral tubes 2 
inches. The clitoris was small, and about 3 lines long; above 
it were two small orifices, analogous perhaps to Cowper's glands. 
The body of the uterus was small, and its parietes thin and mem- 
branous. It was covered by the bladder, which concealed both this 
portion and its lateral canals and Fallopian tubes. These latter were 
somewhat more than an inch in length. The ovaries were small 
and compressed. 

" The tongue was smooth : its length from the epiglottis to the 
tip, 24- inches ; its breadth three quarters : its apex was somewhat 
acute. The epiglottis was broad and slightly bifid. The thyroid 
glands were oval, and half an inch long. The thyroid cartilage was 
remarkable for a rounded projection anteriorly, over which the os 
hyoides formed an adapted arch, capable of moving up and down on 
the projection, as drawn one way or other by its muscles. 

" The morbid appearances consisted of great inflammation at the 
pylorus, with patches of an almost gangrenous appearance ; a knot 
of enlarged mesenteric glands, which had begun to suppurate ; and 
extensive adhesions to each other of the small intestines. 

A notice by Dr. Riippell, For. Memb. Z. S., of the existence of 
canine teeth in an Abyssinian Antelope, Antilope montana, Riipp., 
was read. It was accompanied by drawings of the structure de- 
scribed in it, which were exhibited. 

The following is a translation of Dr. Riippell's communication. 

In several Mammalia of the order Ruminanlia the adult males, and 
even some females, possess canine teeth, which are more or less de- 
veloped ; to these teeth no other use has been attributed than that 
of a weapon of defence. The Camels (Camelus), the Musk Deer 
(Moschtis), and the Muntjak of India (Cervus Muntjak), possess these 
canine teeth in both sexes. In the red Deer {Cervus Elaphus) and 
in the rein Deer {Cerv. Tarandus),\he adult males alone £u:e provided 
with them. 

I have just ascertained that there is a species of Antelope which 
possesses these canine teeth ; but in which, by a singular anomaly. 



it is only the young males that are furnished with them. In these 
too they can only be considered in the light of half-developed germs ; 
for the cartilaginous part which covers the palate and the upper jaw 
entirely conceals them. 

It is the Ant. montana, which I discovered in 1824 in the neigh- 
bourhood of Sennaar, and of which I published in my ' Zoological 
Atlas ' the figure of an adult male, that is provided, in its youth, with 
these anomalous canine teeth : the adults of both sexes, and the 
young females, are destitute of them. I observed, in my last journey 
in Abyssinia, many individuals of this species in the valleys in the 
neighbourhood of Gondar : it is far from rare in that locality, but 
the jungles mingled with thorns, which are its favourite retreat, ren- 
der the chase of it extremely difficult. 

At the time of the publication of my description of this new spe- 
cies, in 1826, I was possessed of only a single adult male, and there 
were consequently many deficiencies in my account of it. I am now 
enabled to add to this notice that the females of this species are 
always destitute of horns ; that both sexes have, in the [groins] two 
rather deep pits covered by a stiff bundle of white hairs ; and finally 
that the species lives in pairs in the valleys of the western part of 
Abyssinia, where it takes the place oiAnt. Saltiana, an animal which 
it exceeds in size by nearly one half. These two species are called by 
the natives Madoqua, by which name the Abysslnians also designate 
the Ant. Grimmia, which equally constitutes a part of the game of 
that country, so rich in different forms of the Ruminant order. — E. R. 

A note by Mr. Martin was subsequently read, in which it was 
stated that it had once occurred to him to obsen-e a rudimentary 
canine tooth in the female of a species of Deer from South America, 
the body of which had been sent to the Society's house by Sir P. 
Grey Egerton, for examination. Having noticed an enlargement of 
the gum of the upper jaw, in the situation in which a canine tooth 
might possibly be supposed to exist, he cut into it, and found the 
germ of a canine tooth, about 3 lines in length, imbedded in the gum, 
and destitute of fang. 



January 26, 1S36. 
N. A. Vigors, Esq., in the Chair. 

Specimens were exhibited of numerous Birds, chiefly from the 
Society's collection ; and Mr. Gould, at the request of the Chair- 
man, directed the attention of the Meeting to those among them 
which he regarded as principally interesting either on account of 
their novelty or for the peculiarity of their form. 

They included the following species of the genus Edolius, Cuv., 
which were compared with numerous others placed upon the table 
for that purpose. 

Edolius grandis. Ed. ater viridi metallice splendens ; capite cris- 
tato ; rectricum duarum externarum scapis longissimis, vexilUs 
ad apicem lati spatulatis. 

Long. tot. (rectricibus externis exclusis) 14 unc. ; rostri, H ; a^<^. 
64 ; caudce, 7 ; tarsi, l^. 

Rostrum pedesqne nigri. 

Hab. in Nepalia et (verosimiliter) in Sumatra. 

This species may be distinguished from Ed. Malabaricus by its 
superiority in size, and by the greater fullness and length of its 
crest. The recurved feathers of the upper part of the head measure 
an inch and a half in length. 



'o"- 



Edolius Rangoonensis. Ed. ater viridi splendens ; rectricum ex- 
ternarum scapis longissimis, vexillis late spatulatis ad apicis mar- 
ginem exteriorem prcsditis. 

Long. tot. (rectricibus externis exclusis) 1 2 unc. ; rostri, \\ ; ala, 

6 ; caudce, 54 ; tarsi, 1 . 
Rostrum pedesc^e nigri. 
Hab. apud Rangoon. 

Distinguishable from Ed. Malabaricus, to which it is nearly allied, 
by its shorter beak, and by the total absence from its forehead of 
the fine curled plumes which decorate that bird ; the wing is also 
somewhat shorter. 

Edolius Crishna. Ed. velutino-ater viridi metallic^ (preesertim ad 
alas) splendens ; gutturis plumis sublanceolatis, viridibus; capite 
pilis longissimis pluribus ornato ; rectricum externarum vexillis 
spiraliter intortis. 

Long. tot. (rectricibus externis exclusis) 12 unc. ; rostri, H; al<e, 

7 ; caudce, 6 ; tarsi, 1 . 
Crishna Crow, Lath., Hist. 
Hab. in Nepalid. 

The bill of this species is more cultratcd and lengthened than is 
usual in the geuus. The outer feathers of the tail, which are spi- 



rally reflected Inwards, are not so much produced as those of Ed. 
Malaharicus. A very curious character is furnished by the long, 
hair-like, black filaments which spring from the head and measure 
nearly 4 inches in length. 

Edolius viridescens. Ed. intense splendenti chalyheo-viridis, su- 
pra magis saturatus. 
Long. tot. 11 unc. ; rostri, 1-|-; ala, 5^ ; caudee, 5 ; tarsi, I. 
Rostrum pedesque nigri. 
Hab. apud Manillam. 

The remaining previously undescribed Birds that were exhibited 
were characterized by Mr. Gould as follows : 

Orpheus modulator. Orph. saturate hrunneus, alis pallidiorilus 
albo bifasciatis ; corpore subtiis, gutture, genis, strigdque super- 
ciliari cinerascenti-albidis ; rectricum {prater inter me diarum 
quatuor) apicibus late albis. 

Long. tot. 10 unc. ; rostri, •!■ ; al(E, 44 ; caudae, 5 ; tarsi, ■§-. 

Rostrum pedesque saturate brunnei. 

Hab. in Fretu Magellanico. 

This is by far the largest of the genus, and is very similar in all 
its markings to both Orph. polyglottus and Oiph. minor. Although 
the bird from which the above" character is drawTi is from the Straits 
of Magalhaens, Mr. Gould is inclined to believe that it occurs in 
Brazil also, and considers it as being, very probably, the Turdus Or- 
pheus of Spix, and the grey Pie of Brazil of Edwards. 

Tlie bands on the wings are produced by the white tips of the 
secondaries. 

Ixos LEucoTis. Ixos supru cinereo-brunneus, subtics pallidior ; ver- 
tice, gutture, pectoreque nigris ; auribus genisque albis ; tectrici- 
bus caud(E inferioribus ochraceis ; caudd ad basin cinered in ni- 
gresccnti-brunneum apicem versus transeunte, rectricum omnium 
apicibus albis. 

Long. tot. 64- unc. ; rostri, -I ; ala, 84- ; cauda, 3 ; tarsi, 4. 

Rostrum pedesque saturate brunnei. 

Hab. in India Orientali. 

CoLLuaiciNCLA FuscA. Coll. suprd, saturate brunnea, plumis omni- 
bus pallidiore marginatis ; subtiis cinereo-albida, plumis in medio 
lunuld brunned notatis ; uropygii jjlumarum rectricumque ajiici- 
bus albis. 

Long. tot. 11 unc. ; rostri, 54 ; ate, 5-J-; cauda, 5 ; tarsi, I4. 

Rostrum pedesque pallide brunnei. 

Hab. vel in Nova Zeelandi^ vel in Nova Cambria Australi. 

This species is fully a third larger than the Coll. cinerea described 
by Mr. Vigors and Dr. Horsfield in the ' Linnean Transactions.' 

Trichophoeus flaveolus. Trich. cristatus, suprci olivaceo-flaves- 
cens, subtiis flavus ; alis cauddque olivaceo-brunneis ; genis gut- 
tureque sordide albis. 



Long. tot. 8 imc. ; rostri, 1 ; alee, 4 ; cauda, 3^ ; tarsi, ^. 
Rostrum pedesque corneo-brunnei. 
Hab. in montibus Himalayeiisibus, in NepaM, &c. 
The crest consists of elongated feathers, intermingled with the 
hairy bristles usual in the genus. 



to^ 



Geocichla eubecula. Geo. dorso, alls, cauddque saturate ceervleo- 
cinereis, alls albo late fasciatis ; cnpite, collo, corporeque siibtiis 
nitide ferrugineis ; crisso caud<sque tectricibus inferioribtis albis. 

Long. tot. 8 unc. ; rostri, 1 ; alee, 4+; Cauda, 25 ; tarsi, H. 

JfJos^rum nigrum ; ^ars? brunnei. 

Hab. in Java. 

This pretty species resembles in many respects the Red-breast, 
Erithacus Rubecula, Swains. It belongs to an interesting group, 
which was first characterized by M. Kuhl, and of which the Society's 
collection possesses four well-marked species. 

Mr. Gould subsequently directed the attention of the Meeting to 
a specimen of the Turdiis macrourus of Dr. Latham, with the view 
of explaining the characters which induced him to regard that bird 
as constituting the type of a new 

Genus Kittacincla. 

Rostrum caput longitudine aequans, ad apicem emarginatum, rec- 

tiusculum, compressiusculum. 
Nares basales, plumis brevibus utplurimum tectae. 
Ala raediocres, rotundatae : remige Ima brevissima, 4tk Stdque 

subaequalibus, longioribus. 
Cauda elongata, gradata. 
Tarsi digitiqae longiusculi, tenues. 

Obs. Maribus color supra utplurimum niger; subtiis brunneus 
vel albus. 

A paper by B. H. Hodgson, Esq., Corr. Memb. Z.S., on some of 
the Scolopacidce of Nipal, was read ; the copy transmitted by that 
gentleman to the Society containing various corrections of his me- 
moir which was pubhshed at Calcutta in the 'Gleanings of Science' 
for August, 1831. 

Mr. Hodgson's object in the present paper is to bring under the 
notice of zoologists the various species of the family referred to 
which occur in Nipal, on the natural history of which country he 
has, during a residence of several years, been engaged in making 
most extensive researches. The result of these it is his intention 
immediately to publish, accompanied by finished representations of 
the animals, taken from drawings made in almost every instance 
from numerous living individuals of the several races. 

Mr. Hodgson first describes in detail the common Woodcock, Sco- 
lopax Rusticola, Linn., as it occurs in Nipal ; where it is, in every 
respect of form and colour, evidently identical with the European 
bird. In Nipal also it seems to be, as it is in Western Europe, of 



migratory habits : and the periods of its arrival in, and departure 
from, Nipal, correspond altogether with the seasons of its appearance 
and disappearance in England. 

He then proceeds to describe in detail the several kinds of Snipe 
which occur in Nipal. 

Two of these are so nearly related to the common Snipe of Europe, 
Gallinago media, Ray, that Mr. Hodgson is induced to regard them 
as being probably specifically identical with that bird : and he ac- 
cordingly refers them to it as varieties, which are constantly distin- 
guished from each other by the structure of the tail. In one of them 
the tail-feathers are fourteen or sixteen in number, and are all of 
the same form : in the other the tail-feathers vary in number from 
twenty-two to twenty-eight ; and the outer ones on either side, to 
the number of six, eight, or ten, differ remarkably from those of the 
middle, being narrow, hard, and acuminated. The latter bird may, 
however, be regarded as the representative of a species to which the 
name of Gall, heterura may be given. 

The other two Snipes of Nipal are unquestionably distinct from 
those of Europe. They are described as the solitary Snipe, Gall, so- 
litaria, Hodgs., and the wood Snipe, Gall, nemoricola, Ej. 

In the solitary Snipe the wings are remarkably long ; the upper 
surface, especially on the wings, is minutely dotted, barred, and 
streaked, with white intermingled with buff and brown ; and the ab- 
domen is white, barred along the flanks with brown. 

The wood Snipe has the general colouring of the plumage dark 
and sombre ; the wings short ; the abdomen and the whole of the 
under surface thickly barred with transverse lines of dark brown on 
a dusky white ground ; and a tail of sixteen or eighteen, or very 
rarely twenty, feathers. 

Mr. Hodgson describes, with the greatest minuteness, each of 
these birds, and adverts with the fullest detail to their several habits 
and distinguishing peculiarities, as well of manners and of seasons 
as of form and plumage. 



February 9, 1836. 
Rev. F. W. Hope in the Chair. 

A letter was read, addressed to the Secretary by M. Thibaut, and 
dated Malta, January 8, 1836. It communicated various particulars 
relative to the Giraffes belonging to the Society, which have recently 
been obtained by the writer and which are now in his custody, and 
may be translated as follows : — 

" Having learnt, on my arrival at Malta, that you were desirous 
of information on the subject of the four Giraffes which the Society 
has entrusted to my care, I regard it as a duty to transmit to you a 
short statement, by which you will become aware of the difficulties 
that I encountered in obtaining and preserving for the Society 
these interesting animals, which are now, I hope, altogether out of 
danger. 

" Instructed by Colonel Campbell, His Majesty's Consul General 
in the Levant, and desirous of rendering available for the purposes 
of the Zoological Society the knowledge which I had acquired by 
twelve years' experience in travelling in the interior of Africa, I 
quitted Cairo on the 15th of April, 1834. After sailing up the 
Nile as far as Wadi Haifa (the second cataract), I took camels, and 
proceeded to Debbat, a province of Dongolah; whence, on the 14th 
of July, I started for the desert of Kordofan. 

" Being perfectly acquainted with the locality, and on friendly 
terms with the Arabs of the country, I attached them to me still 
more by the desire of profit. All were desirous of accompanying 
me in my pursuit of the Giraffes, which, up to that time, they had 
hunted solely for the sake of the flesh, which they eat, and of the 
skin, from which they make bucklers and sandals. I availed myself 
of the emulation which prevailed among the Arabs, and as the sea- 
son was far advanced and favourable, I proceeded immediately to 
the south-west of Kordofan. 

" It was on the 15th of August that I saw the first two Giraffes. 
A rapid chase, on horses accustomed to the fatigues of the desert, 
put us in possession, at the end of three hours, of the largest of the 
two : the mother of one of those now in my charge. Unable to 
take her alive, the Arabs killed her with blows of the sabre, and, 
cutting her to pieces, carried the meat to the head-quarters which 
we had established in a wooded situation ; an arrangement neces- 
sary for our own comforts and to secure pasturage for the camels of 
both sexes which we had brought with us in aid of the object of our 
chase. We deferred until the morrow the pursuit of the young 

No. XXXVIII. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



10 

Giraffe, which my companions assured me they would have no diffi - 
culty in again discovering. The Arabs are very fond of the flesh of 
this animal. I partook of their repast. The live embers were 
quickly covered with slices of the meat, which I found to be excel- 
lent eating. 

" On the following day, the 16th of August, the Arabs started at 
daybreak in search of the young one, of which we had lost sight 
not far from our camp. The sandy nature of the soil of the desert 
is well adapted to afford indications to a hunter, and in a very short 
time we were on the track of the animal which was the object of 
our pursuit. We followed the traces with rapidity and in silence, 
cautious to avoid alarming the creature while it was yet at a di- 
stance from us. Unwearied myself, and anxious to act in the same 
manner as the Arabs, I followed them impatiently, and at 9 o'clock 
in the morning I had the happiness to find myself in possession 
of the Giraffe. A premium was given to the hunter whose horse 
had first come up with the animal, and this reward is the more me- 
rited as the laborious chase is pursued in the midst of brambles and 
of thorny trees. 

" Possessed of this Giraffe, it was necessary to rest for three or 
four days, in order to render it suflficiently tame. During this 
period an Arab constantly holds it at the end of a long cord. By 
degrees it becomes accustomed to the presence of man, and takes a 
little nourishment. To furnish milk for it I had brought with me fe- 
male camels. It became gradually reconciled to its condition, and was 
soon willing to follow, in short stages, the route of our caravan. 

"This first Giraffe, captured at four days' journey to the south-west 
of Kordofan, will enable us to form some judgement as to its probable 
age at present ; as I have observed its growth and its mode of life. 
When it first came into my hands, it was necessary to insert a finger 
into its mouth in order to deceive it into a belief that the nipple of 
its dam was there : then it sucked freely. According to the opinion 
of the Arabs, and to the length of time that I have had it, this first 
Giraffe cannot, at the utmost, be more than nineteen months old. 
Since I have had it, its size has fully doubled. 

" The first run of the Giraffe is exceedingly rapid. The swiftest 
horse, if unaccustomed to the desert, could not come up with it un- 
less with extreme difficulty. The Arabs accustom their coursers to 
hunger and to fatigue ; milk generally serves them for food, and 
gives them power to continue their exertions during a very long run. 
If the Giraffe reaches a mountain, it passes the heights with rapidity: 
its feet, which are like those of a Goat, endow it with the dexterity 
of that animal ; it bounds over ravines with incredible power ; horses 
cannot, in such situations, compete with it. 

" The Giraffe is fond of a wooded country. The leaves of trees 
are its principal food. Its conformation allows of its reaching their 
tops. The one of which I have previously spoken as having been 



11 

killed by the Arabs measured 21 French feet in height from the 
ears to the iioofs. Green herbs are also very agreeable to this ani- 
mal ; but its structure does not admit of its feeding on them in the 
same manner as our domestic animals, such as the Ox and the 
Horse. It is obliged to straddle widely ; its two fore-feet are gra- 
dually stretched widely apart from each other, and its neck being 
then bent into a semicircular form, the animal is thus enabled to 
collect the grass. But on the instant that any noise interrupts its 
repast, the animal raises itself with rapidity, and has recourse to im- 
mediate flight. 

" The Giraffe eats with great delicacy, and takes its food leaf by 
leaf, collecting them from the trees by means of its long tongue. It 
rejects the thorns, and in this respect dilFers from the Camel. Aa 
the grass on which it is now fed is cut for it, it takes the upper part 
only, and chews it until it perceives that the stem is too coarse for 
it. Great care is required for its preservation, and especially great 
cleanliness. 

"It is extremely fond of society and is very sensible. I have 
observed one of them shed tears when it no longer saw its com- 
panions or the persons who were in the habit of attending to it. 

" I was so fortunate as to collect five individuals at Kordofan ; 
but the cold weather of December, 1834, killed four of them in the 
desert on the route to Dongolah, my point of departure for Bebbah. 
Only one was preserved ; this was the first specimen that I ob- 
tained, and the one of which I have already spoken. After twenty- 
two days in the desert, I reached Dongolah on the 6th of January, 
1835. 

" Unwilling to return to Cairo without being really useful to the 
Society, and being actually at Dongolah, I determined on resuming 
the pursuit of Giraffes. I remained for three months in the desert, 
crossing it in all directions. Arabs in whom I could confide accom- 
panied me, and our course was through districts destitute of every- 
thing. We had to dread the Arabs of Darfour, of which country I 
saw the first mountain. We were successful in our researches. I 
obtained three Giraffes, smaller than the one I already possessed. 
Experience suggested to me the means of preserving them. 

" Another trial was reserved for me : that of transporting the 
animals, by bark, from "Wadi Haifa to Cairo, Alexandria, and Malta. 
Providence has enabled me to surmount all difficulties. The most 
that they suffered was at sea, during their passage, which lasted 
twenty-four days, with the weather very tempestuous. 

" I arrived at Malta on the 21st of November. We were there 
detained in quarantine for twenty five days, after which, through the 
kind care of Mr. Bourchier, these valuable animals were placed in a 
good situation, where nothing is wanting for their comfort. With 
the view of preparing them for the temperature of the country to 
which they will eventually be removed, I have not thought it ad- 



12 

visable that they should be clothed. During the last week the 
cold has been much greater than they have hitherto experienced ; 
but they have, thanks to the kindness of Mr. Bourchier, everything 
that can be desired. 

" These four Giraffes, three males and one female, are so interest- 
ing and so beautiful, that I shall exert myself to the utmost to be of 
use to them. It is possible that they may breed; already I observe in 
them some tendency towards mutual attachment. They are capable of 
■walking for six hours a day without the slightest fatigue. — G. T." 

Mr. Gould, at the request of the Chairman, exhibited a specimen 
of the Trogon resplendens, Gould, and one of the Trog. pavoninus, 
Spix ; and stated that he was indebted to the kindness of M. Nat- 
terer, who was present at the Meeting, for the opportunity of de- 
monstrating, by the juxtaposition of the Birds, the correctness of 
the determination which he had made in regarding them as distinct 
species. Mr. Gould directed particular attention to the several 
characters and distinguishing marks which he had pointed out to 
the Society on March 10, 1835, and which had subsequently been 
published in the * Proceedings,' part iii. p. 29, and again dwelt 
especially on the fact that in Trog. resplendens the hinder feathers of 
the back, which are fully 3 feet in length, hang gracefully far away 
beyond the tail; while in Trog . j}avoninus the lengthened feathers of 
the back are rarely equal in length to the tail ; in only one instance 
has M. Natterer known them, in the latter bird, to exceed the tail 
by so much as a quarter of an inch. 

The reading was concluded of a paper " On the Anatomy of the 
Lamellibranchiate Conchiferous Animals, by Robert Garner, Esq., 
F.L.S.," a portion of which had been read at the meeting on No- 
vember 24, 1835. 

Founded principally on the author's individual observations, 
which have extended to the animals of several genera the anatomi- 
cal structure of which is hitherto insufficiently known, this commu- 
nication embodies also much information derived from the works of 
Poli, Cuvier, Bojanus, Home, M. de Blainville, and others. It is so 
arranged as to constitute a condensed memoir on the subject to which 
it is devoted, comprehending a summary of all that is yet known 
respecting it. 

After some general remarks on the high importance of a know- 
ledge of the structure of the animals that form those shells which 
have at all times attracted the attention of the curious, but to an 
acquaintance with which many naturalists, until of late years, have 
been content to limit themselves, Mr. Garner proceeds to speak of 
the position of the animal with respect to the shell ; and thence to 
describe the variations in the form of the animal which occasion those 
appearances in the shell on which rest the primary subdivisions 



13 

made by conchologlsts among the Lamcllibranchiate Conchifera. He 
regards Anomia as being in some measure intermediate between this 
order and the Brachiopoda ; and in illustration of this view describes 
with some detail the structure of the animal of that genus. 

Mr. Garner then adverts to the mode of growth of the shells and 
to their structure, and considers them in the variations in form 
which some of them undergo in their progress from the embryo to 
the adult state. He dwells also on the diversity of form assumed by 
the several groups of Bivalves, and shows in what manner these are 
occasioned by the form of the animal that produces the shelly cover- 
ings ; referring to the foot especially as exercising in this respect a 
very remarkable influence. 

The general review of the extei^nal form of the animal is succeeded 
by an account of the several systems of which it is composed. These 
are treated of in the following order : 1. Muscular system ; 2. Ner- 
vous system; 3. Digestive system; 4. Circulating system ; 5. Respi- 
ratory system ; 6. Excretory system ; 7. Cilia (and into this part of 
his subject the author enters with more than usual detail) ; and, 8. 
Reproductive system. Under each of these heads a rapid review is 
taken of the principal variations that occur in the order, and the 
illustrative examples referred to are generally numerous. 

Finally, the author devotes a section of his paper to the diseases 
and the parasites of the animals on which he treats. 

In conclusion, Mr. Garner submits the subjoined tabular view 
of an 



Anatomical Classification of the Lamellibranchiate Conchi- 
FEROus Animals. 

With but one adductor muscle. Monomyaria, La7n. 

Tentacles very long, not distinct from the bran- 

chiee ; an additional muscular system Anomia. 

Tentacles short, separate from the bronchia. 

No foot Ostrea. 

A foot. 

Branchia disunited medianly. 

Foot long, cylindrical ; ocelli at the edge 

of the mantle Pecten. 

Foot short, thick, with a disk at the ex- 
tremity, from the centre of which 
depends a pedicellated oval body; 

ocelli Spondylus. 

Foot compressed ; no ocelli Lima. 

Branchite conjoined medianly Vulsella.* 



14 

With two adductor muscles. Dimyaria, Lam. 

Mantle without separate orifices or tubes. 

Foot slender, byssiferous ; tentacles fixed . . Avicula* 

Foot thick, rounded, with a callosity A)-ca. 

Foot compressed, securiform Pectunculus. 

Foot oval below, its margin tentacular, ten- 
tacles volute Nucula. 

Foot large, pointed anteriorly, bent at an 

angle Trigonia.'* 

Mantle with a distinct anal orifice. 
Foot small, byssiferous. 

Anterior muscle small ; retractile muscles 
of the foot numerous ; byssus large. 

Byssus di\'ided to its base Mytilus. 

Byssus with a common corneous cen- 
tre Modiola. 

Anus furnished with a long ligulate 

valve Pinna* 

Muscles equal ; two pairs of retractile 

muscles only ; byssus rudimentary .... Lithodomus. 
Foot large, not byssiferous Unio. 

Mantle with a superior and inferior orifice ; not 
elongated into tubes. 

Mantle widely open Cardium. 

Mantle closed around the foot or byssus. 
Foot short and discal, byssiferous ; an- 
terior muscle small Tridacna.* 

Foot small, cj'lindrical, bent at an angle; 

lips fohated Chama* 

Foot small, sharp ; lips simple Isocardia* 

Mantle with two produced tubes, or siphons. 
Branchia not produced into the lower tube. 

Mantle closed around the foot Loripes.* 

Mantle open. 

Tubes disunited ; foot lanceolate. 

Foot large, rather falciform ; external 
branchicE shortened ; mantle tenta- 
cular ; labial tentacles large Donax. 

Foot small ; external branchicE short- 
ened ; edge of the mantle simple ; 

tentacles small Psammobia. 

Foot moderate ; external branchia as 
long as the internal; tentacles 
large ; margin of the mantle en- 
tire Tellina. 

Foot small; branchia equal; mantle 

tentacular Amphidesma. 



\ 



15 

Tubes more or less united ; foot various. 
Branchiae united medianly. 

Tubes small, partially divided ; foot 

very long, obtuse Cyclas. 

Tubes small, united to the ex- 
tremity; foot very long and 

pointed Mactra. 

Tubes large, foot short and promi- 
nent behind Venerupis. 

Branchice disunited medianly. 

Foot lanceolate, prominent behind ; 

tubes small, united Cytherea. 

Foot securiform ; tubes larger and 

more or less distinct Venus. 

Bronchia produced into, or attached to, the 
lower tube ; tubes always united. 
Mantle only open inferiorly for the protru- 
sion of the foot. 
Tubes small ; lips long. 

Foot small ; branchiee of each side 

united into one Pandora. 

Foot larger; branchice separate .... Corbula. 
' Tubes long ; lips small. 

Foot not byssiferous ; tubes large and 

coriaceous Mya, 

Foot byssiferous ; tubes moderate . . Hiatella. 
Mantle open anteriorly. 

Foot long, club-shaped ; tubes short . . Solen. 
Foot very short, rounded. 

Two distinct adductor muscles, the an- 
terior one situated below a reflect- 
ed portion of the mantle uniting 
the beaks instead of a cartilage ; 

tentacles large Pholat. 

Body very elongated ; adductor mus- 
cles united ; end of the mantle with 
two calcareous pieces; tentacles 
small ; no cartilage nor reflected 
portion of the mantle Teredo. 

For the anatomy of the several genera marked in the above table 
with an (*), the author acknowledges himself indebted either to 
Cuvier, Poli, or M. de Blainville. 

He refers occasionally to other genera, besides those enumerated, 
as included in the groups distinguished by the characters given 
above. 



16 

Mr. Garner's paper was accompanied by numerous drawings of 
the objects and structures described in it, which were exhibited in 
illustration of his communication. 



17 



February 23. 1836. 
The Rev. J. Barlow in the Chair. 

Mr. Gould, at the request of the Chairman, exhibited specimens 
of numerous Bi7-ds foi-ming part of the Society's collection ; and di- 
rected the attention of the Meeting to those which he regarded as 
the most interesting among them. 

He stated that one of them was especially curious as exhibiting a 
form of Insessorial Bird, not safely referrible to any known family ; 
on which account he proposed to consider it as the type of a group 
to be designated 

Paradoxornis. 

Rostrum altitudine longitudinem superans, ad basin vibrissis in- 
structum : mandibuld superiore valde compressa ; culmine acuto, 
vald^ arcuato ; tomio edentulo, apicem versus valdfe incurvo, ad 
basin producto : mandibuld inferiore ad basin lata, robusta; to- 
mio emarginato. 

Nares parv'se, rotundatse, pone rostrum sitae. 

Al(E breves, rotundatse : remigibus Atk, 5td, et 6ta longioribus. 

Cauda mediocris, gradata. 

Tarsi robusti, laeves. 

Pedes magni, subtvis lati : digitis magnis ; halluce ungueque postico 
maximis. 

Ptilosis ampla, laxa. 

The breadth of the under surfaces of the feet is so great as to in- 
dicate considerable powers of grasping. 

Paradoxornis flavirostris. Par. arenaceo-brunneus, subtiis pal- 
lidior; capite nuchdque rufo-brunneis ; auribus partim aterrimis ; 
facie guttureque albis nigra variis ; pectore nigra. 

Long. tot. 8 unc; alee, 34-; caudce, 44-; tarsi, 1+; hallucis (ar- 
cuati), i. 

Rostrum splendide aurantiaco-flavum ; pedes ccerulescentes. 

Hab. (verosimiliter) in Nepalia. 

Mr. Gould regarded another of the Birds exhibited as the repre- 
sentative of a new type among the Thrushes ; and characterized it as 
the type of the genus 

* Actinodura. 

Rostrum subcompressum, subarcuatum, ad apicem subemargi- 

natum. 
Nares basales, lineares, operculo magno tectae. 
Alee molles, breviusculse, concavse : remige Ima brevissim^, 4tA 

5t&que longioribus. 



]8 

Cauda mollis, elongata, gradata. 
Tarsi elongati. 

Pedes majusculi : halluce ungueque postico longiusculis. 
Ptilosis mollis, laxa. 

The wings and tail in the birds of this group are transversely 
barred. The typical species are crested. 

AcTiNODUKA Egertoni. Act. cristatu ; supra nitidi rufo-hrunnea 
olivaceo tincta, subtus pallide rufo-hrunnea ; cristd, occipite, ge- 
nisque brunnescenti-cinereis ; remigibus ad basin rufia, pogoniis 
nigro flavoque fasciatis ; secundariis nigro brunneoque fasciatis; 
rectricibus sordide rufo-brunneis, lineis saturatioribus transversim 
notatis, alboque apiculatis. 

Long. tot. 8-J-unc.; ala, 3-1^; caudcs, 4-J; tarsi, l-J-; rostri, 1. 

Rostrum pedes(\\x& brunnei. 

Hab. in Nepalia. 

The specimen described was presented to the Society by Sir P. 
Grey Egerton, Bart., M.P. 

The following species were also characterized by Mr. Gould ; 

CoRvus PECTORALis. Corv. tiiger cccruleo iridescens ; macula nu- 

chali latd fascidque lunatd pectorali albis. 
Long. tot. 17 unc; rostri, 2\; alee, II4-; caudce, 7^; tarsi, 2\. 
Rostrum pedesque nigri. 
Hab. in China. 
Statura Corv. Corone. 

CoRVus cuRviROSTRis. Corv. niger chalybeo-caruleo purpureoque 
iridescens ; maculd dorsali fascidque latd ventrali albis. 

Long. tot. 17 unc; rostri, 2J-; a^<E. 12J; caud<s, 7-^; tarsi, 24-. 

Rostrum pedesque nigri. 

Hab. in Africa Occidentali. 

Nearly allied to the Corv. scapulatus, Daud., a species of Southern 
Africa ; but smaller in all its proportions, and possessing a bill 
which is rather feeble and considerably curved. 

PrioniTes cceruliceps. Pri. iridescenti-olivaceo-viridis, pteroma- 
tibus secundariisque magis viridibus ; caudd ad basin viridi, dein 
caruled, ad apicem nigrd ; capite cceruleo, fascid frontali fla- 
vescenti-viridi, linedque nigrd a nare per oculum auremque utrin- 
que ductd et finem versus cceruleo submarginatd, notato. 
Long. tot. 18 unc; rostri, 1|-; aim, S^-; caudcc, \\\; tarsi, l-f. 
Rostrum nigrum ; pedes brunnei. 
Hab. in regione Tamaulipas dictd. 

The two middle tail-feathers have their shafts naked towards the 
end, as is usual in the genus, for the space of 2 inches ; and the 
bird is decorated with the ordinary tufts of black feathers springing 
from the lower part of the throat. 



19 

Plyctolophus productus. Plyct. rostro elongate ; brunneus, capite 
nvchdque pallidi brunnescenti-griseis, harum dorsique plumis sa- 
turatiore marginatis ; uropygio, ventre, crissoque saturate rubris; 
gutture pectoreque flavis, illo ad gulam rubra tincto ; alarum flex- 
urd subtus flavd olivaceo-rvfo tinctd ; rectricibus ad basin auran- 
tiaco-fiavo brunneoque fasciatis ; remigum pogoniis internis ad 
basin subtusque sordidi rufo brunneoque fasciatis. 

Long. tot. 15 unc; ala, 10; Cauda, 6; tarsi, 1-i; rostri, 24-. 

Rostrum pallidum ; pedes saturate brunnei. 

Hab. 

The bill is exceedingly produced, the upper mandible extending 
fully one half of its total length beyond the lower. 

The bird belongs to that group which has been distinguished by 
M. Kuhl among the Plyctolophi under the name of Nestor. 

A paper by Mr. Owen was read, entitled, " Descriptions of some 
new or rare Cephalopoda, collected by Mr. George Bennett, Corr. 
Memb. Z.S." The subjects referred to in it included specimens of 
Cranchia scabra. Leach ; a small nondescript Loligo ; the head and 
principal viscera of a Decapodous Dibranchiate Cephalopod from Port 
Jackson ; a small nondescript species of Octopus ; and a very small 
specimen of Argonauta Mans, with its Cephalopodous inhabitant (Ocg- 
thoe Cranchii, Leach), and a large cluster of ova : all of which were 
exhibited, in illustration of the communication, by permission of the 
Curators of the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, of which 
collection they now form part. 

The specimen of Cranchia scabra was taken by Mr. George Ben- 
nett in a towing net in lat. 12° 15' S., long. 10° 15' W.; and was 
at first regarded by him as a species of Medusa : and Mr. Owen 
observes, that from the uncommon form which this very remarkable 
Cephalopod presents, one cannot feel surprised that it should have 
been, at the first view, referred by its captor to a Radiate family, 
with which the Cephalopods bear, in more than one respect, an ana- 
logical relation. 

As the type of its genus Mr. Owen eonsiders the Cranch. scabra 
with reference to the generic characters that separate Cranchia from 
the neighbouring groups : from Loligo and Onychoteuthis it is di- 
stinguished by the continuity of its mantle with the dorsal parietes 
of the head; and from Sepioteutkis, Sepiola, and Rossia by the pro- 
portions and position of its fins. The form of the fins alone is evi- 
dently insufiScient in Cephalopods for generic distinctions, as will 
appear from considering the variations in this respect that occur in 
the several species of the well-marked genus Onychoteuthis, Licht. ; 
and also in the several species oi Loligo as at present restricted, some 
of which, especially Lol. brevis, Blainv., make so close an approxi- 
mation to Cranch. scabra in the rounded contour, as well as the ter- 
minal position, of their fins, that were it not that the exterior margin 
of the mantle is in all of them free on its dorsal aspect, the latter 
Cephalopod, notwithstanding its singular form, could not be sepa- 
rated generically from the Loligines on external characters alone. 



20 

As in the figures published by Fenissac of the Cephalopods named 
Crunch, cardioptera by Peron and Cranch. minima by himself, the 
anterior margin of the mantle appears to be free on its dorsal aspect, 
similarly to that of the true Loligines, it must be doubted whether 
these species are correctly referred to the genus Cranchia : and the 
same doubt may perhaps be extended to Cranch. Bonelliana, Fer., 
in the description of which no mention is made of the adhesion or 
otherwise of the mantle to the posterior part of the head. This ad- 
hesion Mr. Owen regards as an essential character of the genus. 

The specimen of Cranchia scabra on which the genus was founded 
by Dr. Leach, having been imperfect in some of its parts, Mr. O wen 
carefully describes the species anew from the perfect individual ob- 
tained by Mr. George Bennett; which is smaller than the original 
specimen, measuring only 1 inch 8 lines in total length to the end 
of the outstretched tentacle. The body is remarkable for its great 
flaccidity, which is owing to the very small space occupied by the 
viscera : these are situated at its anterior part, and not, as in Loli- 
gopsis, at the bottom of the sac. Besides this disproportion between 
the bulk of the viscera and the capacity of the containing sac, Cran- 
chia has other relations with Loligopsis in the absence of the infun- 
dibular valve, which exists in all the other Decapodous Cephalopods ; 
and in the non-articulation of the base of the siphon by a double 
ball and socket joint to the internal surface of the ventro-lateral 
parts of the mantle. In the Decapodous Cephalopods generally the 
funnel is articulated to the mantle, at the anterior part of its base, 
by two bedl and socket joints, the projection being on the mantle 
and the socket on the funnel ; both consisting of cartilage, covered 
with a fine synovial membrane. The projecting cartilage is of an 
oval form in the Cuttle-fish : but in Loligo it forms an elongated 
ridge ; which in Onychoteuthis commences at the anterior margin of 
the mantle and extends one third down the sac, forming two thin 
lateral cartilaginous lamina placed rather towards the ventral aspect 
of the mantle : an elongated groove in the opposite sides of the fun- 
nel plays upon each of these ridges. In Loligopsis the sides of the 
funnel adhere to the corresponding cartilaginous lamince, which differ 
from the lateral cartilages of other Decapodous Cephalopods only by 
their greater length and tuberculated form. In Cranchia, as in the 
Octopoda, these cartilages are entirely wanting; but the ventral 
parietes of the base of the siphon become expanded, thin, and trans- 
parent ; and adhere to and become continuous with the correspond- 
ing parts of the mantle. 

Mr. Owen regards as new the species of Loligo referred to, and 
describes it under the name of Lol. laticeps : four specimens of it, the 
largest of which measures only 1-j^ inch from the extremity of the 
mantle to the end of the outstretched tentacle, were obtained by 
Mr. George Bennett among the Sargasso weed, in lat. 29° N., long. 
47° W. When alive they were of a fine purple colour with dark 
red spots. The specimens are now destitute of colour on the fins 
and on the under surface of the third and fourth pairs of arms, and 
the spots are but few on the under part of the head and mantle ; 



21 

on the inner surface of the first, second, and third pairs of arms the 
dark pigment is disposed in broad, irregularly shaped, transverse 
bands, passing across between each of the pairs of suckers. 

The head, as is indicated by the trivial name, is comparatively 
broad ; and the arms which it supports are relatively longer than in 
the Loligines generally, the second and third pairs being nearly 
equal in length to the trunk. The body is subcylindrical and coni- 
cal, gradually diminishing in circumference till it terminates in a 
point at the posterior margin of the fins, which do not extend con- 
joined together beyond this part. The fins are terminal and dorsal, 
a space of about half a line intervening between their origins ante- 
riorly, whence their bases converge and are united at the apex of 
the trunk : their superior contour is an obtuse angle ; their inferior 
margin is rounded. 

In the Cephalopod described as Cranchia cardioptera, Per., to which 
the species under consideration has a superficial resemblance, the 
terminal fins have a semicircular contour, and their origins are 
widely separated anteriorly; they also extend beyond the termina- 
tion of the trunk : the trunk, moreover, is broader in proportion to 
the head, and does not diminish gradually to a point, bvit is rounded 
off at the posterior extremitJ^ The Cranchia minima of Ferussac 
may be at once distinguished from Lol. laticeps by the extension of 
the trunk beyond the small rounded fins, which gives a trilobate 
contour to the termination of the body. 

In internal organization Lol. laticeps agrees with the other Loli- 
gines whose anatomical structure has been ascertained. 

The fragments of the Decapodous Cephalopod obtained at Port 
Jackson are too imperfect to allow of their being satisfactorily re- 
ferred generically : they may, however, have belonged to a species 
of Loligo or of Sepioteuthis. As in some species of both these 
genera, the outer lip was characterized by eight short processes, on 
the inner surface of which, at the extremity of each, were three or 
four small suckers, attached by peduncles, and having precisely the 
same structure as those of the eight large exterior arms. In this 
repetition of the structure of the external series of cephalic processes 
there is an evident analogy to the different series of labial processes 
of Nautilus. In some species, as for instance Lol. Pealii, Le Sueur, 
the acetabuliferous labial processes are more developed than in 
Mr. George Bennett's specimen. In Z,o^. coro///^ora. Til., they have 
been compared by Bojanus to the internal shorter series of tentacles 
of a Medusa ; affording another evidence of the analogy, though 
remote, between the Cephalopods and the Radiata. 

The two lateral processes at the termination of the 7-ectum being, 
in this instance, evidently adapted to form a valve for the closure of 
the anus, Mr. Owen was induced to examine the corresponding 
structure in other species ; and to conclude, from his examination, 
that similar appendages, although varying in form and position, 
perform the same ofiice in other Decapoda. The slenderness of the 
anal processes in Onychoteuthis and Loligopsis being such as to pre- 
clude the possibility of their acting as mechanical guards, it is in- 



2S 

ferred that they may perform the function of instruments of sensa- 
tion, and convey the stimulus to contract to the muscular parts 
that close the outlet of the alimentary canal. In the Octopoda the 
anus is not similarly provided ; and, indeed, it may be generally re- 
marked that valvular or other guards are developed among the Ce- 
phalopoda only in such as have the power of propelling themselves 
forwards in the water. 

The generative apparatus forming part of the fragments referred 
to, Mr. Owen examined it with some care. His most important 
observation relative to these organs relates to a small round flat 
fleshy body, attached near the anterior aperture of each of the two 
nidamental glands, destitute of any outlet, and of an orange colour. 
A single bilobed organ, of a bright orange or red colour, similarly 
connected with the anterior extremities of the nidamental glands, 
exists (as was long since pointed out by Swammerdam) in the Cut- 
tle-fish. In Sepiola the corresponding body is single, and of a rose 
colour. And there exist two such bodies in a small Cephalopod 
taken by Capt. Ross on the shore of Boothia, which Mr. Owen has 
recently described under the name of Rossia palpebrosa. Consider- 
ing the bright colours which these bodies commonly present, and 
their structure and relations to the generative apparatus, Mr. Owen 
feels authorized in regarding them as analogous to the suprarenal 
bodies, hitherto regarded as peculiar to the Vertebrate series. 

The small Octopus described by Mr. Owen was obtained by Mr. 
George Bennett, like the Loligo laticeps, among the Sargasso weed; 
which forms, as it were, a bank in the midst of the ocean, aflFording 
shelter to many marine animals of littoral genera. The condition 
of the generative organs would appear to indicate that the specimens 
brought home were not adult, and the species consequently may be 
assumed to attain a greater size than that of the largest individual 
in the collection, which measures only l-j^ inch from the end of the 
sac to the extremity of the longest arm. Of the eight arms the first, 
or dorsal, pair is the longest, as is the case in many species of Oc- 
topus ; the second pair is nearly of the same length as the first ; the 
third pair (which in the Decapods is commonly the longest) is scarcely 
half the length of the first ; the fourth pair is nearly two thirds of 
the length of the first. The musculo-membranous web, which is 
usually extended between the bases of all the arms in the Octopi, is 
in this species developed to the ordinary extent between the four 
dorsal arms only : the webs between the second and third arms, 
and the third and fourth arms, on each side, are very short ; that 
between the fourth pair is wanting. From this peculiarity Mr. Owen 
proposes to name the species Octopus semipalmatus . 

Its anatomy generally agrees with that of Oct. vulgaris. 

The remaining specimens described by Mr. Owen are the shell 
and animal of Argonauta Mans, Lam. They were obtained in lat. 
4° S., long. 17° W. The animal was alive at the time of its capture 
by Mr. George Bennett, but fell out of its shell when it was moved 
on the following morning. A mass of eggs was then exposed in the 
involuted portion of the shell, which increased so greatly in size after 



23 

being put into spirit that they now occupy so much of the cavity 
that not more than one third of the body of the parent could be 
forced into it. 

Referring to the fact that the Cephalopods hitherto found in the 
shells of each species of Argonauta have invariably presented 
characters as specifically distinct as those of the shells in which they 
were found, each species of animal having appropriated to it its own 
peculiar species of shell — a fact which extends not only to Arg. 
Argo, Arg. tuberculata, and Arg. Mans, but also to an undescribed 
species obtained in the Indian seas by Capt. P. P. King, R.N., for 
which Mr. Owen proposes the name oi Arg. rufa, he is disposed to 
believe that the shell really belongs to the animal that occurs in it. 
On this account he speaks of the animal in question as the Arg. Mans, 
discarding the name of Ocytho'e CrnncMi applied to it by Dr. Leach. 

In carefully describing the specimen before him, Mr. Owen cor- 
rects some errors in the account given of the animal by its original 
describcr, and furnishes various particulars which, from the con- 
tracted state of his individuals, were unobserved by Dr. Leach. He 
also adverts to the statement made by that able zoologist, that 
in this species all the internal organs are essentially the same as in 
Octopus : and remarks that Arg. Mans, like Arg. Argo, recedes from 
the naked Octopods and approaches the Decapods in the structure of 
the branchial hearts, which are provided with a fleshy appendage, 
in the form of the appendages cf the vena cava, which are shorter 
and thicker ; and in the relative position of the lozenge- shaped ink- 
bag, which is not buried in the substance of the liver, but lies in its 
anterior concavity : the inferior salivary glands are also relatively 
smaller. The following differences, as compared with Octopus, oc- 
cur in other internal organs which adhere to the type of structure 
that characterizes the Octopodous tribe of the DibrancMata : the 
laminated pancreatic bag is of a triangular form, and not spirally 
disposed ; the two oviducts are devoid of the circular laminated 
glands which surround them in Octopus about the middle of their 
course ; they are also disposed in four or five convolutions as they 
pass behind the roots of the bi-ancMte ; and they terminate at a rela- 
tively greater distance from the base of the funnel. 

Mr. Owen then describes various portions of the internal struc- 
ture of Argonauta ; and especially its brain, its principal nervous 
cords, and the lateral muscles, here at their minimum of develop- 
ment, which attain in Nautilus, as the muscles of attachment to the 
shell, so enormous a size. 

The eggs are in nearly the same state of development as those 
which have been described by Mr. Bauer and by Dr. Roget ; and 
consequently afforded no conclusive proof as to the nature of the 
connexion of the animal with the shell. In one of them, from the 
form of the opake body contained within it, Mr. Owen for a moment 
entertained the idea that the nucleus of the real shell might be 
found : on tearing open, however, the external tissue, the contained 
substance turned out to be nothing more than the yelk, separated 
by an intervening stratum of clear fluid from the transparent mein- 



21 

brana vitelli ; and the whole substance of the opake mass separated 
into the flakes, granules, and globules of oil, of which the vitellus is 
usually composed : there was not a trace of any consistent parts of 
an embryo, nor the slightest particle of calcareous matter. 

Mr. Owen concludes his communication by a tabular view of the 
Cephalopoda, exhibiting the external and internal characters common 
to the entire class ; those of the several orders and families com- 
prised in it ; and the names of the genera included in each family. 



25 



March 8, 1836. 
William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mr. Ogilby read a paper, entitled " Observations on the oppos- 
able power of the Thumb in certain Mammals, considered as a zoolo- 
gical character : and on the Natural Affinities which subsist between 
the Bimana, Quadrumana, and Pedimana." 

In the summer of 1829 it occurred to Mr. Ogilby to observe that 
two living individuals of Mycetes Seniculus did not use the extre- 
mities of their anterior limbs for the purpose of holding objects be- 
tween the fingers and thumb, as is common among the Quadrumana ; 
and he ascertained also, on closer examination, that the thumb, as 
it has generally been considered, was not in these animals opposable 
to the other fingers, but originated in the same line with them. 
Struck with the apparent singularity of the fact, he was induced to 
pay particular attention to all the other animals, referred by zoolo- 
gists to the Quadriimanous family, to which he had access ; and the 
continued observation of more than six years has assured him that 
the non-opposable character of the inner finger of the anterior ex- 
tremities, which he first observed in the specimens referred to, is 
not confined to the genus Mycetes, but extends throughout the 
whole of the genera of the South American Monkeys, individuals of 
all of which have now been seen by him in the living state. In 
none of them, consequently, does a true thumb exist on the ante- 
rior limbs : and as a further consequence it follows, that the whole 
of them have hitherto been incorrectly referred to the Quadrumana 
by zoologists generally. There is a solitary exception among de- 
scriptive writers from this mode of viewing the subject, D'Azara 
(as Mr. Ogilby has very recently become aware) having spoken of 
the anterior extremities of some of the species obser\'ed by him as 
having five fingers originating on the same line with each other : 
but the statements of that original observer appear, in this respect, 
either to have been unnoticed by other authors or to have been 
passed by as undeserving of attention, so entirely were they at va- 
riance with the preconceived notions of all. 

Of the eight natural genera which include all the known Monkeys 
of the Western Hemisphere, one, Ateles, is entirely destitute of a 
thumb, or has that member existing only in a rudimentarj'^ form be- 
neath the skin. In five others, Mycetes, Lagothrix, Aoti/s, Pithecia, 
and Hapale, the anterior thumbs (using the ordinary expression for 
them) are placed absolutely on the same line with the other fingers, 
are of the same form with them, act invariably in the same direc- 
tion, and are totally incapable of being opposed to them. In the two 
remaining genera, Cebus and CalUthrix, the extremities of the an- 
terior limbs have a greater external resemblance to the hands'of Man 
and of the Monkeys of the Old World : the internal finger is placed 

No. XXXIX. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



26 

further back than the general line of the other fingers, and has, on 
that account, when superficially noticed, the semblance of being 
opposed to them ; but, as has been correctly observed by D'Azara 
with reference to Ceb. capucinus, it is less separated than in Man : 
it is, besides, of precisely the same slender form with the rest, is 
weaker than them, absolutely without power of opposition to them, 
and habitually acts in the same direction with them. The impres- 
sion derived from contemplating the hands of the Old World Mon- 
keys might induce the belief that the extremities of the Cebi are si- 
milarly constituted : but if the knowledge that in Mycetes, Pithecia, 
&c., there are no opposable thumbs, lead to a close observation of. 
the anterior extremities of the Cebi, it will be found that they do 
not act as hands, and cannot be considered as possessing the powers 
of those organs. From innumerable observations of many species 
of that genus Mr. Ogilby states that it was very evident, notwith- 
standing the fallacious appearance occasioned by the backward posi- 
tion of the organ, that they had not the power of opposing the 
thumb to the other fingers in the act of prehension : and, in fact, 
their principal power of prehension seems to be altogether indepen- 
dent of the thumb, for, generally speaking, that member was not 
brought into action at all, at least not simultaneously with the other 
fingers, but hung loosely on one side, as Mr. Ogilby has seen it do, 
in like circumstances, in the Opossums, Phalangers, and other ar- 
boreal Mammals : when actually brought into play, however, the 
thumb of the Cebi invariably acted in the same direction as the other 
fingers. Cebus consequently agrees in the character of non-oppos- 
ableness of thumb with the nearly allied genera. And in this hi- 
therto unsuspected peculiarity zoologists obtain a far more impor- 
tant character by which to distinguish the Monkeys of the Old and 
New World than that hitherto relied on, the comparative tliickness 
of the septum narium, or than the accessory aids afforded by the 
absence of cheek-pouches and callosities. Hence, according to 
Mr. Ogilby, as the Monkeys of America have now been ascertained to 
be destitute of anterior hands, they can be no longer included among 
the Quadrumana; and he proposes in consequence to regard them as 
Pedimana. H& considers that in the latter series, the Monkeys of 
America form a group parallel to that of the Monkeys of the Old 
World among the Quadrumana : and viewing the Quadrumana as 
consisting of two primary groups, that of which Simia forms the 
type, and the Lemuridce, he proceeds to analyse the Pedimana in 
order to determine whether any group analogous to the Lemurs 
exists in it. He finds such a group in the association of the genera 
Didelphis, Cheironectes, Phalangista, Petaurus, and Phascolarctos, 
(together with a new genus, Pseudochirus, which he has found it 
necessary to separate from Phalangista as at present constituted) ; 
and for this association he uses the name of Didelpliida. Aware 
that the modifications observable in the dentary systems of these 
several genera have been regarded by many zoologists as betoken- 
ing a difference of regimen, which has led to their being viewed as 
constituting distinct families ; he, in the first place, states, as the 



27 

result of his observation of the habits of the numerous species of all 
these genera which have been, from time to time, exhibited in the 
Society's Gardens, that there is little or no difference, in this re- 
spect, between the Opossums and Phalangers, but that all are equally 
omnivorous ; and then proceeds to discuss the modifications that 
exist among them in the number and form of the several kinds of 
teeth, which are not, in his estimation, so very different in reaUty 
between the Opossums and Phalangers as they appear to be at first 
sight. In further support of his opinion that this association of ge- 
nera forms a natural family, Mr. Ogilby refers to the gradual and 
uninterrupted transition from the naked-prehensile-tailed Opossums 
of South America, through the equally naked-tailed Couscous, Ba- 
lantia, of the Indian Isles, to the true Phalangers ; and from these 
to the Petaurists directly on the one hand, and by means of the 
Pseudocheirs to the Koalas on the other. 

On the prehensile power of the tail Mr. Ogilby particularly in- 
sists, as on a faculty possessed by the greater number of the Pedi- 
mana, and as one which is, in truth, almost confined to them : only 
Aree known genera belonging to other groups, Synetherus, Myrme- 
cophaga, and Cercoleptes, being endowed with it. He remarks on 
this faculty as on one of considerable importance, affording as it 
does, in some degree, a compensation for the absence of opposable 
thumbs on the anterior limbs. Combined with the prehensile tail, 
in every known instance, whether among the Pedimana^ or in other 
groups, is a slovmess and apparent cautiousness of motion, not ob- 
servable in any of the Quadrumana except in the Nycticebi. In none 
of the true Quadrumana is the tail prehensile. 

Another evidence of the distinctness, as two groups, of the Qua- 
drumana and the Pedimana, is furnished by their geographical distri- 
bution. The Quadrumana are strictly confined to the limits of the 
Old World : the Pedimana, almost as exclusively to the New World; 
for Mr. Ogilby considers the continent of Australia to belong more 
properly to America than to Asia. The very few apparent excep- 
tions that occur to this latter position are in the presence of some 
species of Phalangers in the long chain of islands that connect the 
south-eastern shores of Asia with the north-eastern coast of Aus- 
tralia ; islands which may, in truth, be fairly regarded as belonging 
partly to the one and partly to the other, and the productions of 
which might consequently be expected to partake of the character 
of both. 

Mr. Ogilby subsequently adverts to another Pedimanous animal, 
the Aye-Aye of Madagascar, constituting the genus Cheiromys ; re- 
specting the affinities of which he speaks with hesitation, because, 
having never had an opportunity of examining the animal itself, he 
is acquainted with its characters only at second-hand. He is, how- 
ever, disposed to regard it as representing a third group among the 
Pedimana, to be placed in a station intermediate between the Mon- 
keys of the New World and the Didelphida. With the latter he 
would, in fact, be disposed to associate it, were it not destitute of 
the marsupial character which belongs to all the other animals com- 



28 

prised in that group. In some of the Didelphida, the Phalmigers 
and Petaurists especially, there is a marked approximation to that 
rodent form of incisor teeth which obtains in Cheiromys, and which 
has hitherto been regarded as especially attaching to it an abnormal 
character. 

Man is the only other animal furnished with hands ; and how- 
ever distinct he maybe as regards his moral and intellectual powers, 
he must, zoologically, be considered on physical grounds. By his 
structural characters he becomes associated with all those of which 
mention has previously been made in Mr. Ogilby's communication ; 
although he unquestionably constitutes among them a pecuhar group, 
sensibly exalted above the rest, as well as above all other Mammals. 

Mr.Ogilby concludes by proposing the name of Cheiropeds, Cheiro- 
poda, to include all the Mammals that are possessed of hands ; and 
by subjoining a table of the families and genera included in this or- 
der, as he regards it. Of this table the following may be regarded 
as an abstract. 

Class. Mammalia. 

Order. Cheiropoda, 

Mammals with opposable thumbs 

On the anterior extremities only Bimana. 

On both anterior and posterior extremities. . . . Quadhumana. 
And with anthropoid teeth, 

Monkeys of the Old World. 

abnormal teeth, 

Lemuridce. 

On the posterior extremities only Pedimana. 

And with anthropoid teeth. 

Monkeys of the New World. 

rodent teeth, 

Cheiromys. 

abnormal teeth, 

Didelphida;. 



29 



March 22, 1836. 
Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair 

The following Notes by Mr. Martin on the visceral and osteological 
Anatomy of the Cariama, Dicholophus cristatus, 111., were read. 

"The Cariama, of the examination of which I made the following 
notes, was sent to the Society by its President, the Earl of Derby, in 
November, 1835. It was a female, and had died from the effects of 
extensive visceral inflammation. 

" The trachea, without making any curvature or loop, passed straight 
into the chest. The oesophagus, immediately before its entrance, pre- 
sented a gentle but evident dilatation. On carefully dissecting away 
the abdominal muscles, the gizzard appeared just below the apex of 
the sternum, lying in a vertical position, so that its defined abdominal 
edge seemed a continuation of the sternal apex. On each side above 
was a large air-cell extending along the ribs, but separated from what 
may be termed the thoracic air-cell ; and on each side below was 
another, occupying the iliac region, the membrane being fixed to the 
pubic bones. From the gizzard a kind of fatty omentum, if the term 
be allowed, stretched over the intestines ; this omentum, however, 
was only the peritoneal membrane lining the abdominal muscles, 
having fat disposed in a foliaceous manner between its two lamin(E. 
Below the gizzard lay the duodenum, its loose fold sweeping round 
that viscus in a horseshoe form. Each lobe of the liver was very soft, 
and, as it were, decomposed in structure, of a rose pink colour, and 
glued firmly to the peritoneal cavity by a layer of coagulated lymph 
half an inch thick j and the abdominal cavity was filled with bloody 
serum. 

" The gizzard was of large size, thin, but muscular, with a radiating 
tendinous patch on each side, of the size of half-a-crown. It was 
lined with a strong coriaceous membrane, of a yellowish colour, irre- 
gularly puckered. The proventriculus was lined for the extent of 2 
inches above its entrance into the gizzard with a zone of thickly set 
glands. 

" The duodenum, on leaving the gizzard, made a sweep of 6 inches, 
from the right to the left, round that viscus, and then, returning sud- 
denly upon itself, embraced in this flexure, as usual, the pancreas. The 
whole of the small intestines were disposed in loops of a similar na- 
ture, but of less extent. The duodenum at its commencement was a 
little enlarged ; but not into anything like a pyloric appendix as in 
the Adjutant. 

" The gall-bladder was of the size of u walnut; and the biliary duct, 



30 

an inch in length, entered the duodenum at its second turn, where the 
reflected portion returns to the gizzard. At half an inch from the 
biliary duct an hepatic duct entered ; and near this two pancreatic 
ducts: but the pancreas was so disorganized that 1 failed in all en- 
deavours to make out more. 

"The total length of the small intestines was 2 feet 10 inches j of 
the large, 5 inches, reckoning from the base of the cceca, which were 
double, closely adherent to the small intestines, and 7-t inches long. 
The cloaca, at its entrance into which the large intestine was sur- 
rounded by a sphincter- liiie valve, was divided by a fold into two 
portions : beneath this fold entered the ureters and oviduct ; and 
below and between the ureters was the bursa Fabricii. The upper 
portion of the cloaca was lined with a villous coat ; but the part below 
had a smooth mucous lining. The villi o( the large intestine were 
disposed in longitudinal lines ; but this was not the case in the cloaca, 
where the villous surface was uniform. The length of the cloaca was 
1 inch and 5 lines ; its circumference 1^ inch. 

" The gizzard was filled with undigested flesh, feathers, and peb- 
bles. 

"The intestines were full oi pus, and their villous lining was highly 
inflamed. 

" In the whole of the visceral arrangement a close affinity may be 
observed to the Grus tribe. In the Stanley Crane {Anthropoides pa- 
radiscEus, Bechst.) the intestipes are similarly disposed in folds or loops, 
and the two cizca, given off 6 inches from the anus, are 4 inches long. 
In the Stanley Crane, however, the muscular coat of the gizzard is 
thicker than in the Cariama, being in some parts an inch across, 
while in the latter bird it is about ^ of an inch j hence there is in this 
point an index of a less vegetable regimen. In the Stanley Crane, 
the total length of the intestines is 5 feet 3 inches. In the Cariama, 
it is 3 feet 5^- inches. 

" In its general aspect the skeleton of the Cariama is very remark- 
able. The comparative shortness of the neck, the compactness of the 
chest and stoutness of the ribs, together with the abbreviated condi- 
tion of the wings, appear as if out of harmony with the length of the 
limbs, especially of the tibia and tarsus ; while the toes concluding 
this length of limb are short, the hinder one being situated high and 
not touching the ground. 

" The skull, as in the Cranes, is arched above, but rises on the 
vertex to a more abrupt elevation ; the arch in the Stanley Crane 
being a regular sweep from the base of the upper mandible to the 
occiput. The orbits are large, and are separated by &\iom septum with 
a central and posterior perforation and a slight superior fissure. In the 
Stanley Crane, the central perforation is large and continuous with 
the posterior ; the superior fissure being also more decided. The supra- 
orbital process of the lacrymal bone is large, prominent, and directed 
backwards, as it is in the Stanley Crane. There is also a large pos- 



31 

terior orbital process, forming part of the rim of the orbit ; and be- 
fore the OS quadratum there projects forwards and downwards a pro- 
cess of the teniporal bone, analogous, I suspect, to the zygomatic 
process J for the long bone stretching to the upper mandible from the 
OS quadratum, which in the present bird is remarkably slender, cannot 
be called a true zygoma. Between these two processes is the de- 
pression for the temporal muscle. The nostrils are large, wide, ovoid, 
and open. 

" In the lower jaw there is nothing remarkable. It may be ob- 
served, however, that a slit, or long foramen, marks the union of the 
basal to the anterior portion of the bone, instead of a simple suture. 
The coronoid process is very small. 

" The vertebra; are short and stout, and resemble more those of a 
Gallinaceous Bird than of a Crane; in fact, they differ little from those 
of the crested Curassow. Their number is as follows : 

Cervical 13 

Dorsal 7 

Sacral 12 apparently. 

Caudal 8 

But that a rib arises on each side from it, the last or 7th dorsal ver- 
tebra is so completely consolidated to the sacrum that it cannot be 
distinguished from that portion of the column ; — this is also the case, 
in the black-crested Curassow, with the last dorsal vertebra; and in the 
Stanley Crane, with the last two. 

" The sternum differs considerably in figure from that of the Stan- 
ley Crane. For, independently of the absence of a channel in the an- 
terior edge of the keel for the reception of the trachea, the keel is 
neither so deep, nor is its anterior ape.v even in contact with the 
point of the os furcatum, (there being a firm consolidation in the 
Stanley Crane,) while its posterior edge is narrow and prolonged as 
in Gallinaceous Birds; whereas in the Stanley Crane it is broad and 
squared. The total length of the sternum is 4^ inches : the greatest 
depth of the keel \\. The keel does not arise abruptly from the body 
of the sternum, but the latter merges gradually into it. 

" The OS furcatum is very slender and depressed towards the cora- 
coid bones ; its figure is triangular, and the apex does not reach the 
keel of the sternum by nearly half an inch. The Cariama is a bird of 
feeble powers of flight, very different from the Crane in this respect, 
and exhibiting a corresponding modification of the osseous parts con- 
nected with aerial progression. 

" The ribs, seven .in number on each side, are short and strong; the 
first two are false : in the Stanley Crane I can only find one false rib 
on each side ; while all the rest are long, somewhat slender, and ex- 
tend nearly 2 inches beyond the posterior margin of the sternum : 
whereas in" the Cariama, the posterior sternal apex extends beyond 



32 

the libs, which here make a very obtuse angle at their junction with 
the cartilages, or rather bones of sternal attachment. 

" The clavicles offer nothing remarkable. 

" The bones of the wings are short; the forearm and humerushe'mg 
of equal length, — 4^ inches : the hand consists of the usual bones 
in Birds, and is about 34- inches in length. 

"The femur, as in the Crane, is short and strong, measuring 3-j- 
inches. The tibia is slender, measuring Si- inches in length; the pro- 
jecting crista before its upper articulating surface is very bold : as in 
the Crane, there is a large internal plate and an external pointed pro- 
cess, with a deep hollow between ihem, occupying the front of the 
upper end of the tibia. The fibula is, as usual, a slender stylet, and 
3 inches long. The tarsus is 64- inches long, of a sijuared form to- 
wards its upper extremity, with an anterior and posterior groove very 
strongly marked, and a slighter groove on each side. The accessory 
or little metatarsal bone, at the base of the hind toe, is very small, 
and is situated about an inch from the lower extremity of the tarsus. 
The toes are short and stout, but consist of the usual number oi pha- 
langes. 

"■ Though the Cariama, in its osseous structure, exhibits but little 
resemblance to the Birds of the Raptorial order, it approaches that 
order very remarkably in the structure of the eye, which is surround- 
ed by a firm consolidated osseous ring. This ring departs materially 
in its formation from what obtains among the Grallaiores generally, 
where it is imbricated and slight, and indeed scarcely merits the 
name of osseous. 

" The choroid, the iris, and the lens present nothing remarkable. 
The ciliary processes are 102 in number, and about the 12th of an 
inch in length. The marsupium nigrum is strong, large in proportion 
to the eye, and much elevated." 

In illustration of Mr. Martin's Notes, the mounted skeleton of the 
Cariama was exhibited ; as were also preparations of several of the 
viscera. 

The following Notes by Mr. Martin, of the anatomy of a specimen 
of Buffons Touraco, Corythaix Buffonii, Vaill., were subsequently 
read. 

" The death of a specimen of Buffon's Touraco in the Gardens of 
the Society, has enabled me to investigate its visceral anatomy, and 
to compare the details afforded by that species, with those given by 
Mr. Owen respecting the Corythaix porphyreolopha. The individual 
in question was a female of the Cor. Buffonii. In the total length 
of the head, neck and body, exclusive of the tail-feathers, it measured 
8i^ inches. 

" On openmg the abdomen, I found the viscera thus arranged. 
Below the edge of the siernum, (which is a very short bone, its keel 
being only 1 y inch long,) appeared the two lobes of the liver, (highly 



83 

tuberculaled): on the left side was the gizzard; and on the right, the 
first portion of the duodenum with the spleen apparent. On turning 
back the stomach, there appeared, dorsad, the coil of intestines. 

" Beginning with the cesophagus, 1 found it a wide dilatable simple 
tube, puckered longitudinally within, but these foldings disappeared 
on dilatation ; lying compressed in situ its breadth was rather more 
than -i- an inch. Without any previous dilatation or crop, it entered 
the proventriculus ; its boundary line being u sphincter-like thicken- 
ing. The whole of the proventriculus was covered internally with 
small thickly set glands, of a flattened figure ; and its length from the 
termination of the cesophagus to the gizzard was 4 of an inch. 

"The tongue was tipped with a sharp flat horny point; but I could 
find no bristles at its apex, as in the Toucans, and as was seen by 
Mr. Owen in the Corythaix porplujreolopha. Its base was covered 
with retroverted papillce, which occurred again posterior to the rima 
glottidis. The pharynx, or opening into the gullet, was beset with 
numerous glands, the mouths of which were very visible. The trachea 
was a straight tube ; but soon after commencing it gradually contract- 
ed, and then gradually dilated for the space of an inch, contracting 
again, and again dilating as it dipped into the chest. As this pecu- 
liarity is not noticed by Mr. Owen in the species he dissected, I con- 
clude that it does not exist in it. The sterno-tracheal muscles con- 
sisted of a single pair. 

" The liver consisted of two lobes as usual, and beneath the right 
lay the gall-bladder, of an oblong figure, which I found empty. Its 
duct, 2 inches in length, entered the duodenum at the first angle, and 
beneath the body of the pancreas, accompanied by an hepatic duct 
which entered with it. 

" The pancreas was small, and consisted of a lobulated portion 
lying on the angle of the duodenum above mentioned, and giving ofl:' 
a narrow slip along the first portion of the duodenum to which it was 
closely attached. I could trace two small ducts from it entering near 
the bile-ducts. The distance of this angle from the gizzard was about 
l-J- inch. I found the spleen adhering to the gizzard, and between 
this and the right lobe of the liver. Its figure was oval, its size that 
of a small nutmeg, its structure soft and evidently disorganized. 

"The heart presented nothing remarkable ; it was subacute and Ij 
inch long. 

" The muscular parietes of the gizzard were thin ; but this viscui 
was lined by a leathery membrane of a whitish colour : its length was 
\\ inch ; its diameter when lying compressed as usual 1^. It con- 
tained a little undigested vegetable matter. 

"The duodenum, beginning small from a short pyloric canal, as 
noticed by Mr. Owen, suddenly dilated to 4ths of an inch in dia- 
meter ; the pyloric canal was corrugated internally, these corruga- 
tions verging to a sphincter. 

"The small intestines were 1 If inches in length, terminating in a 



34 

globular pouch or ececum, not unlike the rudhmentary ccecum found in 
some land Tortoises. From this pouch to the anus the distiince was 
5 inches. The intestinal canal was full of purulent matter, and its 
mucous coat was highly inflamed. 1 found no worms, though I looked 
carefully for them, opening nearly the whole of the alimentary canal. 

" The oviduct and the ureters terminated in the cloaca as usual. 
The ovary was nearly ^ of an inch long. The kidneys were as usual, 

" The eyes approximated closely in structure to those of the Parrot 
tribe. The sclerotic coat had a narrow ring of ossification composed 
of eleven plates, six of which were disposed in an imbricated manner, 
the five at the lower and posterior part being only in juxtaposition. 
Of these plates, however, the three superior alone could be termed 
fairly osseous. The cornea was small in diameter and not very convex. 
The optic nerve entered the infero-posterior portion of the sclerotic, 
the retina springing from a tubercle under and around the marsupium, 
which was very small. The vitreous humour and lens were as usual. 
The membrana aquatica, as it is termed, was very visible. The ciliary 
processes, the 12th of an inch long, were 96 in number. The uvea 
was darkj the iris lake colour, and its sphincter fibres distinct; the 
ciliary ligament broad ; the pigvientum nigrum dark brown and in 
large quantity. Many fibrils of the 3rd, 4th, and 5th pairs of nerves 
pierced the sclerotic." 

Mr. Bennett directed the attention of the Meeting to an interest- 
ing series of the Indian Antelope, Antilope Cervicapra, Pall., now at 
the Society's Gardens. It consists of four individuals : an adult and 
aged male, brought by Col. Sykes from Bombay, and presented by him 
to the Society nearly five years ago j a younger, yet adult, male, which 
was presented, in an immature condition, about two years since j an 
immature male, lately arrived in the Menagerie, and in about the 
same state of development as that in which the last-mentioned indi- 
vidual was when it was originally presented j and an emasculated in- 
dividual of full growth. In the oV^ex oi ihesQ Antelopes the rich deep 
colour of the body generally is so intense as almost to approach to 
black, and the horns are strong and fully developed : the possession 
of horns and the depth of colouring, which are peculiar to the male 
sex, are exhibited in it at their maximum. The second individual ap- 
proximates nearly to it in the degree in which these secondary sexual 
characters are developed. In the third, the youngest of the series, 
there exist the horns characteristic of the male, but these organs are 
yet of small growth, are only beginning to be annulated at their base, 
and are commencing their first spiral turn ; its colour, as is very 
generally the case among the young of animals that in adult age are 
differently coloured in the sexes, is that of the female, which in this 
instance is a dull fawn with a pale stripe along the side : it has, con- 
sequently, in these two striking particulars, full evidence of immatu- 
rity. The emasculated individual was probably, at the period when 



35 

that accident or operation occurred which prevented the development 
of its sexual characters, at nearly the same age as the one last ad- 
verted to: it has since continued to increase in bulk, and it even ex- 
ceeds in size, as often happens in castrated animals, the perfect adult 
male of the same species : but the secondary sexual characters of the 
male have not been developed in it ; it retains the dull fawn colour 
of immaturity, and its horns have not acquired the strength, the annu- 
lation, or the spiral turns which belong to those of the adult and per- 
fect male. One of the horns has been broken off; perhaps the more 
readily from some weakness in its structure, consequent on its unim- 
portance to an animal so degenerated : the other retains, at a short 
distance from its normally formed tip, a few rings, but beyond these 
the surface has become smooth, the substance remains weak and 
comparatively small, and the direction, instead of being in a succes- 
sion of spiral turns, is in a single sweep, passing backwards above the 
base of the ear and then descending along the curve of the neck : it 
has, though weaker, much of the character of the horns of the African 
race of Sheep. The general appearance of the animal is also sheep- 
like and tame. 

Mr, Bennett proceeded to remark that these animals, although cu- 
rious and interesting on account of the variations exhibited by them, 
in accordance with their several conditions, in those acknowledged 
secondary sexual characters, colour and horns, were yet more in- 
teresting when considered with reference to the state of another organ, 
the use of which has long remained a problem to zoologists, but which, 
it appeared to him, must be referred to sexual relations j he alluded 
now to the lacrymal sinus. Referring to its structure as to that of a 
sac, opening externally by a lengthened slit, but perfectly closed 
within, he remarked, that that organ could not possibly be in any 
degree connected with the functions of respiration j there being no 
aperture through it for the passage of air. Its inner surface is covered 
by a smooth skin, with a few scattered and very short bristles, and 
is defended by a dark-coloured and copious secretion of ceruminous 
matter, which has a slight urinous or sexual odour. He did not_ 
feel himself competent, he stated, to explain the precise manner in 
which this organ is available for sexual purposes; yet he felt con- 
vinced that such is its use, from the consideration of its relative de- 
velopment in the several Indian Antelopes of the Society's Mena- 
gerie. 

In the more aged of these individuals, as indeed in the adult Indian 
Antelope generally, the large cutaneous follicle beneath the eye known 
as the lacrymal sinus, is so prominent as to form a most striking feature 
in the animal's physiognomy: it never appears as a simple slit, its 
thickened edges pouting so widely as to be at all times partially 
everted. When the animal is excited, and it is constantly highly ex- 
citable, the eversion of the bag becomes complete, and its thick lips 
being thrown widely back, the intervening spare is actually forced 



36 

forwards so as to form a projection instead of a hollow: the animal 
is, on such occasions, delighted to thrust repeatedly the naked lining 
of the sac against any substance that is offered to him, which soon 
becomes loaded with the odour that has been referred to as belonging 
to the secretion. In the second individual, although it is perfectly 
mature, the protrusion of the inner surface of the sac is not quite to 
so great an extent as in the more aged male ; and the less thickened 
edges of the sinus allow of a nearer approximation to its closure in 
the unexcited state of the animal. The youngest male has the lips 
of the sinus small and closely applied to each other, so as to hide 
completely the whole of the internal lining of the sac, and to exhibit, 
externally, a mere fissure : in it the lips are but slightly moved when 
the animal is interested. The emasculated individual, notwithstand- 
ing its full growth, has its suborbital sinus nearly in the same condi- 
tion as that of the immature male : it is merely a slight fissure, the 
edges of which are closely applied to each other j and in it those 
edges do not appear to be at all moved, the animal being generally 
careless and inanimate. It would consequently seem that the same 
cause which induced the retention, by this individual, of its immature 
colours, and which arrested the perfect growth of its horns, was ade- 
quate also for the checking of the development of the suborbital sinuses. 
Those organs, therefore, would appear to be dependent on sexual per- 
fection ; and consequently to be, in some manner yet to be ascertain- 
ed, subservient to sexual p\uposes, with the capacity for which they 
are evidently, in the phases of their development, essentially con- 
nected. 

Mr. Owen, who had conceived it possible that the secretion of 
these glands, when rubbed upon projecting bodies, might serve to di- 
rect individuals of the same species to each other, remarked that he 
had endeavoured to test the probability of this supposition by pre- 
paring a tabular view of the relations between the habits and habitats 
of the several species of Antelopes, and their suborbital, maxillary, 
post-auditory, and inguinal glands ; in order to be able to compare 
the presence and degrees of development of these glands with the 
gregarious and other habits of the Antelope tribe. He stated, how- 
ever, that it was evident from this table, that there is no relation be- 
tween the gregarious habits oi ih^t Antelopes which frequent the plains, 
and the presence of the suborbital and maxiliary sinuses; since these, 
besides being altogether wanting in some of the gregarious species, 
are present in many of the solitary frequenters of rocky mountainous 
districts. The supposition, therefore, that the secretion may serve, 
when left on shrubs or stones, to direct a straggler to the general 
herd, falls to the ground. 

Mr. Owen's Table is as follows : 



37 



Suborbital 
and maxil- 
lary sinuses 
Suborbital si- 
nuses large 



a 
crq 

5" 
o 



< 



small. 



Suborbital 
sinuses. 



Suborbital 
glands. 



Maxillary 
sinuses. 



~ Antilope Simatrensis. Hilly forests; babits of the 
Goat. 

Cervicapra. Open plains of India; gregarious. 

quadriscopa. Senegal. 

melamptis. Open plains of Caffraria ; flocks 
of six or eight. 

Forfex. Africa. 

adenota. Africa. 

qitadricornis. 

picta. Dense forests of India 

scoparia. Open plains of S. Africa ; sub- 
gregarious. 

Tragulus. Stony plains and valleys of S. Africa ; 
in pairs. 

melanotis. Plains, hides in underwood; in 
pairs. 

Dorcas. Borders of the desert ; gregarious. 

Kevella. Stony plains, Senegal ; gregarious. 

suhgutturosa. Plains, Central Asia; grega- 
rious. 

Bennettii. Rocky hills of Deccan ; not gre- 
garious. 

Arahica. Stony hills of Arabia. 

Soemmeringii. Hills in Abyssinia ; not gre- 
gaiious. 

Etichore. DryplainsofS. Africa; gregarious. 

pygarga. Plains, S. Africa; gregarious. 

Mhorr. Deserts of Morocco. 

Dama. 

ruficollis. Deserts of Nubia ; gregarious. 
Antilope Coins. Vicinity of lakes ; gregarious, migra- 
tory. 

gutturosa. Arid deserts, Asia ; periodically 
gregarious. 

Antilope Saltiana. Mountainous districts, Abyssinia ; 
in pairs. 
Oreotragus. Mountains of the Cape; like 

the Chamois. 
Thar. Hills of Nepaul ; not gregarious. 
_.. . Gazella. Senegal. ? 

I "^1 Antilope Bvbalis. Mountains and deserts, Tripoli ; 
" gregarious. 

Caama. Plains of S. Africa ; gregarious. 
lunata. S. Africa. 

Gnu. Karroos of S. Africa ; gregarious. 
taurina s. Gorgon. S. Africa ; gregarious. 

" Antilope silvicultrix. Thickets and underwood, Africa. 
mergens. Forests and underwood, S. Africa; 

in pairs. 
Grimmia. Guinea. 
BurchelUi. 
platotis. 

perpusilla. Bushes, S, Africa ; in pairs. 
Maxwellii. 
pygmtpa. 



•2^ 

o 

5" 

c 



t< 



IS 

o 



S8 



No suborbital, 
or maxillary 
sinuses. 



3 

c 



s- 



O 






(Post-auditory 
sinuses.) 

No suborbital, 
or maxillary 
sinuses. 



!2! 
o 






O 



■ Antilope Strepsiceros. Woods and banks of rivers, 
Caffraria ; subgregarious. 

sylmtka. Woods, Caffraria ; in pairs. 

script a. 

Koha. Senegal. 

Koh. Senegal. 

Eleotragus. Reedy banks, Cape ; subgre- 
garious. 

redunca. Goree. 

Capreolus. Underwood, S. Africa ; subgre- 
garious. 

Landiana. Underwood, S. Africa; subgre- 
garious. 
Anlilope Rupicapra. Mountains, Europe ; subgrega- 
rious. 

~ Antilope Ad dax. Deserts, N.Africa; in pairs. 

Leucoryx. Acacia groves, N. Africa; gre- 
garious. 

Oryx. Woods and plains, S. Africa; sub- 
gregarious. 

levcophaa. Open plains, S. Africa ; sub- 
gregai-ious. 

harhata. Open plains, S. Africa ; in pairs. 

equincf. Plains, S. Africa; in pairs. 

cllipsiprymnns. S. Africa. 

Great. Open plains, S. Africa ; gregarious. 

Canna. Deserts, Cape ; gregarious. 

Goral. Elevated plains, Himalaya ; grega- 
rious. 



Mr. Ogilby remarked, with reference to this subject, that he had 
had opportunities of observing, at the Surrey Zoological Gardens, a 
female of the Indian Antelope, in which, when he first saw her, the 
lacrymal sinus was in a state of quiescence : but when he observed 
her again, a month afterwards, and probably in improved condition, 
that organ was in a state as excitable as it is in the old male of the 
Society's Gardens. 

He added, as a general remark, which, however, he stated was not 
universal, that in intertropical animals the lacrymal sinus is larger 
than in more northern species, and in those whose range is limited to 
mountainous districts. 

He also described the lacrymal sinus of a species of Gazelle, which 
he had observed after death : it consisted of a gland furnished with six 
excretory ducts placed nearly in a circle, and with one central duct : 
from the orifices of these ducts, when squeezed, there issued out 
strings of a dense ceruminous matter. 

Mr. Bennett stated in conclusion, that since making his observa- 
tions on the Indian Antelope, which had led him to form the opinion 
he had advanced with respect to the use of the lacrymal sinus, he had 



39 

received from Mr. Hodgson of Nepal, a Corresponding Member of 
the Society, a letter in which, among other subjects, some remarks 
are made on this organ as it exists in the Thar Antelope, and in the 
Cervus Aristotelis : in the former of those animals, Mr. Hodgson's 
observations prove that during the breeding-season tlie lacrymal sinus 
is in a high state of activity. Mr. Hodgson's letter, which is dated 
Nepal, June 18, 1835, refers also to other glands in some other An- 
telopes, as will be seen by the following extract. 

" The Chiru Antelope has exceedingly large inguinal sacs, which 
hang by a long narrow neck from the loins. The longitudinal quasi 
maxillary gland of the Cambin Otan I doubt the existence of, and 
believe its ' suborbital sinus ' to be similar to that of Thar. 

" The latter differs essentially from that organ in any Deer or An. 
telope I have seen ; being furnished with a huge gland, filling the 
whole cavity or depression on the scull, and leaving the cuticular fold 
void of hollowness : it is filled up, like the bony depression, by the 
gland; whereas the gland of this sinus, in most Deer and Antelopes, 
is a tiny thing, and a dubious one. As to any Cervine or Antilopiue 
animal breathing through the suborbital sinus, it cannot be, unless 
they can breathe through bone and skin ! If you pass a fine probe 
down the lacrymal duct, you see the probe through the bottoni of 
the osseous depression holding the cuticular fold called the suborbital 
sinus. But, however thin the plate of bone at the bottom of the 
former, it is there, without breach of continuity; and the cuticular 
portion of the apparatus has a continuous course throughout, leaving 
no access to the inside of the head. I am watching closely a live 
specimen of Cervus Aristotelis, to discover, if I can, the use of this 
organ. In a recently killed male of this species, I passed a pipe into 
the nose, up to the site of the suborbital sinus, and tried, in vain, for 
half an hour, with the aid of a dozen men's lungs, to inflate the sinus. 
Not a particle of air would pass; nor could I cause the sinus to un- 
fold itself, as the live animal unfolds it, by means of a set of inuscles 
disposed crosswise round the rim of it. In dissecting the sinus, I 
found only a feeble trace of a gland ; so also, in the Muntjac. 

" But in the Thar, the gland is conspicuous, being a huge lump of 
flesh, bigger than, and like in shape to, the yolk of an egg. The live 
r/»ar, too, in the springespecially,poursout a continuous stream of thin 
viscid matter from the sinus; not so in any Deer. The Thar's gland 
seems to me connected with the generative organs: and I take its 
profuse secretion to be a means of relieving the animal (when it has 
no mate particularly) from the extraordinary excitement to which it 
is liable in the courting-season. 1 have witnessed that excitement, 
and have been amazed at its fearful extent, topical and general, for 
six weeks and more. 

"The Chiru's labial sacs, or intermaxillary pouches, are, most 
clearly, accessory nostrils, designed to assist breathing at speed. 



40 

They spread with the dilatation of the true nostril, and contract with 
its contraction. This species has but five molar teeth on each side of 
either jaw," — B. H, H. 



41 



April 12, 1836. 

William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mr. Bennett directed the attention of the Meeting to a living 
specimen of the brush-tailed Kangaroo, Macropus penicillatus, Gray, 
which had recently been added to the Menagerie ; having been 
presented to the Society by Captain Deloitte, Corr. Menib. Z. S. 
He remarked particularly on the peculiarity of its actions, as com- 
pared with those of the typical Kangaroos ; and especially on the 
ease with which it vaults from the ground to any slight ledge, on 
which it remains perched, as it were, with its tail extended behind 
it : the tail, in fact, appearing to be in no respect aiding in the pro- 
gression of the animal. 

Referring to some observations which he had made on the exhi- 
bition of a skin of the same species, at the Meeting of the Society 
on January 13, 1835, (Proceedings, partiii. p. 1,) he stated it to be 
his intention to reduce into order his various remarks on the subject, 
and to accompany them by a figure of the animal taken from the 
living specimen. 

Mr. Owen read the following notes of the morbid appearances ob- 
served in the dissection of the specimen of the Chimpanzee, Simia 
Troglodytes, Linn., which lately died at the Gardens; and respecting 
the habits and faculties of which some observations by Mr. Broderip 
were read at the Meeting of the Society on October 27, 1835. (Pro- 
ceedings, part iii. p. 160.) 

" Adhesions of the abdominal viscera to the parietes of the 
cavity existed in many parts, but more especially of the ascending 
colon and ccecum on the right side. On separating these adhesions 
a purulent cavity was exposed, with which the ileum, near its ter- 
mination, communicated by an ulcerated aperture about half an 
inch in diameter. An abscess also existed between the lower end of 
the ccecum and the peiitoneum, and the whole of the fundus of the 
ccecum was destroyed by ulceration, together with part of the ver- 
miform process ; the remainder of which was much contracted and 
shrivelled, and was found adhering to the sound part of the ccecum. 
The efficiency of the adhesive process in repairing, or at least pre- 
venting, the immediate evil consequences of a solution of continuity in 
the intestinal parietes, was remarkably exemplified in this instance ; 
for notwithstanding the extent to which this had taken place, not 
a particle of the alimentary matters had escaped into the general 
cavity of the abdomen, nor was the mischief suspected until the ad- 
hesions were separated. 

" On laying open the ileum it appeared that the original seat of 
the ulcer had been a cluster of the aggregated intestinal glands ; 

No. XL. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



42 

similar patches in the immediate neighbourhood were in a state of 
ulceration ; and others were enlarged, or more than usually con- 
spicuous, as they were situated farther from the seat of the disease. 
In the commencement of the colon, the solitary glands presented 
a state of enlargement and ulceration, and here and there an inor- 
dinate vascularity ; but in the general track of the intestinal canal 
traces of recent or active inflammation were very few. The con- 
dition of the mucous membrane of the intestines closely resembled 
that which is so generally observed in phthisical subjects; here, 
however, the strumous matter was not developed in the lungs, 
but was confined to the mesenteric glands and spleen. All the 
mesenteric glands were more or less enlarged by a deposition of 
caseous matter : two, which are usually found adhering to the ter- 
mination of the ileum, were even in a state of suppuration and ul- 
ceration, so that the parietes of the gut may have been attacked by 
the ulcerative process on both side-, — from without by that com- 
mencing in the mesenteric glands, — from within by that oftheg-^a»- 
dulcs aggregatce : it was most probably, however, progressive from 
the latter point. 

" The spleen was greatly enlarged, measuring 5 inches long and 
4 broad, with numerous small scattered tubercles, none exceeding 
half an inch in diameter. Its substance was firm, but so disorganized 
as to enable it to fidfil in a very slight degree the functions of a 
reservoir of venous or portal blood. 

" The liver was enlarged about one third beyond its usual size, 
and was of a pale colour ; but upon a close inspection it presented no 
other morbid appearance than a congested state of the portal veins : 
a condition frequently associated with strumous viscera, and which 
was very well marked in this case, and perhaps dependent on the 
diseased state of the spleen. The gall-bladder contained thick 
but healthy- coloured bile. 

" The stomach seemed free from disease; but had a large perfo- 
ration, the margins of whch showed that it had resulted from the 
post-inorlem action of the gastric secretion. 

^^Tha pancreas was healthy, 

" In the chest there were no adhesions. The heart was healthy. 
The lungs were somewhat firm.er than usual, and the air-passages 
contained an unusual quantity of fluid secretion, in some parts 
stained with blood ; but none of the air-cells had been obliterated 
by either inflammatory action or strumous deposition : there had 
been recent subacute inflymmation of the mucous lining of the 
air-passages, but nothing more. 

" No Entozoa were met with in the dissection; although the ali- 
mentary canal was carefully searched for them. 

" The brain and its membranes were healthy. 

" With respect to the organization of the Chimpanzee, so far as 
the dissection was carried, the parts corresponded with the de- 
scriptions given by Tyson in his 'Anatomy of a Pygmie' ; and by 
Dr. Traill in the ' Wernerian Transactions,' vol. iii. 

" The tunica vaginalis testis, which communicates with the ab~ 



43 

doiiien ill tlie Simla Sutyrus, was here a completely closed or shut 
sac, as in the human subject." 

The following " Descriptions of some Species of Shells apparently 
not hitherto recorded: by W. J. Broderip, Esq., V.P.Z.S., F.R.S., 
&c." were read. The reading of the communication was accompa- 
nied by the exhibition of specimens of the several species referred 
to in it. 

Spondylus albidus. Spond. testa albidd, I'meis elevatis frequen- 
tissunis exasperatis, a cardine radiantibus, horridd : long. ,V» Ictt. ,V 
poll. 

Hah.f. 

This delicate shell is rough like a file, and has indeed somewhat 
the aspect of a Lima. 

VoLUTA Beckii. Vol. tcstd ovato-fusiformi,fidvd lineis suhangu- 
latis spadiceis inscr'vptd, transversim, striata, striis minutis sub- 
undulatis ; anfractibus tuberculato-subpUcatis, ultimo longissi- 
mo; spird mediocri ; columella triplicatd; aperturd ovaio- 
elongatd : long. 84, lat. -i poll. 
Hab.l 

Mus. Saul, Brod. 

The body whorl of this fine species, which I have named after that 
distinguished conchologist Dr. Beck, is upwards of G inches in 
length. 

I have long had a bleached specimen in my collection, but the 
description above given is taken from one with more colour and 
in better condition, though not good, in the cabinet of Miss Saul. 
My specimen is somewhat shorter. There is a very large indivi- 
dual lately added to the British Museum. 

VoLUTA coNciNNA. Vol. tcstd milriformi, transversim subldis- 
sime striatd, striis elevatis, fulvd lineis longitudinalihus spa- 
dieeis, subirregularibus, frequentissimis inscriptd ; anfractibus 
plicatis, plicis subtubercularibus, anfractu basali elongalo, 
fasciis diiahus distantibus pallidioribus obscuris cincto ; spird 
mediocri, valde plicatd ; cohimelld i-pUcatd ; aperturd angus- 
tiore : long. 3^, lat. \^ poll. 
Hab.t 
Mus. Brod. 

This is an elegant shell, approaching a little in some of its cha- 
racters to Vol. Lyriformis, but differing widely from it in others. Of 
the total length of Vol. concinna two inches and a half are occupied 
by the body whorl, and it is only in the transversely striated plica- 
tions of the spire, which are however more distant than those of 
the spire of Vol. Lyriformis, that the resemblance occurs, for the spire 
of Vol. concinna is very short in proportion to its body whorl, while 
the opposite character is strongly developed in Vol. Lyriformis. In 
this respect it comes nearer to Vol. gracilis, as well as in the form 



44 

and colour of the aperture and the plaits on the pillar. The 
aperture of Fol. conciima is fulvous, and the inner lip, whei'e tiie 
mantle has extended, is of the same colour, with a few traces of the 
longitudinal lineations not yet obliterated. 
My specimen is the only one I have seen. 

CoNus Adamsonii. Con. testd solidd, subcylindraced, glahrd, albidd 
rosea pallido spadiceoque tessellatd ; anfractu basali superne et ad 
basin sulcata, sulcis elevatis latis (mterstitiis superlorum sub- 
punctatis), fasciis tribus subaquidistantibus spadiceo-maculatis 
ornato ; spird brevi, anfractibus subconcavis, transversim striatis . 
Hub. ?. 

Mus. Adamson. 

This species is nearly as solid and ponderous as Con . Stercus Miis- 
carum, which it resembles somewhat in shape, though Con. Adamsonii 
is longer in projjortion. It has also points which remind the observer 
of Con. bullatus ; but is more nearly allied to Con. discrepans. Conch. 
lUustr. f. 28. 

PuKPURA Geavesii. Puvp. testd sordide albd, muricatd, striis va- 
lidis, elevatis, imbricato-squamulosis rugosd ; anfractibus langi- 
tudinaliter subplicatis, angulosis, angulis laminatis, serratis, re- 
troversis ; anfractu basali strid validiore, submediali, elevatd 
cincto : long, -i^, lat. -^%y poll. 
Hab. in mari Mediterraneo. 
Mus. Norris, Brod. 

This shell was brought up on the fluke of the anchor of H.M.S. 
Mastiff, sur\-eying- vessel, under the command of Lieut. Graves (who 
has already enriched this department of natural history by his acti- 
vity in collecting, whenever the pressure of his professional duties 
would allow him to do so,) from a muddy bottom, and a depth of ten 
fathoms, off Napoli di Romania. The shell varies much, and other 
specimens have not the carinations, &c. nearly so much developed. 

There is a figure of this species in Mr. Sowerby's ' Conchological 
Illustrations,' under the name of Murex cariniferus. 

BuLiNUS Ckichtoni. Bui. testd fusiformi, longitudinaliter costatd 
et carrugatd, costis rugisqiie validis, subalbidd maculis spadiceis 
notatd; labia rosacea-violaceo, labro pallidiore, expanso, subreflexo: 
long. 3 (circiter), lat. l^poll. 
Hab. ad Ambo juxta Huanuco Peruviae. 
Mus. Brod. 

This curious shell, which at first sight reminds the observer of 
Bulinus Labeo, Brod., (Zool. Journ., vol. iv. p. 222,) brought home 
by Lieut. Maw, R.N., and presented by him to the Zoological Society 
of London, from whose Museum it has been stolen*, differs strongly 
from it, as will be seen by a reference to the figure in the ' Zoolo- 

* This certainly was, and I believe (wherever it maybe) is, the only spe- 
cimen in Europe. It was in remarkably fine coiiditiorj. 



45 

gicalJournal' which is very accurate, excepting that the longitudinal 
lines in the engraving are rather too strongly expressed. The apex 
of the shell under description, the only specimem I ever saw, is 
broken, audits actual length is 2 inches and i. It will be observed 
that the specimen is notched at the base, but I suspect that this arises 
from accidental distortion. 

The shell is named after my friend Sir Alexander Crichton, to 
whose liberality I am indebted for this and the following species. 

BuLiNus iNFLATus. Bul. testd fragili, subalhidd vel fiavd, fusco 
vel castaneo maculutd, anfractu busali castaneo fasciatd, fasciis 
numerosis : long. -rV. l<it. -^poll. 

Hab. juxta Ambo Peruviae. 

This pretty shell somewhat approaches Bul. guttatus, brought home 
by Mr. Cuming. The species varies very much. 

BuLiNus Pusio. Bul. testd valde ventricosd, ovato-globosd, corned, 
diaphand, longitudinaliter striatd ; labri margine albo ; timhilico 
mediocri : long.-i'^, lat. -.'-^ poll. 
Hab. in maris Mediterranei insulis Grsecis (Syra). 
This species was found in the island of Syra by Lieut. Graves, 
during his late survey in H.M.S. Mastiff. There were but two spe- 
cimens ; in one the umbilicus is very visible : in the other it is nearly 
closed. 



46 



April 26, 1836. 

William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

A Note was read, addressed to the Secretary by J. B. Harvey, 
Esq., Corr. Memb. Z.S., and dated Teignmouth, April 24, 1836. 
It referred to a series of specimens of Rostellaria Pes Pelicani, Lara., 
presented by the writer to the Society, and which he regards as in- 
teresting on account of the evidence afforded by them of the curious 
fact, that in the shells of this species the outer lip is most thickened 
at a time antecedent to the full development of the shell ; absorption 
of the incrassated part of the lip taking place as the animal advances 
in age. " This series," Mr. Harvey remarks, " clearly shows that 
< the shell, when not more than one half or three quarters grown, is 
much thicker than when all the processes are perfected : and that, 
when each process has a groove or channel in it, the shell is quite 
thin, and has arrived at its full period of growth." 

The shells referred to in Mr. Harvey's letter were exhibited. 

Characters were read of the Vespertilionidee observed in the central 
region of Nepal ; being a communication transmitted to the Society 
by B. H. Hodgson, Esq., Corr. Memb. Z.S. They have already been 
published in the ' Journal of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta'. 

The following are the species characterized : 

Rhinolophus armiger, Hodgs. 
Rhin. tragatus, Ej. 
Pteropus levcocephalus, Ej. 
Pter. pyrivorns, Ej . 
Vespertilio formosa , Ej. 
Vesp. fulighiosa, Ej. 
Vesp. lab lata, Ej. 

Mr. Hodgson's characters of these species are accompanied by re- 
marks on the habits of the several genera of Bats which are repre- 
sented by them in the district in which they occur. 

A second communication bj'' Mr. Hodgson was read, which has 
also been published in the ' Journal of the Asiatic Societ}"^ of Cal- 
cutta'. It was entitled " Specific Name and Character of a New 
Species of Cervus, discovered by Mr. Hodgson in 1825, and indicated 
in his Catalogue by the local name of Bdhraiya." 

The animal to which this paper refers is regarded by Mr. Hodgson 
as constituting an important link in the chain of connexion between 
the Deer of the RusOn and of the Elapkine groups : possessing in the 
numerous snags into which the summit of its horns are divided one 
of the principal characteristics of the latter group ; but agreeing 



41 

with the former iu the absence of any median process on the stem 
of the horn, and in the singleness of the basal antler. In stature 
and aspect the species is intermediate between Cervus Hippelaphus, 
Cuv., and Cerv. Elaphus, Linn. Its general resemblance to the 
latter is indicated in the trivial name assigned to it by Mr. Hodgson, 
that of Cerv. Elaphoides. 

It is referred to in his ' Catalogue of the Mammalia of Nep^l' 
(Proceedings, part ii. p. 99.) under the name of Cerv. Bahraiya, 
Hodgs. 

Specimens were exhibited of numerous species of British Fishes, 
forming part of the collection of Mr. Yarrell. They consisted of 
dried preparations of rather more than one half of the skin of each 
individual : a mode of preservation peculiarly adapted, as Mr. Yar- 
rell remarked, for travellers over land ; specimens so prepared occu- 
pying but little space, and being consequently as portable as dried 
plants. An incision is made in the first instance round one side of 
the fish, at a short distance from the dorsal and anal fins, and the 
whole of the viscera and flesh are removed, so as to leave only the 
skin of the other side with the vertical fins attached to it, and with 
rather more than one half of the head : the loose edge of skin left 
from the side in which the incision has been made, is then fastened 
by means of pins to a piece of board, so as to display the entire side 
of the fish which it is intended to preserve, and it is then hung up 
to dry in an airy but shady situation. The more rapidly the drying 
is completed, the more effectually will the colours be preserved. As 
soon as the skin is dried it is varnished ; and the loose edge of the 
skin on that side from whence the operation of removing the flesh 
has been effected is trimmed off with a pair of scissors, as being no 
lont^er useful. The preparation is then completed, and consists of 
the entire skin of one side of the fish, of the vertical fins, and of ra- 
ther more than one half of the head, the latter being important for 
the preservation of the vomer, so as to show the absence or presence 
of teeth on that bone, and their form. All the essential characters 
of the fish are consequently preserved, if care be taken that the skin 
be so attached to the board on which it is dried, as to retain its ori- 
ginal dimensions of length and depth : the due thickness of the fish 
may be secured in the preparation, if it be considered desirable, by 
inserting beneath the skin, when extending it on the board, a suffi- 
cient quantity of prepared horse-hair. 

After explaining the mode which he had adopted in the prepara- 
tion of the specimens exhibited, Mr. Yarrell made various remarks 
on those which he regarded as the most interesting among them ; 
and particularly on a series of Trout and Charr from different loca- 
lities, and varying in colour according to situation, to season, and 
also, in some instances, to food. 

He then directed the attention of the Meeting to the specimens of 
the British species of Rays which formed part of the collection, and 
pointed out particularly the difference, as regards surface, which ob- 
tains in the sexes of many of these fishes ; the skin of the female 



48 

being, in every instance, comparatively smooth. He added also, by 
reference to these specimens, and to specimens of the jaws exhibited 
for that purpose, an explanation of the differences which exist, in 
adult individuals, in the teeth of the sexes respectively ; those of the 
male becoming exceedingly lengthened and pointed, while in the fe- 
male they retain very nearly their original flattened surface : the form 
of the teeth, equally with the armature of the surface, constituting 
in these fishes a secondary sexual character, although both the one 
and the other have repeatedly, but erroneously, been considered as 
adapted for the establishing of specific distinctions. 



49 



May 10, 1836. 
The Rev. J. Barlow in the Chair. 

The following Note by the Rev. H. Dugmore was read. 

"Lieut. Col. Mason, of Neeton Hall (four miles from SwafFham), 
has had a Sea Eagle, Haliaetus albicilla, Sav., in confinement for the 
last sixteen years. About a month since, it dropped an egg, which 
is now in my collection. The egg is perfectly white, and not quite 
so large as that of a Goose : the shell is rather harder." 

A letter was read from Capt. Green of Buckden, Huntingdonshire, 
descriptive of a very fine specimen of the barn-door Hen in his pos- 
session, which has assumed the Cock plumage : the change took place 
about three years ago. The bird has since been presented to the 
Society by the writer. 

Mr. Owen read the following Notes on the Anatomy of the Wom- 
bat, Phascolomys Wombat, Per. 

" The anatomy of the Wombat having already engaged the atten- 
tion of Cuvier ('Lecons d'Anat. Comparee.^assm) and Home (Phil. 
Trans, vol. xcviii. 1808, p. 304,) but little remains to be added on 
that subject. 

" The individual lately dissected at the Museum of the Zoological 
Society had lived at the Gardens upwards of five years. Tlie one 
which was dissected by Sir Everard Home in 1 808 was brought from 
one of the islands in Bass's Straits, and lived as a domestic pet in 
the house of Mr. Clift for two years. This animal measured two feet 
two inches in length, and weighed about 201bs : it was a male. The 
Society's specimen was a female, and weighed, when in full health 
in October 1833, 594-lbs. 

" On removing the integuments of the abdomen, much subcuta- 
neous fat, of the lard kind, was observed. 

" The muscles of the abdomen presented the same arrangement as 
in other Marsupiata ; the internal pillars of the external abdominal 
rings being formed by the marsupial bones, round which a broad cre- 
master, emerging from each ring, wound inwards and upwards to ter- 
minate by spreading over the mammary gland. 

" The digestive organs in the abdominal cavity presented a de- 
velopment corresponding generally to that which characterizes the 
same parts in the phytiphagous Rodents. 

" The stomach precisely corresponded with the description and 
figure given by Home; but the occurrence of cardiac glands in the 
Dormouse and Beaver renders a similar structure in this Marsupial, 
in which the Rodent type of dentition exists, less extraordinary than 

No. XLI. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



50 

it might otherwise appear. The duodenum commenced by a lai-ge 
pyriform dilatation, similar to that in the Capyhara and Spotted Paca ; 
beyond this part it presented a diameter of an inch ; the small intes- 
tines then gradually widened to a diameter of l-i- inch, and as gra- 
dually diminished again to the diameter of an inch : their entire 
length was 11 feet 3 inches. 

" The ileum entered obliquely the wide sacculated colon, the bulging 
commencement of which represented a short and wide cacum ; and 
from the angle between this part and the ileum, a cylindrical vermi- 
form process 2 inches long, and 3 lines wide, was continued. 

" The colon continued to be puckered up by two wide longitudinal 
bands into large sacculi, which could be traced becoming less and less 
distinct along an extent of the gut measuring five feet 2 inches. Cu- 
vier observes that the large intestines were hardly more voluminous 
than the small * ; in our specimen the colon measured 24- inches in 
diameter, being more than double that of the ileum. But a more im- 
portant difference was observed in the presence of a second cacum 
at the distance from the first above mentioned. This consisted of a 
pyramidal pouch projecting 3 inches from the side of the gut, and 
communicating freely with the same at its base : its parietes were 
thinner than those of the rest of the large intestine ; it was situated 
below the pyloric end of the stomach, had only a partial investment 
oi peritoneum, and adhered by a cellular medium to the duodenum and 
pancreas. Below this second cacum, or lateral dilatation, the colon 
formed a large sacculus, and was then disposed in a series of smaller 
sacculi, which at length disappeared at a distance of 6 feet from the 
second cacum ; the rest of the large intestine, 3 feet in length, was 
of simple structure, and of smaller diameter, viz. \\ inches. 

" The internal surface of the small intestines presented some slight 
transverse corrugations ; that of the colon was smooth, except below 
the second cacum, where the lining membrane was corrugated irre- 
gularly; and a small patch of glands was here observable. 

" The rectum terminated, as in other Marsupials, immediately be- 
hind the urethro-sexual aperture, and within a common outlet, both 
the excretory orifices being embraced by a common cutaneous 
sphincter. 

" The liver was more completely separated into lobes than in the 
specimen dissected by Cuvier. Home is silent as to the structure 
of the liver ; his observations respecting the digestive organs are li- 
mited to the peculiarities of the stomach. In our specimen the liver 
was divided by an extensive longitudinal fissure into two lobes, the 
right of which was again deeply subdivided into two, the gall-bladder 
being lodged in this second fissure : the gall-bladder was of an oval 
form, 24- inches in length. 

" The pancreas and spleen were both well developed, and had each 

* " Dans le Phascolome, les gros intestins ne sont guere plus volumineux 
que les petits." Lemons d'Anat. Camp., nouv. ed. 



51 

the descending process which characterizes these parts in the Mar- 
supial animals. 

" The parotid glands were very thin, situated upon, and partly on 
the inner side of, the posterior portion of the lower jaw; they mea- 
sured each 14- inch in length, and ^ inch in breadth ; the duct passed 
directly upwards and outwards till it reached the orifice of the sterno- 
cleido-mastoideus ; here it was buried in the cellular substance anterior 
to that muscle, then turned over the ramus of the jaw, and continued 
its course over the masseter, where it was slightly tortuous ; it en- 
tered the mouth just anterior to the edge of the buccinator. The 
submaxillary glands were each about the size of a walnut; their 
ducts terminated, as usual, on each side oi the frcenum linguce. 

" The heart of the Wombat presented the usual peculiarities oc- 
curring in this part of the Marsupial organization; viz. 1st, the two 
appendages of the right auricle, one passing in front and the other 
behind the ascending aorta ; 2ndly, the absence of the annulus and 
fossa, ovalis; and 3rdly, the absence of the terminal orifice of the co- 
ronary vein which empties itself into the cava superior sinistra just 
before the wide termination of the latter vein in the auricle by the 
side of the cava inferior. The right auriculo-ventricular opening is 
widely open, and is guarded by an irregular naiTow membranous 
valve, the outer portion of which is attached to the tendons of three 
carnecB columns ; two of which are of a large size as compared with 
the third, and arise, as in the Kangaroo, from the septum near the 
angle where this is joined to the parietes of the ventricle. The mus^ 
cular walls are continued obliquely upwards in a conical form to the 
origin of the pulmonary artery, somewhat resembling a bulbus arte- 
riosus. This peculiarity is still more marked in the Kangaroo. The 
right ventricle descends nearer to the apex of the heart in the Wom- 
bat than in the Kangaroo, and the form of -the heart is longer and 
narrower. The left auricle is smaller and more muscular than the 
right ; the valve between it and the ventricle is, as usual, broader 
and stronger, and its free margin is attached to the tendons of two 
thick columnce carneee, having the usual origins distinct from the 
septum, leaving that part of the inner surface of the ventricle smooth 
for the passage of the blood to the aorta. The pulmonary veins ter- 
minate by two trunks in the left auricle. 

" The lungs consisted of one lobe on the left side, and one on the 
right, with the lobulus medius ; which was a small strip extended be- 
tween the heart and diaphragm. 

" llie thyroid glands were elongated bodies of a dark colour, reach- 
ing from the thyroid cartilage to the seventh tracheal ring on each 
side. 

" The kidneys were each 2-J inches long, and 2 inches broad, and 
of a somewhat compressed oval figure ; the tubuli terminated on 9, 
single obtuse mammilla. 

" The specimen dissected by Cuvier being, like that examined by 
Home, a male, the female organs of the Wombat are only known by 



52 

the description appended to the paper of the latter author, which 
relates to an impregnated individual. I found no part of the struc- 
ture which supports the view taken by Sir Everard Home relative to 
the passage of the fecundating fluid to the uterus ; the only natural 
communication between those cavities and the urethro-sexual canal 
being by the two lateral vaginal canals. The female organs consist, 
as in the Opossum, of two ovaries, two Fallopian tubes, two uteri, 
each opening by a separate os tinea into a distinct vagina; the vagince 
having no intercommunication, but terminating in the common pass- 
age of Tyson, or urethro-sexual canal. 

" The urethro-sexual canal is li inch in length; its inner sur- 
face is disposed in thick folds. The two anterior ones commencing 
united together form a semilunar fold above the urethral aperture ; 
these folds are deeply intersected with oblique rugce, the margins of 
which are villous, the villi becoming longer and finer as they approach 
the orifices of the true vagina. These commence -^ an inch above 
the urethral orifice : their parietes are very thick for the extent of 
one inch, and the lining membrane of this partis disposed in minute 
longitudinal rugs ; it is then disposed in larger, coarser, and villous 
ruga, similar to those of the first vagina, beneath which membrane 
several small vesicles were developed. Each of the true vagina hav- 
ing ascended with an outward curve for 2 inches, receives the os tinea 
of its respective side, which is very projecting, and divided by deep 
fissures into numerous processes, resembling a short tassel. TTie va- 
gina then descend to the upper part of the urethro-sexual canal, form- 
ing each a deep and large cul de sac, the inner surface of which is 
characterized by irregular villous ruga, and the whole is highly vas- 
cular. The culs de sac are separate as in the Opossum, and do not 
communicate as in the Kangaroo. 

" The uteri are each 2 inches long, and -J of an inch in diameter, 
somewhat flattened, pyriform, and giving off the oviducts from the 
inner or mesial part of their fundus. For the extent of an inch, the 
lining membrane presents a series of small but well-defined longitu- 
dinal ruga, beyond which it assumes a fine texture, like velvet. The 
peritoneal covering of the uterus is reflected from it upon the ovarian 
ligament, the oviduct and the numerous vessels passing to the uterus 
on the outer side of this ligament, the duplicature or broad liga- 
ment containing which parts is 1^ inch in breadth, and attached by 
its outer margin to the lumbar region of the abdomen as high as the 
kidney : just below this gland it is reflected upon the ovary, forming 
a large capsule for that part, and for the expanded extremity of the 
Fallopian tube, which presents an extraordinary development of fringe- 
like processes. 

" The ovary presents the most distinct racemose structure which 
I have ever observed in the class Mammalia, consisting of about 
thirty ovisacs, of which the largest is half an inch, the smallest half 
a line in diameter ; the whole ovary being of an oblong irregular 
figure 1-j- inch by 1 inch in dimensions. The mouth of the ovarian 



53 

capsule is about 1 inch in width, the length of the Fallopian tube 
3 inches." 

Some Notes by Mr. George Bennett, Corr. Memb. Z.S., were 
read. They were transmitted from Sidney, New South Wales, in a 
Letter addressed to the Secretary, and bearing date October 25, 
1835. They related to the habits of the Spermaceti Whale, and of 
the large species of Grampus known by the name of the Killer. 



54 



May 24, 1836. 
William Ogilby, Esq., in the Chair. 

A letter addressed to the Secretary by J. B. Harvey, Esq., Corr. 
Memb. Z.S., and dated Teignmouth, May 18, 1836, was read. It 
referred to a collection of various marine productions of the south 
coast of Devonshire, which accompanied it, and which were pre- 
sented to the Society by the writer. These were exhibited. 

Among them was a specimen of Capros Aper, La Cep., captured 
in Mr. Harvey's neighbourhood : and with the view of illustrating 
the colours of this species, he forwarded with it a painting made from 
the fish while yet recent. This also was exhibited. 

With the collection were several specimens of a Tubularia, nearly 
related to Tub. indivisa, of which Mr. Han^ey furnished a detailed 
description, accompanied by numerous figures. The description was 
read, and the figures were exhibited. 

Mr. Harvey first observed the Tubularia in question at the steam 
bridge on the river Dart, where it grows in clusters between the 
links of the chain over which this floating bridge is propelled. The 
specimens obtained by him in this locality were necessarily injured 
in the hurried manner of taking them off during the rapid motion 
of the bridge ; but as they were immediately placed in sea- water 
most of them have survived the force used in separating them, and 
he has thus been enabled to observe them for a week or ten days, 
during which he has carefully studied their form and structure. His 
drawings are intended to illustrate many of the different positions 
of the polype in various conditions as to growth, expansion, &c. 

" This animal," Mr. Harvey remarks, "is evidently a Tubularia. 
It is something like Tub. indivisa figured by Ellis, Plate XVI. no. 2. 
fig. c, but differs in several particulars. The tube of Ellis's Tubu- 
laria is jointed ; the head has a lateral groove or opening ; and the 
central projection (which is an elongation of the membrane covering 
the body) is much larger and higher, and is not surmounted by a 
row of shght long feelers. This Tubularia (for which," as a distinc- 
tion, I submit the term Tub. gracilis.) has the tube hollow through- 
out and single ; the body has no lateral groove ; the central process 
has a row of fine long feelers near its termination, and placed round 
the orifice : their office is to direct the food to the mouth. On the 
circumference of the cup is a row of very long flexible feelers, having 
much freedom of motion, and between each two of them is a smaller 
red feeler ; from the circumference to the origin of the central pro- 
' cess are two or three confused rows of alternate white and red short 
papillae, giving the animal much the appearance of a flower. 



55 

" The powers of contraction and dilatation very much resemhie 
those of the Caryophyllia, which I have still alive, and which I have 
kept for two years. Upon the slightest touch all the feelers are in- 
stantly contracted ; but the shaking of the water does not at all in- 
commode them. I kept several clusters in the same bowl with my 
Caryophyllia ; but I found that, every time they came near it, (either 
by being touched or by shaking the vessel) they were devoured : I 
therefore, now keep them by themselves, but I fear that I shall not 
be successful in preserving them, as the river tide cannot be imitated 
in confinement. 

" The locality of this polype is very confined. The Dart floating 
bridge is propelled upon two chains, about 6 feet distant from one 
another, and stretching across the river. On the western chain not 
a cluster could be seen, but on the eastern one there were upwards 
of a hundred groups of them, in spite of the immense friction to 
which they were exposed. They are only found within 100 feet of 
the northern shore at low water. I have since observed the same 
animals growing on the links over which the floating bridge at De- 
vonport runs, and there they do not occupy a space exceeding 150 
feet. 

" The most singular circumstance attending the growth of this 
animal, and which I discovered entirely by accident, remains to be 
mentioned. After I had kept the clusters in a large bowl for two 
days, I observed the animals to droop and look unhealthy. Ou the 
third day the heads were all thrown oiF, and lying on the bottom of 
the vessel ; all the pink colouring matter was deposited in the form 
of a cloud, and when it had stood quietly for two days, it became 
a very fine powder. Thinking that the tubes were dead I was going 
to throw them away, but I happened to be under the necessity of 
quitting home for two days, and on my return I found a thin trans- 
parent film being protruded from the top of every tube ; I then 
changed the water every day, and in three days time every tube had 
a small body reproduced upon it. The only difl^erence that I can dis- 
cover in the structure of the young from the old heads, consists in 
the new ones wanting the small red papillce, and in the absence of 
all colour in the animal." 

The skin was exhibited of a species of Cynictis, Og., which had 
recently been presented to the Society by Captain P. L. Strachan, 
by whom it was obtained at Sierra Leone. The exhibition was ac- 
companied by a description of the animal by Mr. Martin, which was 
read. 

Mr. Martin regards the animal as especially interesting on ac- 
count of its presenting the second instance of the new form among 
the Viverrida which was described by Mr. Ogilby at the Meeting 
of the Society on April 9, 1833, under the generic ajjpellation of 
Cynictis, and of which a detailed description and figure has since 
been published in the Transactions, vol. i. p. 29. It agrees with that 
genus, which is intermediate between Herpestes and Ryzcena, in its 
general form ; in the number of the toes with which its feet are fur- 



50 

nished ; and in the number and form of its teeth, as far as they are 
preserved in the specimen exhibited, which, however, is that of a 
young individual. The points of the teeth are consequently in it 
unworn and acute : while in the specimen of Cyn. Steedmanni de- 
scribed by Mr. Ogilby, wliich was evidently an aged individual, the 
teeth were much worn down. The only other differences which 
exist between the teeth of the new species and those of Cyn. Steed- 
manni consist in the presence, in the outermost incisor in the upper 
jaw of the former, of a minute but decided internal tubercle, which 
is not found in the corresponding tooth of Cyn. Steedmanni ; and in 
the inner lobe of the carnassier of the upper jaw being acute and 
conical, instead of blunt : the teeth behind this, in both jaws, are 
wanting in the specimen of the new species. The feet of the new 
species differ from those of Cyn. Steedmanni by their comparatively 
shorter claws ; and by having a naked line extending along the un- 
der surface of the tarsus from the pad to the heel, the whole of the 
under surface of the tarsus being covered in Cyn. Steedmanni with 
hair. 

The new species may be thus characterized : 

Cynictis melanurus. Cyn. saturate rufus nigra punctulatus, ad 
latera pallidior ; guld sordide fiavescenti-brunned ; artubus intertik 
abdomineque sordidi flavescenti-rufis ; caudd apicem versus lati 
nigrd, ad apicem floccosd. 

Long, corporis cum capite, 12 unc; caudcE, pilis inclusis, 11; ca- 
pitis, 2 unc. llin. 

In addition to the distinctive characters which have been noticed 
above, it may be remarked that Cyn. m.elanurus differs from Cyn. 
Steedmanni in the greater smoothness, shortness, and glossiness of 
the fur ; in the less bushy character of the tail ; in the dark tint of 
the head, back, and limbs ; in the dusky colour of the throat ; and 
in the black tip of the tail, the corresponding portion of this organ 
in Cyn. Steedmanni being white. 

Mr. OgUby remarked, that the animal described by Mr. Martin 
might probably be identical with the one noticed by Bosman under 
the name of Kokeboe ; but added, that the notice given of it by that 
traveller was not sufficiently precise to admit of its being determined 
with certainty. 

A specimen was exhibited of the Chironectes Yapock, Desm., on 
which Mr. Ogilby remarked as follows. 

" I am indebted to Mr. Natterer for the opportunity of examining 
this rare and curious animal, of which he brought various specimens 
from Brazil. ITiat now exhibited is a male, and possesses the same 
anomaly in the generative organs which characterizes the rest of the 
Marsupials. I have not seen the female, but Mr. Natterer informs 
me that the abdominal pouch is complete. The species is found in 
all the smaller streams of Brazil, and appears to extend from the 
southern confines of that empire, to the shores of the Gulf of Hon- 
duras ; Buffon's specimen came from Cayenne, and a skin was re- 
cently obtained by Mr. W. Brown Scott, labelled ' Demerara Otter.' 



67 

Both this and Mr. Natterer's specimen agree with the figure and 
description of BufFon, except that they are of a larger size, and in- 
stead of a grey mark ovur each eye, have a complete band of that 
colour extending entirely across the forehead. In Mr. Natterer's 
specimen the terminal half-inch of the tail only is white ; in Mr. 
Scott's on the contrary, the last 4 inches are of this colour : the 
tail is exactly of the same length as the bodj'; it measured 10 inches 
in the former specimen and 12 in the latter, but Mr. Natterer in- 
forms me that he has other specimens which measure 14 or 15 inches 
in length. 

"The teeth of this animal are altogether different from those of 
the Opossums (Didelphis); and I am at a loss to reconcile my own 
observations with those of M. F. Cuvier upon this subject, as given 
in ' Les Dents des Mammif^res ' p. 73, unless by supposing that 
there must have been some mistake about the skull referred by 
M. Cuvier to the Yapock. For my own part, I could not be deceived 
in this matter, as the skull which I examined had never been ex- 
tracted from the specimen. The incisors and canines are of the same 
form and numljer as in the true Opossums, the two middle incisors 
above being rather longer than the lateral, those below broader and 
a little separate. The molars are five on each side, two false and 
three real, both in the upper and under jaws. The first false molar 
is rather small and in contact with the canine, both above and be- 
low: the second is half as large again, and both are of a triangular 
form, with apparently two roots. The three real molars are of the 
normal form of these teeth among the Opossums. The first of the 
upper jaw is longer than it is broad, and has four sharjD elevated 
tubercles with a low heel projecting backwards ; the second resem- 
bles it in general form, but is larger and broader ; the third is small 
and resembles the tuberculous molars of the true Carnivora. In the 
lower jaw the three real molars do not materially differ in point of 
size. They are narrower than those of the ujjper, have their tuber- 
cles arranged in a single longitudinal series, a single large one in the 
centre, and a smaller on each side. 

" The Yapock has very large cheek-pouches which extend far 
back into the mouth, and of which the opening is very apparent. 
This circumstance, hitherto unobserved by zoologists, throws con- 
siderable light upon the habits of this rare animal, which thus ap- 
pears, like the Ornithorhynchus, to feed upon freshwater Crustacea, 
and the larva of insects, spawn of fishes, &c. which it probably stows 
away in its capacious cheek-pouches. For 2 inches at the root the 
tail is covered with the same description of fine close fur as the body; 
from this part it tapers gradually to the point and is covered with 
small scales, arranged in regular spiral rows, and intersj)ersed with 
bristly hairs, particularly on the under surface, a fact perfectly con- 
clusive against the generally received opinion of this organ being 
prehensile in the Chironectes. Indeed, the tail so perfectly resem- 
bles that of the Hydromys chrysogaster, even to the white tip, that 
it would be impossible to distinguish these organs if separated from 
the respective animals. The useless appendage of a prehensile tail 



58 

to an aquatic animal, must consequently be henceforth discarded 
from the history of the Chironectes, and the animal allowed to take 
its place among conterminous genera, not as a compound of anoma- 
lous and contradictory characters, but as a regular component link 
in the scale of existence. That its habits are purely aquatic, and 
that it has not the power of ascending trees, is further proved by 
the structure of the extremities. The hind feet are broad like those 
of the Beaver ; the toes, including the thumb, united by a membrane, 
and, with the exception of the thumb, provided with small falcular 
claws ; the thumb, as in all the other Didelphidous Pedimana, is 
without a claw. The fore-fingers are separate, very long and slen- 
der, (the middle and ring-fingers the longest of all,) and the last 
joint expanded and flattened as in the Geckos. The thumb is 
placed rather behind the general line of the other fingers, and seems 
at first sight to be opposable : it perfectly resembles those of the 
American Monkeys. The claws are very small and weak ; they do 
not extend beyond the points of the fingers, nor even so far, and 
are absolutely useless either for climbing or burrowing. Consider- 
ably behind the others, on the outside of the wrist, there is a 
lengthened tubercle resembling a sixth finger, but much shorter 
than the others and without any bone. What purpose this unique 
organ may serve in the economy of the animal's life, it is impossible 
to conjecture, but the long slender fingers are probably used to juck 
out the food which it carries in the cheek-pouches." — W. O. 



59 



June 14, 1836. 
"William Yarrell, Esq., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

Specimens were exhibited of various Birda from Northern Africa, 
which had recently been presented to the Society by Sir Thomas 
Reade, Corr. Memb. Z.S. They included the Anas marmorata, 
Temm., on which Mr. Gould remarked that in the form of the bill 
it approached nearly to the Pin-tailed Duck, Anas acuta, Linn., al- 
though it is altogether destitute of the elongation of the middle 
tail-feathers which occurs in that bird ; the crested Duck ; the Gad- 
wall; the Garganey; the Ruff, and the black-failed Godivit, in their 
■winter dress ; the Golden Oriole ; and other species : all of which 
were severally brought under the notice of the Meeting by Mr. Gould, 
at the request of the Chairman. 

Mr. Gould subsequently exhibited specimens of various Birds 
which he had recently received from M. Temminck : including a 
new species of Ptarmigan from Siberia ; and a Trogon from the In- 
dian Islands, nearly allied in almost every particular to the Trog. 
erythrocephala of the Himalaya, but having the wing fully an inch 
shorter, with a tail bearing a relative proportion. 

The Secretary announced the arrival in the Menagerie, since the 
last Meeting of the Society, of the four Giraffes, the capture of 
which was described by M. Thibaut in a letter read at the Meeting 
on February 9, 1836, and translated in the ' Proceedings ' at p. 9. 

He also directed the attention of the Members to a specimen of 
Temminck' s Horned Pheasant, Tragopon Temminckii, Gray, which had 
recently been added to the Menagerie by the liberality of J. R. 
Reeves, Esq., of Canton : to a pair of the Serin Finch, Fringilla 
Serinus, Linn., brought from Italy for the Society, and presented to 
it by Mr. Willimott ; and to a monstrous variety of the Indian Tor- 
toise, Testudo Indica, Linn., which had also been lately added to the 
Menagerie, and which is remarkable for the great irregularity of the 
surface of its shell, each of the plates being raised into high conical 
eminences. 

A paper was read by Mr. Martin " On the Osteology of the Sea 
Otter, Enhydra marina, Flem." It is founded on a perfect skeleton 
of the animal contained in the collection made by that energetic 
traveller the late David Douglas, and acquired, subsequent to his 
decease, by the Society. This skeleton was exhibited. • 

Mr. Martin refers in the first instance to the dentary characters 
of this remarkable animal, which were correctly described and 

No. XLII. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



60 

figured by Home In the ' Philosophical Transactions ' for 1796 ; and 
then adverts to some erroneous statements which have since been 
made respecting its molar teeth by various authors, including 
Cuvier, vi^ho appear to have possessed no opportunities of examining 
specimens. In the course of his communication he describes in 
detail the number and form of the teeth, which consist of six in- 
cisors in the upper jaw and of four in the lower, the outer one 
on each side in either series being larger than the others and as- 
suming, in the upper jaw, somewhat of the form of the canines ; 
of a strong canine on each side of the incisors in either jaw ; and of 
four molars on either side in the upper, and five in the lower jaw, of 
which two in the upper and three in the lower are false and suc- 
cessively increase in size towards the true molars, the latter being 
large, broad teeth, with flattened crowns somewhat depressed in the 
middle : in the upper jaw the hindermost of the true molars is much 
larger than the other, while in the lower it is comparatively small. 
The total length of the skeleton is 3 feet 2 inches ; of which the 
skull measures 5 inches, and the tail, 10. 

The general form of the skull nearly resembles that of the Common 
Otter, Liitra vulgaris, Storr ; but it is proportionally broader, and is 
more convex on its lateral parietes, in this respect approaching to 
many of the Seals : the nasal bones form a broad plane, and do not 
gradually decline, like those of the Common Otter, towards the nasal 
opening ; they are also shorter in proportion than in that species ; 
the breadth of the nasal opening is greater than its depth, propor- 
tions which are reversed in the Common Otter : the post-orbital space 
is less contracted : on the base of the skull the space between the 
pterygoid processes is more considerable : and the whole contour of 
the cranium is not only broader but deeper also. The lower jaw 
maintains the same general tendency to greater compactness, and is 
stouter and shorter than in the Common Otter. 

Detailed admeasurements are given by Mr. Martin of the skull of 
an individual more advanced in age than the one whose skeleton is 
preserved, and in which the entire length of the cranium is 5 inches; 
the greatest breadth, being across the occipital ridge behind the 
auditory /oramew, nearly 4 inches, the breadth between the zygo- 
mata being the same ; the depth from the point of union of the in- 
ter-parietal with the occipital ridge to the foramen magnum, If; the 
distance from the foramen magnum to the bony palate, 24 ; and the 
length of the bony palate, 2^. 

The chest is rather wide in form, but much compressed ; being 6 
inches across at the sixth rib, while its greatest depth from the ver- 
tebral column to the sternum is 2^- inches. The direction of the 
ribs is obhquely backwards, and they are rather slender : their num- 
ber is thirteen, (not fourteen, as is stated by Home,) the last five 
being false and attached by very long cartilages to the cartilages of 
the true ribs. 

The lumbar vertebrae are six in number. 



61 

The anterior extremities are short and small. The scapula is 3 
inches in length and 2 in its greatest breadth : its spine is feeble 
and but slightly elevated. The humerus is 3 inches in length : and 
is stouter and less laterally compressed than that of a common Otter 
of the same longitudinal dimensions. The ulna and radius are stout, 
and are separated from each other by a greater interval than in the 
common Otter. The i)aws are remarkable for their diminutive size. 
In the common Otter, from the extremity of the radius to the nail of 
the last phalanx of the third finger the measurement is 3 inches ; in 
the Enhydra it is 2^. 

The pelvis is long and narrow, measuring from the crest of the 
ilium to the tuber ischii 6 inches : in the common Otter, the measure- 
ment is but 4. The iliac bones are remarkably thick and solid, and 
turnout from the spinal column. The distance from the centre of 
the acetabulum to the crest of the ilium is 3 inches ; the breadth of 
the ilimn \\. 

It is in the posterior limbs that the great power of the Enhydra 
appears to be developed. The os femoris is short but very thick, 
and its trochanter is bold and prominent : the trochanter minor is 
small. The head of the femur is globular, and is destitute of the 
ligamentum teres, as in the Seals : in the Otter this ligament exists 
as usual. The length of the thigh bone from the great trochanter 
to the condyles is 34- inches. Both the tibia and fibula are large 
and of great comparative length : in the common Otter, they do not 
exceed the femur; but here they exceed it by more than an inch, 
the measurement being 4-^ inches. 

It is in the hind paws or paddles, Mr. Martin remarks, that the 
greatest difference exists between the Otter and the Enhydra. They 
are here admirably constructed as organs of aquatic progression. 
Their length from the os calcis to the last phalanx of the outer toe 
is 74- inches; and as the toes are long and connected by intervening 
webs they form broad efficient oars. The toes graduate regularly 
from the inner toe, which is the shortest, to the outer or fifth toe, 
which is the longest. The metatarsal bone of the inner toe measures 
14- inch, the toe analogous to the thumb and composed of only two 
phalanges measures the same — the other toes have three phalanges 
as usual ; the metatarsal bone of the fifth toe measures 2-i- inches ; 
the toe itself 3 inches. The breadth of the foot, measured obliquely 
across from the end of the metatarsal bone of the first toe to that 
of the fifth is 2 inches. 

The nails of the fore paws are small and sharp ; those of the pad- 
dles are blunt, but curved. 

The OS penis is a stout bone 3-| inches in length. 

Mr. Martin concluded by remarking that as the hinder extremi- 
ties are jilaced far backwards, and when stretched out in the act of 
swimming exceed the tail, this organ will appear placed between 
them, almost as much as it is in the Seals ; between which animals 
and the Otters the Enhydra forms, in his estimation, a palpable link 



62 

of union, approximating, in some portion of its osseous structure, 
even more to the former than to the latter. 

Mr. Martin added that it was his intention, with the view of ren- 
dering his communication more complete, to review the osteology 
of the Enhydra in detailed comparison with that of the common 
Otter and of the Seal. 

A drawing was exliihited of a Saurian Reptile of the family Scin- 
cidce and of the genus Tiliqua, Gray, which forms part of the Museum 
of the Army Medical Department at Chatham, and wliich is regard- 
ed by Mr. Burton, Staff- Surgeon, in charge of the Museum, as 
hitherto undescribed. 

It was accompanied by the subjoined character and description by 
Mr. Burton. 

TiLiQtiA Fernandi. Til. auribus profundis, latis, margine antico 
simplici ; squamis dorsalibus valde tri-carinatis : sitpra pallide 
brunnea strigis saturatioribus ornata, infrh albescens ; lateribus 
brunneo variis alboque maculatis ; guld brunnea lineatd. 

Long, corporis capitisque 6 unc; capitis colliqae, 2^ ; caudce, ? 

Hab. apud Fernando Po. 

" There are eight rows of hexagonal imbricated scales on the back 
and tail, and two additional rows between the fore and hind legs ; 
the lateral scales are irregular in form and size. Submental scales 
large, in three transverse rows ; the first containing a single scale, the 
second a pair, the third a pair with an intermediate rudimentary 
one. Subcervical and ventral scales in eight rows ; subcaudal in 
five rows, of which the middle row is the larger. There is a single 
row of anal scales, curved upwards. Scales of the upper surface of 
the body 3-keeled, of the lower smooth. A semicircular series of five 
plates over each orbit separated by a long narrow frontal : five occi- 
pital plates, the posterior ones largest : nasal, post-nasal, and labial 
plates varied in form and size. 

" Head, back, tail and upper surface of the extremities reddish 
brown, a blackish line intersecting each row of scales ; sides lighter, 
marked by a series of irregular blackish streaks ; belly and under 
surface of tail a brownish white ; throat alternated longitudinally with 
light and dark-brown lines ; submental scales whitish, bordered with 
a broad dark-brown edge. 

" A single row of blunt teeth on the margin of the jaws. 

" Body of nearly uniform shape from the commissure of the lips 
to the tail." 



63 



June 28, 1836. 
William Yarrell, Esq., V.P. in the Chair. 

A note addressed to Colonel Sykes by Lieut. Henning, R.N., was 
read. It noticed the capture of an Albatross by a hook ; and stated 
that the bird, while so attached, was fastened on by another of the 
same species, but whether with the intention of endeavouring to re- 
lease it, or with the view of taking advantage of its helpless condi- 
tion, the writer did not attempt to determine. 

Some observations were read by Mr. Gray " On the genus Mos- 
chus of Linnaeus, with descriptions of two new species." 

The only character, Mr. Gray remarks, by which this genus, as 
established by Linnaeus and others, differs from the genus Cervus, 
consists in the absence of horns ; for the elongated canines are com- 
mon to it and most of the Indian species of Cervus, especially the 
Cerv. Muntjac. The character of the fur, the degree of hairiness or 
nakedness of the metatarsus, and the presence or absence of the 
musk-bag in the male, offer, however, good characters for the sub- 
division of the group into three very distinct sections or subgenera. 

The first of these divisions, for which Mr. Gray would retain the 
name of Moschus, comprehends only the Thibet Musk, Moschus mos- 
chiferus, Linn. In common with the Deer and Antelopes it has the 
hinder and outer side of the metatarsus covered with close erect hair ; 
like many of the Deer also, its fur is quill-like and brittle ; it has, 
moreover, a throat entirely clothed with hair; and the males are 
provided on the middle of the abdomen with a large pouch secreting 
musk. Its young, like those of most of the Deer, are spotted, while 
the adult animal is plain- coloured. 

The division to which Mr. Gray in the year 1821, in a paper in 
the Medical Repository, gave the name of Meminna, also consists of 
but a single species, the Moschus Meminna, Linn. In this group the 
hinder edge of the metatarsus is covered with hair, but there is on 
its outer side, a little below the hock, a rather large smooth naked 
prominence, which is flesh-coloured during life ; the fur is rather 
soft, spotted and varied with white, which becomes less conspicuous 
in the older specimens, but does not appear ever to be entirely lost; 
the throat is entirely covered with hair ; and there is no musk-bag 
in either sex. The false hoofs are distinct, although denied to the 
animal both by Linnaeus and BufFon. 

The third and last subdivision is characterized by Mr. Gray, under 
the name of Tragulus, as having the hinder edge of the metatarsus 
nearly bald and slightly callous, a character which distinguishes them 
at once from all other Ruminants ; the fur is soft, and adpressed like 
that of Meminna, but not spotted even when young ; the throat is 



64 

provided with a somewhat naked, concave, subglandular, callous disk, 
placed between the rami of the lower jaw, from which a band ex- 
tends to the fore part of the chin ; and they have no musk-bag. 
Like all the other species of the Linnean genus Moschus, they have 
false hoofs ; and most of them have the edges of the lower jaw, 
three diverging bands on the chest, and the under surface of the 
body more or less purely white. The species of this division scarcely 
differ in colour in the various stages of their growth ; the young 
fawn resembling the adult in every particular except in size. 

In this division, the synonymy of which is extremely confused, 
Mr. Gray reckons four species, two of which he describes as new, 
arranging and characterizing them as follows : 

MoscHus Javanicus. Mosch. ferrugineus nigra variegatus ; collo 
saturate bruniiso griseo nebulato ; menti margine, strigis pec- 
toralibus tribus postice latioribus, pectore, abdomine, femoribus 
interne, cauddque subtiis, albis ; pedibus, capitis lateribus, prym- 
ndque nitidefulvis ; occipite nigrescenti. Long. corp. capitisq\ie 
simul poll. 24 ; metatarsi 4l poll. 
Moschus Javanicus, Gmel., Syst. Nat. 1. p. 174. ex Pallasio. 
Raffles in Linn. Trans, xiii. p. 261 ? Benn., Zool. Gard., p. 41. 
Tragulus Javanicus, Pall., Spic. Zool. xii. p. 18. in notd, 
Moschus Indicus, Gmel., Syst. Nat. 1, p. 172. 
Cervus Javanicus, Osbeck, Iter, p. 273. 
Moschus Napu, F. Cuv. Mamm. t. 
Chota Beta, Rou de Ramon, Cab. Madr. t. 9. 
Hab. in Insulis Jav^ et Sumatra. 

Tliis species, Mr. Gray states, is at once known by its larger size, 
pale colour, and the white of the entire under surface of the body, 
with the exception of the two longitudinal dusky stripes which sepa- 
rate the three white stripes of the chest from each other, and of a 
simple narrow pale band across the chest. 

2. Moschus Kanchil. Mosch. fulvus, nigrescenti variegatus; nu- 
cha strigd latd nigrd longitudinali; guld, colli corporisque lateribus, 
pallide flavescentibus, pilis nigro-apiculatis ; antipedibus nitide 
fulvis ; menti marginibus, strigis tribus pectoralibus, pectore, 
abdomine, femoribus postice, cauddque subtiis, albis ; pectore ab- 
domineque strigd longitudinali, in illo saturatiore, in hoc palli- 
diore. Long, capitis corporis({\xQ simul poll. 20 ; metatarsi 3-^ 
poll. 

Moschus Kanchil, Raffles in Linn. Trans, xiii. p. 262. 

Le Chevrotain adulte, Buffon, Hist. Nat. torn. xii. p. 344. 

Le Chevrotain de Java, Buffon, Hist. Nat. Suppl. tom. vi. p. 219. 
t. 30. 

Javan Musk, Shaw, Zool. t. 173, ex tab. Bufon. 

Hab. in Javd. 

This species Mr. Gray states to be easily distinguishable from the 
former by its smaller size ; darker colour; the strength and distinct- 
ness of its nuchal streak ; the width of the band across its chest. 



65 

which is besides continued backwards into a njirrow streak ; and the 
yellow band along the middle of the belly. These characters are 
common to two specimens of different ages in the collection of the 
British Museum. The lateral white streaks on the fore part of the 
chest are linear, the median one subtriangular, being narrow in front 
and widening backwards. The two dark streaks by which they are 
separated are linear, of the same colour with the sides of the neck, 
and do not unite together in front. 

3. MoscHus FuiiVivENTER. Mosch. fulvus, nigrescenti vaHegatus ; 
nvchd strigd longitudinali lata nigrd ; guld, colli lateribus, anti- 
pedibusque rufescenti-fulvis; lateribus subtiisqueflavescenti-fulvis; 
menti marginibus, strigis tribus pectoralibus, strigd laid utrin- 
que in pectore abdomineque , femoribus interne anticeque, cauddque 
subtus, albis. 

Le jeune Chevrotain, Bvffon, Hist. Nat. xii. p. 342. t. 42, 43. 

Hab. in Insulis Malaicis, et in Peninsula Indiae Orientalis ? 

Very Uke the last, but differing from it in the under surface being 
pale fulvous with four white streaks, and in the lateral streaks on the 
chest being isolated anteriorly by means of a narrow transverse band 
which separates them from the white of the chin, while the median 
one is bounded in front by the union of the two dark streaks. 
There is also a small brown spot on each side of the chin just below 
the angle of the mouth, which is not found in the other species. 
The fawns only a few weeks old do not differ in colour from their 
parents. None of the three specimens in the collection of the British 
Museum have their habitats accurately marked. Two of them were 
from the collection of General Hardwicke, and the third was pre- 
sented by Mr. Edward Burton of Chatham. Mr. Gray thinks it pro- 
bable that this may be the animal indicated by Sir Stamford Raffles 
under the name of Pelandoc. 

4. MoscHus Stanleyanus. Mosch. rufescenti-fulvus, pilis nigro- 
apiculatis, subtiis miniis nitidus ; cello pectoreque nitide fulvis • 
menti marginibus, strigis tribus pectoralibus, pectore, femoribus 
interne anticeque, cauddque subtus, albis ; syncipite, jjedibusque a 
genubus inde saturatioribus ; rhinario, strigd utrinque oculos 
ambiente, aurlcuUsque extiis et ad margines, nigris. 

Var. menti marginibus minus albis ; strigis pectoralibus interruptis 
miniis conspicuis ; guldque paulb saturatiore, 

Hab. 

This is immediately distinguishable from all the other species by 
the brightness of its colouring, and by the absence of the nuchal 
streak, and of the white on the under surface of the body. There 
are at present four living specimens in the magnificent collection of 
the Earl of Derby at Knowsley ; and two others, consisting of a spe- 
cimen of each of the varieties, in that of the Society, to which they 
were recently presented by Her Royal Highness the Princess Victo- 
ria. It is not known from what exact locality any of them were 
obtained. 



66 

Mr. Gray discusses the synonymy of the species above charac- 
terized as belonging to the subgenus Tragulus, especially with re- 
ference to the descriptions of Buffon, Pallas, Raffles, and M. Frederic 
Cuvier. From the imperfect manner in which they are described 
and figured, he is unable to identify with any of the foregoing spe- 
cies, or to separate from them as distinct, the Pelandoc figured in 
Marsden's Sumatra, or the Pygmy Musk of Sumatra figured in Mr. 
Griffith's edition of Cuvier's ' Animal Kingdom,' on which Fischer 
has established his Moschiis Griffithii. The Mosch. pygmcciis of Lin- 
naeus Mr. Gray states to belong to the genus Antilope ; the hinder 
part of the tarsus being covered with hair, and the false hoofs very 
small and rudimentary, and entirely hidden under the hair of the 
feet ; the Mosch. Americanus appears by its spotted livery to be the 
fawn of a species of Deer : and the Mosch. del.icatulus, or Leverian 
Musk of Shaw, is also undoubtedly the fawn of a Deer, It is curious 
that Dr. Shaw quotes as a synonym of the last-named species the 
figure of Seba, on which alone the Mosch. Americanus is founded, 
while at the same time he enumerates the Mosch. Americanus as a 
distinct species. 

Mr. Gray also made some observations " On the tufts of hair ob- 
servable on the posterior legs of the animals of the genus Cervus, as 
a character of that group, and a means of subdividing it into natural 
sections." These tufts are found on the inside, or on the outside, or 
sometimes even on both sides, of the hinder legs of all the Deer 
which Mr. Gray has had an opportunity of examining, with the ex- 
ception of the Muntjac, on which he has not been able to detect 
them either in the living state or in preserved skins. This circum- 
stance may, however, have arisen from the fact of the living animal 
examined being confined in a cage ; for he has uniformly found them 
much more conspicuous in animals which have a wide range than in 
such as are confined to small inclosures. Thus the various species of 
Deer in the magnificent parks of the Earl of Derby at Knowsley, in 
which the Ruminant animals are allowed an extensive range, and 
preserved in a state nearly approaching to wildness, exhibit the tufts 
in question in a much more ample state of development than such 
as are seen in menageries ; and one of the Axis Beer at the Gardens 
of the Society, which has the run of a small paddock, dis])lays them 
much more evidently than another specimen in the Gardens, which 
is confined to a stall. This difference of development, Mr. Gray 
suggests, may account for the little notice that has hitherto been 
taken of them by zoologists, who have only spoken of them inci- 
dentally, and with reference to one or two species of the group. 
They are found at all ages and in both sexes ; and afford, therefore, 
a valuable adjunct in the determination of the species of the hornless 
females, as well as in distinguishing them from the females of the 
genus Antilope, m which no indication of them is to be observed ; 
the tufts or scoptB that occur in some of the species of that genus 
being on the fore knees and evidently serving a very different pur- 
pose. 



67 

They were noticed in the American Deer by Buffon. who sj.ieaks 
of them as surrounding " un lichen noirdtre long de neuf Ugnes , fort 
etroit, entour4 par des poils hlancs et longs, qui paroissoient former 
aussi line sorte de brosse;" and according to M. F. Cm'ier, who ob- 
served them in the Wapiti, they surround a narrow long horny sub- 
stance, which is the appearance of the part in the dry state ; but 
Col. Hamilton Smith, in his description of the same species, 
takes a different view of the structure with which they are connect- 
ed, which he states to be "a gland imbedded in hair secreting an 
unctuous fluid." That the tufts really cover a glandular apparatus 
is rendered probable by the circumstance that in the living animal 
they generally assume a conical form as though imbued with some 
oily secretion; and the specimens preserved in spirit which Mr. Gray 
has examined, seem to justify this opinion ; but he has had no op- 
portunity, since his observations upon the subject were made, of 
confirming the fact by anatomical examination. They are generally 
of a paler colour than the rest of the hair upon the legs ; and in 
some species, the Cervtis Virginianus for instance, they are of a pure 
white which renders them very conspicuous. 

To the existence of these tufts as a generic character common to 
all the Deer, Mr. Gray states that, among the species which he has 
had an opportunity of examining, he has met with only one excep- 
tion, that of the Muntjac before mentioned ; and he thinks that if this 
animal should prove to be really destitute of the appendages in ques- 
tion, it would afford an additional motive, combined with the perma- 
nence of its horns and some other characters, for excluding it from 
the genus Cervus. But these tufts have also another value, that of 
affording by the differences in their number and position three ob- 
vious sectional divisions, which have an evident advantage over those 
derived from the form of the horns and other characters of a sexual 
and temporary nature, in being permanent at all ages and common 
to both sexes. These sections Mr. Gray arranges as follows : 

The first has a pencil of hairs seated on the outer side of the hinder 
part of the metatarsus, about one thii'd of the distance from the 
caloaneum towards the hoofs. This section includes Cerv. Elaphus, 
Canadensis, Axis, porcinus, Hippelaphus, Dama and its varieties, and 
niger, as well as the Stag in the Museum of the Society, called the 
greater Muntjac, Cerv. Tunjuc, Vig. and Horsf., in the Catalogue 
for 1829, p. 17, No. 303, which Mr. Gray believes to be a species 
of the Rusan group of Col. H. Smith with deformed horns. In 
Cerv. Canadensis, and perhaps also in some other species, Mr. Gray 
states that there is a large pad of close erect hairs on the hinder 
edge of the metatarsus, commencing with this tuft. 

In the second section there exist two tufts of hair, one seated on 
the outer side of the hinder part of the metatarsus, about two thirds 
of the distance from the calcanemn to the hoof ; and the other on the 
inner side of the hock or heel. This structure occurs in the Virgi- 
nian Deer, Cerv. Virginianus, and in its variety Cerv. Mexicanus, as 
well as in an allied species of which the female exists in the So- 
ciety's Museum. The internal pencil is very distinct in the Virgi- 



68 

man Deer; and the external is also very conspicuous in consequence 
of the whiteness of the hairs composing it. Lord Derby's game- 
keeper, however, stated to Mr. Gray that there are two varieties of 
this species in Knowsley park, in one of which this tuft is much 
more conspicuous than in the other. 

The third section comprehends those species which have a very 
distinct tuft on the inside of the hock, but none on the outer side of 
the metatarsus. Mr. Gray has observed this structure in two living 
specimens of a species from Demerara in the menagerie of Lord 
Derby, which agi-ees best with Cerv. rufus, Desm.; in another South 
American species, allied to the former but apparently different, 
which was presented to the Society in 1828 by Sir Philip Egerton, 
and is now in its Museum; and in a very young spotted Fa2i'« (almost 
a foetus) preserved in spirits in the collection of the British Museum. 
He suspects that the Brockets of South America may have the same 
character ; and thinks he could observe the internal tufts on the spe- 
cimen of the Rein Deer in the Society's Museum, but no trace of 
the external, the entire hinder edge of the metatarsus being covered 
with a uniform very thick coat of hair. 

From an examination of the skin of the Elk in the British Mu- 
seum, Mr. Gray is of opinion that it will probably enter into a fourth 
section ; in as much as it appears to have very distinct tufts on the 
inner side of the hock, and others also on the outer side of the meta- 
tarsus about one third of its length from the heel, as in the first sec- 
tion ; but of the existence of the latter tufts he is by no means cer- 
tain, on account of the age and state of the specimen. 



69 



July 12, 1836. 
Thomas Bell, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mr. Waterhouse, at the request of the Chairman, read a Paper, 
entitled " Description of a new genus of Mammiferous Animals from 
New Holland, which will probably be found to belong to the MarsU' 
pial type." 

The skin on which this description was founded had been lent to 
Mr. Waterhouse, for the purpose of describing, by Lieut. Dale, of 
Liverpool, who procured it whilst on an exploring party in the inte- 
rior of the Swan River Settlement, about 90 miles to the S.E. of the 
mouth of that river. Two specimens were seen ; both of which took 
to hollow ti-ees on being pursued, and one of them was unfortunately 
burned to death in the attempt to dislodge it from its retreat. The 
country abounded with decayed trees and ant-hills ; and Mr. Water- 
house is of opinion, from this circumstance and from some peculiari- 
ties in the structure of the animal, tliat it lives chiefly, if not wholly, 
upon ants, for which reason he proposes for it the generic name of 

Myrmecobius. 

Dentes incisores ?, canini "-5^, pseudo-molares ^-^, molares |5^=48. 

Pedes antici 5-dactyli, digitis tribus intermediis longioribus; pos- 
tici 4-dactyli, digitis duobus intermediis internum superantibus; ex- 
terno brevissimo; unguibus longis acutis subfalcularibus. Scelides 
antipedibus longiores. Caput elongatum ; rhinario producto ; auri- 
culis mediocribus acutis. Corpus gracile. Cauda mediocris. 

Mr. Waterhouse details at length the peculiarities of the denti- 
tion and other structural characters of the animal under considera- 
tion, and particularly notices the statement of Lieut. Dale that, when 
it was killed, the tongue was protruded from the mouth to the ex- 
tent of two inches beyond the tip of the nose, its breadth being 
three sixteenths of an inch ; which circumstance, combined with the 
dentition of the animal, confirms him in the belief that it feeds upon 
ants. With respect to its immediate affinities he confesses himself 
at a loss. In skinning the specimen, the part where the pouch 
would be placed in a marsupial animal, has been so mutilated as to 
render it difficult to determine whether or not it possessed one : it 
appears, however, to have been a female, and to have two mamrruE 
and the remains of a pouch. Mr. Waterhouse is of opinion that it 
will prove to be allied to the genus Phascogale ; and there are also, 
he states, points of resemblance between it and Tupaia, as well as 
with the ground Squirrels, the genus Tumias of modern authors. 

The species Mr. Waterhouse proposes to name Myrmecobius fas- 
ciatus : he describes it as follows : " Length from the nose to the 
root of the tail (measuring along the curve of the back) ten inches ; 

No. XLIII. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



70 

of the head, from the tip of the nose to the base of the ear, one inch 
and seven eighths; of the tail six inches and a quarter. The colour 
above is reddish ochre, interspersed with white hairs, the posterior 
half of the body being adorned with alternate black and white trans- 
verse fascife, disposed in a manner somewhat similar to those of Thy- 
lacinus cynocephalus. The under parts of the body are yellowish 
white ; the anterior legs of the same colour on their inner sides, and 
of a pale buff colour externally ; and the posterior legs of a pale 
buff colour, with the fore part of the tibise whitish, and the sole en- 
tirely bare. The hairs of the tail are mixed black, white and red- 
dish ochre, each of these colours predominating in different parts. 
The reddish hue of the fore part of the body is gradually blended 
into the black, which is the prevailing colour of the posterior half, 
and which is adorned with nine white fascise ; the first of these 
fascifE (which is indistinct) commencing rather before the middle of 
the body, and being, in common with the second, interrupted on the 
back by the ground colour of the body ; the third, fourth, and last 
extending uninterruptedly from side to side ; and the fifth, sixth, 
seventh and eighth, extending over the back, passing without coming 
into contact, and thus as it were dovetailing, with those of the op- 
posite side. The hair on the head is very short and of a brownish 
hue above, (being composed of a mixture of black and reddish-brown 
■with a few white hairs); and whitish beneath. The nose and lips 
are blackish ; and there are a few long black hairs springing from 
under the eyes and from the sides of the muzzle. The body is co- 
vered with hair of two kinds ; the outer of which is moderately long, 
rather coarse, and compact on the back and fore parts of the body ; 
but over the haunches, and on the under surface, where the pouch 
is situated in the Marsupials, the hair is long. The under fur is 
short, fine and rather scanty. The tail is furnished throughout with 
long hairs." 

In illustration of his paper Mr. Waterhouse exhibited the skin, 
together with drawings of the animal, of its skull, and of its dentary 
characters. 

The following notes of the dissection of a specimen of the Chilian 
Bush Rat, Octodon Cumingii, Benn., by Mr. Martin, were read. 

" The individual examined was a male measuring in the length 
of the head and body 7 inches : the tail was imperfect. 

" On removing the skin from the chest and abdomen, the shape of 
the xiphoid cartilage was observed to be reniform. 

" The abdominal cavity being exposed, the order of the viscera 
was as follows. Occupying its usual situation the liver extended 
from side to side, while below its edge appeared a portiori of the 
great curvature of the stomach, and also the pylorus emerging from 
beneath its right lobes ; the duodenum passing from the pylorus 
suddenly dipped down, crossed the upper end of both kidneys, and 
then made a curve upwards and merged in the jejunum. The chief 
portion of the abdominal cavity, of comparatively spacious volume, 
■was filled with the convolutions of the intestinal canal. 



71 

" The liver (which was highly disorganized) consisted of two 
nearly equal left lobes, and of two right lobes of which the outer- 
most was partially divided, but not so completely as to make the 
number of right lobes three. The lobulus SpicjcUi was small. 

" In a cleft in the first or central right lobe, a little to the right of 
the ligamenturn latum (which was thin), appeared the gall-bladder, 
small, globular, and empty : its duct received several small hepatic 
tubes, and entered the duodenum half an inch below the pylorus. 

" The sjileen was attached to the lower part of the oesophagus arid 
the cardiac sacculus by a riband of mesentery, half an inch in 
breadth when extended. In figure this viscus was pointed at both 
ends, and three-sided, or prismatic : its length was H inch ; its 
greatest breadth half an inch. 

" Beneath the cardiac portion of the stomach and the spleen, lay 
the pancreas, a soft indefinite mass spreading through the mesentery: 
a portion of it followed the course of the duodenum for about an 
inch. Its duct entered the intestine along with the bihary duct. 

" The stomach, 2 inches in length, and somewhat more than 1 
inch in depth, was of a regular figure, its cardiac sacculus projecting 
but little beyond the entrance of the asophagus; between which and 
the pyloric opening there intervened a good distance, (about % of 
an inch). The pyloric portion of the stomach was of equal volume 
with the cardiac, and did not diminish rapidly but was globular. 
Internally, the stomach had a cuticular and villous portion; the cuti- 
cular lining, occupying about a third of the whole, covered the car- 
diac end, commencing anterior to the entrance of the msophagus. 
" The small intestines measured 2 feet 6" inches in length. 
"The c<ECM?« was large and sacculated, being puckered into sacculi 
by two strong muscular bands. It measured 3 inches in length, was 
loaded with fsecal matter, and was ulcerated through in several 
points, from which the /Vecps had escaped in small quantity. It was 
so tender that it could not be distended. 

" The colon formed a loop 5 inches in length, analogous to that 
which exists in Capromys and Coypus: at the part where the intes- 
tine leaves this duplicature the faces assumed distinct oval forms. 
The first length of this fold or loop of the colon was larger than the 
second or returning length ; and this portion with the rest of the 
large intestines scarcely equalled the small in diameter. 

" The total length of the large intestines was 1 foot 5-J inches. 
" The right kidney was placed higher than the left : the kidneys 
were of an oval shape, and 4 of an inch in length. The/3«/>i7/a was 
large and single. 

" The renal capsule was of the size of a pea, round, of a yellow- 
ish grey colour, and soft internally. 

" The lungs consisted of three right and two left lobes. 
" The heart presented nothing remarkable. 

"The penis, measured from the pubis, was 1-V inch in length. 
The gluns was supported by an osseous stylet, and its upper sur- 
face was rough with numerous minute but horny retrovertod papillce. 
At the orifice of the urethra were four long, conical, horny papillce. 



n 

projecting forwards, two on each side : they appeared to be four of 
the horny papilla of the glans elongated and developed, for these 
papilla surrounded their base and were there rather larger than lower 
down on the glans. 

" I found, as in Capromys and Coypus, a decided decussation of the 
pubic pillars of the recti abdominis muscles. 

" The testes, of an oval shape, were within the abdomen, as high 
as the top of the haunch bones ; — the epididymis formed a knot at 
the end of the testis, adhering closely to it, whence it sent a tube 
along the testis to the opposite or small end; arriving there it 
formed a knotted congeries of fine convolutions, from which emerged 
the vas deferens. To this congeries there proceeded from the abdo- 
minal ring (which was imperforate) a muscular, tubular sac, or ore- 
master, the fibres of which embraced it. The ring being imperforate, 
the testis, I imagine, never passes externally into the groin. 

" The vas deferens emerging from this congeries of tubes, turned 
round, crossed the smfJl end of the testis, and descended over the 
vesicula seminalis of its own side. 

"The vesicula seminales were 1 inch in length, slender and con- 
voluted. 

" The prostate gland was double ; Cowper's glands were of the 
size of peas, and round. The membranous part of the urethra was 
4 of an inch in length. 

" The fauces were not funnel-shaped, but constricted by a lateral 
pillar rising up from the base of the tongue on each side to the pa- 
late, which wants tonsils and velum pendulum : the aperture thus 
formed just admitted the top of a pencil. The nares opened 2 or 3 
lines beyond this constricted portion just above the rima glottidis ; 
they were not therefore visible, until the fauces were ftdrly laid 
open. The contraction of the /a«ces is less decided than in the 
Coypus." 



711 



July 26, 1836. 

Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair. 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. Gould exhibited specimens 
of two new species of Birds from the Friendly Islands and New 
Holland, of which he proposed to form a genus. He stated them 
to approximate, in his opinion, in nearly an equal degree to the 
genera Lanius, Tardus, and Lamprotornis ; but believed that they 
might Avith propriety be arranged among the Thrushes. Their cha- 
racters were given as follows : 

Aplonis. 

Rostrum capite paulf) brevius, robustum, subcompressum ; man- 
dibulfl arcuata, ad apicem emarginata. 

Nares basales, ovales, patulse. 

Alee breves ; remigibus 2do et 3tio longissimis, Imo et 4to sequali ■ 
bus. 

Cauda brevis, lata, quadrata vel sub-bifurca. 

Tarsi robusti ; digitis magnis; unguibus magnis curvatis, hallucia 
pnecipufe valido. 

In both species the feathers of the head are lanceolate ; and the 
general plumage above has a slight glossy hue, especially on the 
head and back of the neck. The species were characterized as 
follows : 

Aplonis marginata. Apl. pileo metallic^ brunneo ; notao satu- 
rate brunneo, remigibus secundariis margine externa albescenti- 
bus ; humerisferi nigris ; remigibus cauddque saturate brunneis ; 
rostro tarsisque nigrescenti-brunneis ; gastrao pallidi brunneo, 
rachibus plumarumferi albis. 

Long, tot., 74- poll. ; ros/rt k rictu ad apicem, 1; al<B, 3^; cauda, 2^; 
tarsi, l-'g. 

Hab. in Insulis Amicorum. 

This species formed part of a collection made by Mr. Mathews, 
who has lately visited these islands. 

Aplonis fusca. Apl. pileo et regione paroticd ohscuri nigro- 
splendentibus ; notceo pallida brunneo ; gastrao pallidiore ,- remi- 
gibus cauddque brunneis ; rostro tarsisque nigris. 

Long, tot., 6i poll.; 7-ostri k rictu ad apicem, vix -J; alee, 3^ ; 
Cauda, 2y, tarsi, vix 1. 

Hab. ad ripas fluvii Murrumbidgee, in NovA Hollandia Australi. 



74 

This species was collected, together with many other rarities, by- 
Captain Sturt, during his expedition in tlie interior of Australia, and 
presented by him to the Society. 



75 



August 9, 1836. 
Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair. 

A specimen was exhibited of an Ortyx which Mr. Gould regarded 
as hitherto undescribed. 

At the request of the Chairman he pointed out the distinguishing 
peculiarities of the new species, which he named and characterized 
as follows : 

Ortyx ocellatus. Ortyx nigro-brnnneus, dorso punctis rufo-brunnei 
adsperso, latcrihus ocellis albi-flavidis notatis,femoribus nigris. 

Long. corp. 6l unc. ; ala, 4^ ; tarsi, \\. 

Hsec species ad Ort. Montezumcc in affinitate proxima. 

" Bill black, strong, and arched ; top of the head, which is slight- 
ly crested, blackish brown ; a large white mark extends over each 
eye and passes on to the back part of the neck ; beneath the eye is 
an oval mark of blueish black ; from the base of the lower mandible 
extends another white mark which spreads upon the front of the 
neck and is bounded by an abrupt margin of black ; a large patch 
of the latter colour occupies the chin and throat ; the general colour 
of the whole of the upper surface is brownish olive, each feather 
having a decided central line of chestnut following the direction of 
the shaft and becoming spatulate at the tip ; the web of each feather 
is transversely barred and blotched with black ; the chest and ab- 
domen is sandy chestnut, becoming more intense on the under tail- 
coverts ; sides of the chest and flanks transversely spotted with yel- 
lowish white on a blueish gi-ey ground; thighs black; tail very short 
and partly hidden ; tarsi brown. 

This bii-d differs from Ortyx Montezuma in several particulars, but 
to that species it is most nearly allied. 

Mr. Gould also brought before the notice of the Meeting two new 
species of Birds from New South Wales, where they had been col- 
lected, and subsequently presented to the Societj' by Captain Sturt. 
They are referrible to the genus Zoster ops of Messrs. Vigors and 
Horsfield; a group among the Sylviada, and of which but two species 
were known at the time those gentlemen instituted the genus. Mr. 
Gould placed on the table six additional species, a portion of which 
was from the Society's collection, and the remainder from his own. 
In the course of his remarks, Mr. Gould adverted to the surprising 
augmentation of species which has now taken place in nearly every 
group in ornithology; and characterized the new species mentioned 
above as 

ZOSTEROPS ALBOGULARIS, Gould. 

Zost. corpore superne, alis, cauddque, olivaceis ; dorso, tectricibus 
alarum, caudaqiie, castaneo-brunneis ; oculo plumulis albis circum- 
No. XLIV. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



76 

dato ; genis macula nigrd notatis ; auricalaribus griseis; guld, ventre, 
crissoque albis ; lateribus castaneis ; rostro pedibusque purpurascenti- 
griseis. 

Long. Corp. 5^ unc. ; rostri, §; ala, 3; caudce, 21; tarsi, 1. 

Hab. in Australia, ai^ud flumen Murrumbidgee dictum. 

ZOSTEROPS TENUIROSTRIS, Gould. 

Zost. vertice capitis, nuchd, guld, thoraceque viridi-flavis ,■ oculo 
plumulis albis circumdato ; dorso, scapulis, olivaceo-griseis ; prtmariis 
rectricibusque viridi lati marginatis ; ventre, crissoque brunneo-flavis i 
rostro pedibusque brunneis. 

Long. Corp. 5| unc; rostri, |; ala, 2^; cauda, 2^; tarsi, §. 

Hab. in Australia apud flumen Murrumbidgee dictum. 

They are the two largest known species of the genus. 

Notes by W. C. Williamson, Esq., Curator to the Natural History 
Society, Manchester, on the appearance of rare Birds in the vicinity 
of Scarborough were then read, of which the following is an abs- 
tract. 

" The prominent position of Scarborough with its projecting 
headlands separated by deep bays and its high hills covered with 
wood, render the neighbourhood a favourite retreat for various tribes 
of birds. Among the spring visitors the Siskin maybe enumerated, 
which appears in April, remaining only a few days apparently on its 
route to breeding-places farther north. It is never seen at any other 
period of the year, though considered by authors as a winter visitor. 
Several examples of the Hoopoe, and one specimen of the Roller, 
have been shot in the neighbourhood. The stomach of the latter 
was filled with the elytra and other remains of a species of Curculio. 
Of the Water Ousel or Dipper it is stated that, when flying down a 
stream it drops into the water and dives under any rails laid across 
from bank to bank, rather than fly over them, rising on the opposite 
side and pursuing its course. The nest of this bird is occasionally 
seen so placed under a projecting ledge that a fall of water was con- 
stantly rolling over it, thus rendering it secure from any attacks : 
the birds entering by the sides of the fall. 

" The Redwing has been seen as late as May; these bir^s are re- 
markable for a peculiar cry uttered when disturbed and about to take 
flight. 

■ ' The Hooded Crow has been known to breed near Scarborough 
on two or three occasions. In one instance, a female Hooded Crow 
was observed to pair with a Carrion Crow on a large tree at Hack- 
ncss, where they succeeded in rearing their young. The Carrion 
Crow was shot by the gamekeeper, but the following year the 
Hooded Crow returned with a new mate of the same sable hue as the 
farmer one to her old nest. The carrion and young crows were 
again all shot ; the old female by her vigilance escaped all the ef- 
forts of the keepers to destroy her, and a third time returned with 
a fresh mate ; she was not however again so successful, but was 
shot, and is now preserved in the Scarborough Museum, The young 



77 

birds varied, some resembling the Hooded and others the Carrion 
Croiv in their plumage. 

" The Great or Thick-kneed Plovers breed on the fallows, and often 
startle the midnight traveller by their shrill and ominous whistle. 
This is supposed to be the note so beautifully alluded to by Sir 
Walter Scott in his poem of The Lady of the Lake, 

' And in the Plover's shrilly strain 
The signal whistle's heard again.' 

for it certainly sounds more like a human note than that of a bird. 

" The Rough-legged Buzzard breeds occasionally in a precipitous 
dell near Hackness. A marked female returned the following year 
with a new mate to her former favourite haunt. 

" Three species of the genus Lestris, the Glaucous Gull, Little 
Gull, Great Northern Diver, Little Auk, and Long-tailed Duck are 
obtained generally during the prevalence of strongnorth-easterly winds . 
Temminck's Tringa and the Olivaceous Gallinule have been killed near 
Scarborough. The Sanderling visits the shore in May and Septem- 
ber. Good §port is sometimes gained at IFborfcocA-shooting in March, 
when from any cause these birds are prevented continuing their 
journey northward. In one or two instances a Woodcock has been 
seen there as late as June." 



August 23, 1836. 

Thomas Bell, Esq., in the Chair. 

In consequence of the lamented decease of the Secretary, E. 
T. Bennett, Esq., the usual routine of scientific business was sus- 
pended. 



79 



Sei)tember 13, 1836. 
William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

A communication was read from J. B. Harvey, Esq., of Teign- 
mouth, a Corresponding Member of the Society, on the occurrence 
of four specimens of the Velella limhosa of Lamarck, which were 
found on the beach at Teignmouth after a continuation of southerly 
winds and smooth water. 

A specimen was forwarded for the Society, and representations of 
it in four different points of view accompanied the communication. 

Mr. Vigors called the attention of the meeting to a Bird, present- 
ing a singular form among the Tinamous, which he had exhibited at 
one of the evening meetings in the year 1832, but which, from ac- 
cidental circumstances, had not been characterized in the Proceed- 
ings. The birds of this group, which forms an immediate connect- 
ing link between the Tinamous and the Bustards, were first observed 
by Mr. Pentland on a high elevation in the Andes, and the specimen 
before the meeting was brought by that gentleman to this country 
and presented to the Society. Mr. Vigors described in detail the 
characters of the genus, to which he assigned the name of Tinainofis, 
and also pointed out the specific characters of the bird, to which he 
had on a former occasion given the name of Pentlandii, in honour of 
the distinguished traveller who first discovered the group. 

TiNAMOTIS. 

Rostrum forte, subrectum, Otidis rostra persimile ; culmine plann. 

Alee mediocres, rotundatae; remigibus prima et septim^ fer^ sequali- 
bus, brevissimis, tertia et quarta longissimis. 

Pedes tridactyli ; tarsis sublongis fortibus ; acrotarstis reticulatis 
squamis inferioribus grandibus ; digitis longitudine mediocribus, me- 
dio cseteris, quae sunt fere aequales, longiore, omnibus membrana 
utrinque marginatis ; acropodiis scutellatis, squamis maximis ; nn- 
guibus grandibus, planis, dispansis. 

Cauda brevis, subrotundata. 

TiNAMOTIS Pentlandii. Tin. corpore cinereo-brunneo sordidoque 
fulvo fasciato, capite colloque similiter striatis ; msso femori- 
busque rufis ; mento albescente. 
Plumulse capitis colli ventrisque magis albido, dorsi caudeeque nia- 
gis fulvo notatte ; narum notis maculis simvdantibus. Lougitudo cor- 
poris, 15; alee, a caqso ad apicem remigis 3tise, 10; rostri adfrontem,. 
1-^, ad rictum, 1,^ ; tarsi, 2 ; digitorum, unguibus inclusis, medii, 1|, 
cxternorum, \\. 

Mr. Vigors took th.^ same opportunity of describing and naming 
No. XLV. — Proceedings ok the Zoological Society. 



80 

two Parrots in the Society's Collection, one of which, now alive in 
the Menagerie, distinguished by a brilliant purple plumage over the 
head, nape, and breast, and which came from South America, he 
characterized under the name of Psittacus aiigustus ; the second, of 
which two specimens had been procured from the late Rev. Lans- 
down Guilding's collection, received from the Island of St. Vincent, 
but the precise locality of which was not known, he described by 
the name of Psittacus Guildingii. 

Psittacus Augustus. Psitt. viridis, capile, colld corporeque suhtiis 

splendide purpureis, sincipite viridi tincto, torque nuchali satura- 

tiore ; humeris rectricibusque coccineo notatis, his ad apices pur- 

purascenti-fiisco tinctis. 

Plumulse nucha corporisqne infra nigro ad apices marginatae ; i?i- 

terscapulii tectricumqae femoris azureo leviter ad apices tinctae. Mag- 

nitudo Platycerci Vases. 

Psittacus Guildingii. Psitt, capitis fronte albescente, sincipite 

yenisque flavis, occipite mentoqtie azureis, nuchd viridi ; alis viri- 

dibus in medio fascid aiirantiaco-flavd notatis, ad apices nigris ; 

caudd ad basin anrantiacd, deinde fascid viridi in medio lazulind 

notatd, ad apicem fiavu. 

Plumulse occipitis ad basin flavescentes, deinde azurese, fascia gra- 

cili nigro-brunneEi ; nucha virides fascia latiore notatse. Remigis 

primaria ad basin flavae, secundaria aurantiacse ; ad apices nigrse ; in- 

terionim plumis externis lazulino tinctis, rhachibus nigi-is. Rectricis 

suprk ad basin flavae, deinde aurantiaco viride marginato notatae, 

posted, extern^ lazulinse, extern^ nigrae, ad apices aurantiaco-flavae, 

rhachibus nigris ; subtus ad basin aurantiacae, in medio virides, ad 

apices flavae. Rostrum album. Long. corp. 17|^ unc. ; alee a carpo 

ad apicem remigis 4tae, 12; tarsi, |-; caudae, 8; mandibulee supe- 

rioris, 1^; inferioris, 1^. 

Mr. Gould, at the request of the Chairman, exhibited to the 
Meeting two tribes of Birds, viz. the Tamatias, from the warmer 
parts of America, and the Coursers, from the arid regions of Africa 
and India. Mr. Gould observed, that of the first group, only five 
species appear to have been known to Linnaeus; eleven others had 
since been added, making sixteen: the Society's collection contained 
thirteen species. Mr. Gould exhibited a series of drawings in illus- 
tration of the group, and characterized one new species under the 
name of Tamatia bicincta, as follows : 

Tamatia bicincta. Tarn, guld et corpore inferni subtils ochraceo- 
fulvis ; pectore duahus fasciis nigris transversim striato ; lateribus 
fiavido-albis nigro maculatis ; plumis auricularibus griseis, mar- 
ginalibus subtiis brunned fused tinctis ; fascid nuchali grised ; cor- 
pore summo cauddque superne brunneis ; tectricibus alarum secun- 
dariis ad apicem ochraceo-albis hoc colore dorso guttata; rectrici- 
busque externis tnarginalibus . 

Long. tot. 8 unc. ; rostri, \^ ; alee, 3^; caudee, 3 ; tarsi, \. 

Hab. Cayenne ? 



81 

Mr. Gould stated in conclusion, that this formerly limited group 
now constitutes a considerable family, or subfamily, whose members 
appear naturally to form themselves into at least three or four genera : 
thus divided, the genus Tamatia, Cuv. {Capita, Vieill.) contains 9 
species, that of Lypornix, Wagl., 3 species; th'At oiMonasa, Vieill., 3 
species ; and that of Chelidoptera, Gould, 1 ; the latter being a generic 
title provisionally instituted by Mr. Gould for the Lt/pornix tenebrosa, 
Wagl., a species W'hich differs in many essential characters from all 
the other members of the group, possessing as it does a very length- 
ened wing, and being in every way adapted for powerful flight. He 
observed, that he had consulted with M. Natterer on the propriety 
of separating this bird from the other members of the group, in which 
opinion that eminent naturahst had coincided, and at the same time 
stated, that it usually resorted to the topmost branches of the trees, 
whence it sallied forth over the forest in search after its insect food, 
while, on the other hand, all the other members of the group kept to 
low thickets and the neighbourhood of the gi'ound. In their general 
economy they offer a striking resemblance to the Shrikes and Fly- 
catchers ; they are, however, more indolent in their disposition, and 
sit motionless on a dead branch for hours together, until their atten- 
tion is drawn to some passing insect, when they sally forth, capture 
it, and return to the same branch, which they are known to frequent 
for months together. With the exception of three or four species 
all the members of this group are confined to the Brazils. 

Mr. Gould exhibited six species of the genus Cursorius, one of 
which was described as new by the appellation of Cursorius rufus. 

CuRsoEius KUFUs. Cuv . froute custaneo-Tufo ; occipitegriseo,fascid 
alba cincto hac supr()^ et infra lined angustd 7iigrd marginatd ; 
nucha rufescente ,- corpore stimmo rufescente brunneo ; gtild albidd; 
pectore pallida fulvo hoc colore infaciam ventralem nigrum mer- 
gente ; abdomine poster iore, crissoque alb is ; remigibus primariis 
nigris ; secundariis albis ; prymtio ? rectricibusque cauda ad basin 
hrunneo-griseis harum duabus intermedius notd nigrd apicali ex- 
terms feri albis reliquis plils miniisve ad apicem albis nee non 
ni^ra macula griseum colorem singente ; r astro nigra ; digitis ni- 
grescentibus ; tarsis ? albido flavis. 

Long, tot., 9 unc; rostrt, \\; alee, b\; cauda, 2; tarsi, 3. 

Hab. in insulis Oceani Indici. 

The new species of Cursorius was from the islands of the Indian 
Ocean, but from what particular locality Mr. Gould had not been 
able to ascertain. It differs from Curs. Asiaticus, by being smaller 
in all its proportions, by having the whole of the upper surface of a 
rich rufous brown, and by not possessing a white band across the 
rump. In its affinities it is closely allied to both Curs. Asiaticus and 
Curs. Temminckii. 

Mr. Martin placed on the table two examples of the Potto or 
Kinkajou from the Society's Museum, and, at the request of the 
Chairman, read some notes describing the differences in colour, size. 



82 

and comparative measurements of parts in the two specimens, of 
which the following is an abstract. 

" The differences which exist in two specimens of the Kinkajou in 
the Society's Museum have led me to introduce them to the atten- 
tion of the Meeting, as it is not improbable that they may ultimate- 
ly prove to be distinct species. The Kinkajou, however, is so rare 
an animal both in the museums and menageries of our country, that 
we want the means of ascertaining whether or not, like that allied 
animal the Coati, its colour be subject to variations of tint and mark- 
ing. But independently of the great difference in colour which 
obtains in the two specimens before the meeting, and on which, 
taken as a solitary character, we should hesitate to ground a specific 
distinction, at least until we had compared several specimens, it ap- 
pears that the ears of the rufous specimen (which was lately pre- 
sented by George Vaughan, Esq.) are more elongated than those of 
the other, which died in the Society's Menagerie, where it had lived 
for many years. It is on this difference, rather than on that of co- 
lour, that I have suspected a specific distinction ; though I confess 
my susjiicions are strengthened by the latter as a concomitant. A 
knowledge of the precise localities from which each specimen was 
obtained would be of great use, but on this point, unfortunately, I 
have not been able to gain any information. 

" In distinguishing between the two species oi Kinkajou, I consider 
it best to drop entirely the specific title caudivolvulus , (which is ap- 
plicable to both, and is descriptive rather of a generic than a speci- 
fic character,) the only mode in fact by which to avoid all possibility 
of confusion. 

" Our first species will stand as Cercoleptes megalotus. It is di- 
stinguished by the form of the ears, which are elongated, narrow, 
rounded at the tip, and somewhat flapping ; their length is 1 inch 
3 lines, their breadth 7 lines. 

" Internally they are sparely covered with thinly set soft hairs ; 
externeilly they are fully clothed with hairs of a pale yellowish 
white. 

" The fur is close, short, thick, and rigid ; the general colour is 
deep reddish yellow, or fulvous, with an obscure band of a darker co- 
lour, down the top of the head, the back, and upper surface of the 
tail, approaching to chestnut. The sides of the body and the insides 
of the limbs are pale fulvous ; the abdomen and throat are nearly as 
dark as the back, and a stripe of deep chestnut commences about the 
end of the sternum, and is continued to the inguinal region. The 
tail is slender, and the hairs of this part are very rigid. 

" To our second species we propose to give the name oi Cei-coleptes 
brachyotus. 

" The fur is full, soft, and moderately long ; of a universally glossy 
yellowish grey clouded with brown, especially over the nose, on the 
top of the head, and down the back; and indeed little less so on the 
sides of the body and outer surface of the limbs. The abdomen, the 
insides of the limbs, and the throat are dusky straw colour. The ears 
are broad, short, and rounded ; covered, but somewhat sparingly, on 



83 

the outside with fur of the same colour as that of the body : their 
length and breadth are equal, namely, 1 inch. 

" The tail is moderately thick, being covered with fur of the same 
character as that of the body." 

Sp. 1. Cercoleftes megalotus. Cercolept. Iceti rufus, strigd 
suturatiore, per totam longitudinem capitis, dorsi medii, caudmque 
supra excurrente ; lateribus pallidioribiis ; abdomine guldque rufis, 
strigd castaned abdominali ; auricvlis longis, angustis, rotundatis 
subpendentibus et exterm pilis pallid efi avis, indutis caudd gracili ; 
vellere denso brevi, atque rigido. 

Sp. 2. Cercoleftes brachyotus. Cercol. vellere denso, molli, 
et longiusculo , griseo flavescenti, at brunneo, undato, hoc colore in 
capite, summoque dorso, saturatiore : abdomine et giild stramineis 
auriculis latis, mediocribus, et erectis, pilis rarioribus fuscis ex- 
terne indutis. 



84 



September 27, 1836. 
Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair, 

A communication from Edward Fuller, Esq., of Carleton Hall, 
near Saxmundham, was read, which stated that his gamekeeper had 
succeeded last year in rearing two birds from a barn-door Hen, hav- 
ing a cross from the Pheasant, and a Pheasant cock ; that the birds 
partook equally of the two species in their habits, manners, and ap- 
pearance ; and concluded by presenting them to the Society. 

The gamekeeper of Edward Fuller, Esq., in a shoi't note which 
accompanied the birds, stated that he had bred them, and they were 
three-quarter-bred Pheasants. 

The living birds were exhibited at the Meeting, as was also a 
living hybrid, between the Pheasant and common Fowl, which was 
one of several that had been some years in the Menagerie of the 
Society. 

Several specimens of hybrids, from the preserved collection in the 
Museum of the Society, were placed on the table for exhibition and 
comparison. These had been bred between the Pheasant and common 
Fowl, the common Pheasant and the silver Pheasant, and the common 
Pheasant with the gold Pheasant. 

The specimens of the three-quarter-bred Pheasants were consider- 
ed interesting, the opinion of the older physiologists having been 
that animals bred between parents of two cUstinct species were un- 
productive. 

Mr. Yarrell stated, that although generally such an opinion pre- 
vailed there were still exceptions. The Proceedings of the Society 
for 1831 exhibited one already recorded at page 158. This com- 
munication was received from the Honourable Twiselton Fiennes, 
who having succeeded in rearing a brood between the common Duck 
and the Pintail, found in the following season these hybrids were 
productive. Other instances are also on record which were adverted 
to. Mr. Yarrell stated, that he had had opportunities of examining 
the bodies of hybrids, both of Gallinaceous Birds and Ducks, and 
found that the sexual organs of the males •were of large size, those 
of the females deficient in size, and not without some apj^earance of 
imperfection. The crosses produced by the breeders of Canaries 
were mentioned, and the objects of obtaining them explained. Mr. 
Yarrell expressed his belief that the attempt to breed from a hybrid 
was most likely to be successful when a male hybrid was put to a 
female of a true species. 

Mr. Vigors said this was the first instance that had come to his 
knowledge of a female hybrid being productive, and he had hitherto 



85 

considered that they were not so : he expressed his desire to see the 
female hybrid that had produced the three-quarter Pheasants then 
in the room, and hoped that the opportunities which the Menagerie 
of the Society afforded of obtaining additional evidence on this in- 
teresting subject would not be lost sight of. 

The Chairman stated, that it was the opinion of John Hunter 
that hybrids were not productive except in cases where the gene- 
rative organs were in a state of perfection, which might be regarded 
as unnatural in hybrids, as in the rare cases recorded of fertile 
Mules, between the Horse and Ass. Constant fertility in the hy- 
brid ])roved, in the opinion of Hunter, that the parents were varie- 
ties of the same species, not distinct species. But the Chairman 
stated, that the experiments recorded by Hunter in the ' Animal 
CEconomy ' relative to the fecundity of the hybrids from the Do^ 
and Wolf and Dog and Jackal were incomplete, from the cir- 
cumstances of the hybrids having always bred from a perfect 
species and not having propagated the intermediate variety inter 
se. He trusted that in a short time this test would be applied in 
experiments now in progress at the Society's Menagerie, and thus 
an additional element be gained towards the solution of this inter- 
esting question. 

A small collection of Bi7-ds from Swan River, presented to the 
Society by Lieut. Breton and Capt. Brete, were on the table. Mr. 
Gould, at the request of the Chairman, observed upon the collection 
generally, and selected two species which he considered as unde- 
scribed, a Gallinule and a species of Duck, the latter strictly refer- 
rible to the genus Oxyura of L. Bonaparte, Prince of Musignano, 
(genus Undina of Gould). Mr. Gould named the Gallinule, Gallinula 
ventralts, and the Duck, Oxyura Australis, this being the only in- 
stance he had seen of this limited group from Australia. Of this spe- 
cies the collection contained both male and female, the latter of 
which, in the general distribution of its markings and colouring, 
bore so close a resemblance to the Hydrohates of Temminck that 
the bill alone presented the obvious distinction. 

Mr. Gould characterized the Gallinula as follows : 

Gallinula ventralis. Gall, guld pectore et infei'ioribus corporis 
partibus fusco-cinereis , lateribus albo guttatis, remigihis caudce 
crissoque nigris ; toto corpore superni olivaceo-brunneo ; alis cas- 
taneo tinctis ; mundibuld superiore olivaced ; inferiore ad basin 
rubra, ad apicem olivaced ; pedibus olivaceis. 

Long. tot. 15 a 17 unc; rostri, \\; alee, 9 ; caudce, Z^\ tarsi, 1\. 

Hab. in Australia apud flumen Cygnorum. 

Oxyura Australis. Mas. Oxy. capite toto et colloque nigris ; 
pectore, dorsolateribusque nitide castaneis; remigibus tectricibusque 
caudee nigrescentibus, vropygio nigricante brunneo inornato ; ub- 
domine crissoque brunneo cinereis brunneo transversaliter obscuri 
striatis, rostro pedibusqne plumbeis. 



86 

Foein. Differt toto corpore nigricante, obscuris lineis guttisque casta- 

neis notato ; partibiis iriferioribus corjjoris pallidioribus. 
Long. tot. 15 line; rostri, 2; alee, 6; cauda, 3; tarsi, 1^. 
Hab. Australia. 

Hsec species typum generis constat, alls brevibus atque concavis 
rectricibus caudze rigidis plumisque corporis nitidis. 



87 



October 11. 183G. 
Joseph Cox Cox, Esq., in the Chair. 

A series of Mammalia selected from the collection of the Society 
was exhibited. Mr. Gray made some remarks upon them illustra- 
tive of the value which he conceived was to be placed on the cha- 
racters used by M. Cuvier to separate the plantigrade from the 
digitigrade Carnivora. and he concluded by stating that he did not re- 
gard the nakedness of the sole as a good character to separate the 
genera into larger or smaller groups, though from its permanence in 
all ages and the state of the species, it furnished excellent characters 
to distinguish species, to separate them into sections, and often to 
characterize the genera of carnivorous animals ; and in proof of the 
latter, he referred to the excellent character which it furnished to 
distinguish the sjiecies of the genera. Herpestes, Mephites, andLwira. 
He further observed, that in many instances the extent of the naked- 
ness of the soles appears to depend upon the temperature of the coun- 
try that the animal inhabited, and mentioned that several of the 
animals living in countries covered with snow, which apply the 
whole of the soles of their feet to the ground, have this part entirely 
covered with hair, as the Wolverine, the Panda, the Seals, and the 
Polar Bear ; but that this was not universally the case, for the Ben- 
turing, which inhabited the same country as the Panda, has the 
soles bald and papillary. He further observed, that the nakedness 
of the soles did not appear to be permanent even in the specimens 
of the same species in the Squirrel and other Glirine animals ; for 
he had observed that the specimens of the grey Squirrels, in the 
Northern part of the United States, had this part covered with hair, 
whilst those of the Southern parts, had the soles entirely bald ; and 
lie also observed, that the various species of the Spermophile differed 
greatly amongst themselves in the extent of the nakedness of this 
part. 

Mr. Gray then proceeded to make some remarks on the alteration 
in the situation of the teeth, and on the change which takes place 
in the form of the carnivorous tooth, in the milk and permanent 
teeth of the Carnivora ; and stated, that the milk carnivorous tooth 
of the Cat, Dog, Vison, Skunk, Viverra, and indeed of all the genera 
which he had been able to examine, had a small central internal 
lobe, whilst the same tooth in the permanent set always had a large 
anterior lobe; he also stated, that he had observed that the tuber- 
cular grinders of the Mustelce often vary considerably in size in the 
various specimens of the same species, showing that implicit re- 
liance cannot be placed in the size of these teeth as a specific cha- 

No. XLVl. — Procekuings of the Zoological Society. 



88 

racter, which several persons have been inclined to do, as it is well 
known that the size of such teeth does not depend upon the age of 
the animal, as they never alter their size after they are once com- 
pletely developed. Mr. Gray then proceeded to point out the cha- 
racters by which the new species exhibited were distinguished : two 
were said to have formed part of the collection of the late Sir Stam- 
ford Raffles, and were therefore supposed to have come from Sumatra; 
one of them was a new species of Paradoxurus, called P. leucomy- 
stax from its strong white whiskers, and the other Mr. Gray regard- 
ed as the type of a new genus whicli he called Cynogale, which ap- 
peared to be intermediate between Paradoxurus and Ictides, by dif- 
fering from both in the length of the face, the compressed form of 
the false canines, and the small size and triangular form of the car- 
nivorous grinder. Mr. Gray pi'oposed to call it Cynogale Bennettii, 
after his late friend, who, he believed, intended to have described 
this animal if he had lived. Then followed the description of two 
Foxes, (C. Magellanicus and C. griseus), which formed part of the 
collection made by Capt. P. P. King, during his survey of the coast 
of South America, and a Squirrel (Sciurus Douglasii), and three 
Hares, (Lepus longicaudatus, L. CaJifornica, and L. Douglasii), dis- 
covered by the late Mr. Douglas in North America. Then the de- 
scription of three new species of flying Squirrels from various parts 
of continental India, viz. Pteromys Melanotis, P. albiventer, and P, 
Leachii; the latter, presented by Mr. Mellish to the Society, is pecu- 
liar for being coloured exactly like the American Sciuroptera, but is 
at once distinguished from them by the length and cylindrical form 
of its tail ; and an Herpestes from the Indian Islands, like the black 
Herpestes of the Cape, but differing from it in colour and in the 
shortness of the tail, therefore called H. brachyurus. Mr. Gray then 
proceeded to point out the character, taken from the form of the 
soles of the hind feet, by which the Skunks could be divided into 
three sections or subgenera, and showed the character in the four 
species in the collection of the Society, and referred to some other 
species belonging to these sections which were in the collection of 
the British Museum, where also he stated other specimens of several 
of the species, as the Dog, flying Squirrel, and Herpestes, now de- 
scribed, were to be found. 

Mr. Gould exhibited several specimens and drawings of Birds al- 
lied to the well-known Wren of Europe ; and, at the request of the 
Chairman, proceeded to comment upon, and characterize the unde- 
scribed species as follows : 

Troglodytes Magellanicus. Trog. corpore infrii griseo-fulvo, 
vinaceo tincto ; crissorufo, suprct. brunneo; dorso scapulisque striis 
nigrescentibus obscuri ornatis ; alls cauddque rufis, nigra striatis; 
mandibuld superiore nigrd, inferiore, nee non pedibus , pallide brun- 
neis. 

Long, tot., 4^ unc. ; rostri, ^ ; ala, 2 ; caudce, 2 ; tarsi, ^. 



Hub. in Fretu Magellanico. 

DifFert h specie Trog. JEquinoctialis, Swains., magnitudine majore 
corporis ; rostro minore. 

Troglodytes leucoqastra. Trog. corporis parte superiors re- 
migibiisque cauda: brunneo-rufescentibus olivaceo tinctis ; caudce 
et reniigibus secundariis lineis hrunneis transversaliter striatis ; 
strigd superciliosd, gutture, pectore, abdomineque albis ; lateribus, 
femoribus, crissoque pallidi-brunneis ; mandibuld superiors fused, 
inferiore sub-albidd ; pedibus brunneis. 

Long, tot., 2| unc; rostri, |; alae, 2; cauda, 1^; tarsi, ^. 

Hah. in Mexico, in loco Taumalipus dicto. 

Thryothorus guttatus. Thry. capite supra brunneo-rubro ; strigd 
superciliosd ulbd lineis quam minimis nigris interruptd ; dorso 
hrunneo, plumis longitudinaliter albo striatis ; alis albo et brunneo 
alternative striatis ; remigibus caudce duahus intermediis brunneo- 
nigra guttafis, duabus propinquis nigrescentibus ; marginibus ex- 
ternis guttis pallide brunneis adspersis rectricibus duabus, externis 
albo atque brunneo striatis ; harum externd ad apicem albo notatd; 
guld et pectore griseo-albis maculis nigris guttatis ; abdomine la- 
teribusque albis guttis nigris parvis adspersis ; pedibus brunneis ; 
mandibuld superiors gricescente, inferiore fusco. 

Long, tot., 6f unc; rostri, 1 ; alee, 3; cauda, 3; tarsi, 1. 

Hab. Mexico. 

Mr. Gould also proposed a new genus in the group of Wrens, 
under the name of Scytalopus, and which he characterized as fol- 
lows : 

Genus Scytalopus. 

Rostrum capite brevius, compressum, obtusum leviter recurvum. 

Nares basales, membrana tectse. 

Alts concavse, breves, rotundatse, remige prima abbreviata, tertijl, 
quarta, quinta et sextS. sequalibus. 

Cauda brevis, rotundata, (pennis externis brevissimis,) lax&. 

Tarsi elongati, atque robusti, antrorsum scutellis tecti ; posterius 
fasciis angustis cincti, squamis serpentum abdominalibus, baud dis- 
sirailibus ; halluce elongato et robusto ; ungue elongate ; digitum 
anteriorum, medio elongato et gracili. 

Scytalopus Fuscus. Scy. corpore toto fuliginoso-nigro ; capitis 
plumis nonnunquam argentato-griseis ; rostro nigro ; pedibus hrun- 
neis. 

Long, tot., 2f unc; rostri, ^; ala, 1^; caudce, \\; tarsi, J. 

Hab. in Fretu Magellanico, Chili, &c. 

Hoc genus ad illud in quo Troglodytes verse amplectuntur maxi- 
raam afhnitatem demonstrat. 



90 

ScYTALOPUs ALBOGULAHis. Sci/. copitc coeruho-Tiigro ; corpore su- 
periore ferrugineo-brunneo, lined transversali tiigrd ; caudd pal- 
lide rufo-brunned ; guld, pectore, abdomineque intermedio albis, 
lateribus et crisso pallida ferrugineis lined transversali nigra ; 
mandibuld superiore nigrd brunned ; pedibus brunneis. 

Long. tot.,3Junc.; rostri, f ; ala, l\; caudce, \\\ tarsi, f. 

Hub. in Brasilia. 



91 



October 25, 1836. 
Dr. Bostock in the Chair. 

Two skulls of the Orang-Utan of Borneo, and a skin, including 
the cranium, of an immature Orang-Utan of Sumatra, were exhibited. 
They were transmitted to England by Dr, W. Montgomerie of Sin- 
gapore, with a statement that the young Sumatran Orang had died 
in that gentleman's possession soon after having acquired additional 
grinders. 

Mr. Owen availed himself of the occasion to make the following 
observations on each of the above specimens. 

He stated that the skin of the young Sumatran Orang agreed in 
the rufous colour, texture, disposition, and direction of the hair, with 
the adult female Sumatran Orang, presented to the Zoological So- 
ciety by Sir Stamford Raffles ; like that specimen also, it had no 
nail on the hallvuc or thumb of the hinder hands. The posterior 
molares on each side of each jaw correspond to the first permanent 
molares of the adult ; the rest of the teeth consisted of the 8 deci- 
duous bicuspides, the 4 small deciduous canini, and the 8 decidu- 
ous incisores. This state of the dentition was similar to that of the 
human child at the 7th year ; but it would be unsafe to infer from 
this circumstance that the age of the Orang corresponded : it being 
more probable, from the characteristic duration of the immature 
state in the human species, that the shedding of the teeth takes 
place at a later period than in the Orang. 

Of the two crania of the Bornean Orangs, one differed materially 
from the other in size and in the development of the cranial ridges. 
The larger specimen before the Society, closely resembled the cra- 
nium of the Bornean Pongo or adult Orang in the Museum of the 
College of Surgeons, and differed, in precisely the same respects as 
that specimen, from the cranium of the Pongo (supposed to be Su- 
matran) in the possession of Mr. Cross, described and figured in the 
1st volume of the Society's Transactions, (p. 380. PI. 53), which 
induced Mr. Owen to entertain more strongly his original suspicion, 
.that that cranium belonged to an Orang specifically distinct from the 
great Bornean species (Simia Wurmbii, Fischer). With respect to 
the differences alluded to, he stated that the cranium of the great 
Bornean Orang was characterized by the more oblique plane of the 
orbits, and consequently the straightness of the contour of the skull 
between the forehead or glabella and the incisor teeth .: the external 
boundaries of the orbit were broad and had a rough irregular surface, 
probably in consequence of the development of the callous protube- 
rances which characterize the aides of the face in the adult males of 
this species. The symphysis of the lower jaw was also proportion- 
ally deeper than in the (supposed) Sumatran Pongo. The cranium 



92 

of that animal in the possession of Mr. Cross, Mr. Owen regarded 
as being that of a male individual from its size and from the deve- 
lopment of the cranial ridges. 

The sexual pecuUarities obser\'able in the cranium of both the 
Bomean and Sumatran Pongos are well marked, and are exemplified, 
first in a difference of relative size, that of the female being about 
^th smaller ; secondl}^ in a much smaller development of the cranial 
ridges ; and thirdly, in the symphysis menti being of less depth, the 
cranium of the female approaching in these respects, according to 
the usual law of sexual development, towards the characters of the 
immature animal. The smaller of the crania of the two Bomean 
Orangs, Mr. Owen regarded as indicative of a species of Simia, Erxl., 
equally distinct from the great Pongo of Borneo (Simia JVurmbii, 
Fischer, Synopsis Mammalium, p. 32, No. 43), and from the Orang 
of Sumatra (Simia Abelii, Fischer, ibid. p. 10, No. 2*); and whilst 
regretting that his conclusion as to the specific distinction of the 
smaller Oraiig, (which, aeter is paribus, must be at least one third less 
than either of the two preceding Orangs) necessarily reposed on a 
comparison of the cranium alone, he at the same time observed that, 
as the cranium in question was in every respect entire, and with 
the series of teeth complete, it served to establish that deduction on 
the sound basis of dental and osteological characters. 

Mr. Owen therefore proposed to designate the lesser Orang of 
Borneo, Simia Morio, and proceeded to describe the cranium as fol- 
lows : 

"The size and form of the cranium of the Simla Morio at first 
suggests the idea of its being an intermediate stage of growth be- 
tween the young and adult Simia Satyrus, or Pongo ; but this is dis- 
proved by comparison of the teeth of S. Morio, with the permanent 
teeth in the adult Pongo, and with the deciduous ones in the 
young Simia Satyrus, as well as with the germs of the permanent 
teeth concealed in the jaws of the latter. For while the teeth of 
S. Morio are much larger than the deciduous teeth of the young 
S. Satyrus, they have different relative sizes one to another from those 
■which are observed in the permanent teeth of the full-grown: the 
molares and bicuspides of the S. Morio being smaller, the canini much 
smaller, while the upper incisores have nearly, and the lower in- 
cisores fully, the same dimensions as those of the great Pongo. 

" The teeth in the jaws of a quadrumanous cranium may be known 
to belong to the permanent series, by the absence of the/orfl/«m«, 
which, in an immature cranium, are situated behind the deciduous 
teeth, and which lead to the cavities containing the crowns of the 
permanent teeth. This character is very conspicuous on comparing 
the cranium of Simia Morio with that of a young Simia Satyrus, in 
which the deciduous series are present, together with the first per- 
manent molares. The deciduous teeth in the young Orang, besides 
their smaller size, are more or less protruded from their sockets, and 
thrust apart from one another by the vis a tergo of their huge suc- 
cessors, while the teeth of S. Morio are lodged firmly in the jaws ; 
and, with the exception of the characteristic interval between the 



93 

canines and incisors, are compactly arranged in close contiguity witli 
each other. 

" I have re-examined witli much interest several crania of imma- 
ture Orangs, in order to ascertain if any of these might be the young 
of the species in question ; but they have all presented the crowns 
of the permanent molares of too large a size, — of a size which shows 
that the great Pongo, either of Wurmb or Abel, represents their adult 
state*. And these immature crawta also indicate the condition to 
which they are destined to attain by the size of the orbits, which 
exceeds that of the orbits of the S. Morio, the eye having, like the 
brain, already in the young Poncjos acquired its full size. 

" That the cranimn of the Simia Morio here described, belonged 
to an adult is proved by the small interval between the temporal 
ridges at the crown of the skull, corresponding to the extensive sur- 
face of origin of the crotophyte muscles ; and by the obliteration of 
the intermaxillary sutures : that it belonged also to an aged indivi- 
dual is highly probable from the extent to which the teeth are worn 
down, and from the obliteration, notwitlistanding the absence of in- 
terparietal and lambdoidal crests, of the sagittal and lambdoidal su- 
tures. 

" The cerebral portion of the skull of Simia Morio equals in size 
that of the Pongo, and indicates the possession of a brain at least as 
fully developed as in that species, while the maxillary portion is pro- 
portionally smaller ; so that, as the cranium rises above the orbits, 
and is, like that of the Pongo, more convex on the coronal aspect 
than in the Chimpanzee, and wants the prominent supraciliary ridge 
which characterizes the African Orang, it presents in the Simia Morio 
altogether a more anthropoid character. 

" There are, however, the rudiments of the ridges which so re- 
markably characterize the cranium of the mature Pongo. Those 
which commence at the external angle of the frontal bone pass back- 
wards, upwards, and slightly converge, but do not meet ; they gra- 
dually diminish in breadth, and, after passing the coronal suture, 
subside to the level of the skull ; they are then only traceable by a 
rough line, which leading parallel to the sagittal suture, and gra- 
dually bending outwards, rises again to be continued into the 1am- 

* The permanent teeth in the Bornean and Sumatran Pongoa so closely 
covrespond in size and shape that I am unable to refer the crawia of the 
immature Orangs which I have hitherto examined to either species exclu- 
sively from comparison of the crowns of the concealed permanent teeth; 
in speaking of the immature specimens of the great /'0H//0, I therefore use 
the term Simia Satyrus; in comparing the Simia Morio with the adult, 
Pongo, I would be understood as always referring to the Bornean species, 
with check-callosities, or the Simia JFurmbii of Fischer. If the specific dif- 
ferences of Simia IFunnbii and Simia Ahelii be admitted, the term Simia 
Satyrus must merge into a synonym, as having been applied indiscriminate- 
ly to the young of both these large Orangs. In each case, the generic term 
Simia is applied in the restricted sense in which it is used by Erxlcben in 
his ' Systema Regni Animalis,' 8vo, 1777, and with which the term Pilhecus, 
tubstituted by Geoffrey for tlie genus of Orangs, is synonymous. 



94 

bdoidal ridges ; thus circumscribing the origins of the temporal mus- 
cles. The lambdoidal and mastoid ridges are broader and more de- 
veloped than in the Chimpanzpe, but inferior in both respects to 
those of the Pongo. The inial region of the occiput is almost 
smooth, and is convex, without the mesial ridge, and strong muscu- 
lar impressions observable in the Pongo, where a preponderating 
weight in front calls for the insertion of powerful muscles behind 
to counterbalance it. 

The temporal bones join the frontal in Simia Mario as in the Tro- 
glodytes niger; but this structure occasionally is present on one or 
both sides of the skull in Simia Satyrvs. 

The addilamentum suturte lambdoidalis is present on both sides 
in the S. Morio, and the beginning of the lambdoidal suture may be 
faintly traced, but the remainder is obliterated. 

Directing our attention to the base of the skull of S. Morio we 
observe the occipital /orawc/? to be less posteriorly situated than in 
the Pongo, but more so than in the Chimpanzee. The plane of the 
foramen is also less oblique than in the Pongo. The occipital condyles 
are as far ajjart anteriorly as in the Chimpanzee. The anterior con- 
dyloid ybrami'na are double on each side as in the Pongo: the carotid 
and jugular/orffm?«« open within the same depression; they are rela- 
tively further apart in the Chimpanzee : the petrous portion of the 
temporal bone, as in the Pongo, is relatively smaller than in the Chim- 
panzee, and the articular cavity, or surface for the lower jaw, forms 
a larger proportion of the base of the skull. 

The other characters of the basis cranii correspond with those 
of the Pongo ; and the smaller size of the meatus uvditorius externus 
is probably associated in both species with a smaller auricle, as com- 
pared with the Chimpanzee. 

On the bony palate the relative position of \\\e foramen incisivvm 
corresjjonds with the development of the incisive teeth, showing the in- 
termaxillary bones to be of larger size in the S. Morio than in the Chim- 
panzee : the situation of the sutures joining these bones to the max- 
illaries is indicated by vascular grooves, but otherwise obliterated ; 
while in the cranium of a young Pongo of nearly the same size as 
that of the Si7nia Morio, the intermaxillary sutures still remain, cor- 
responding to the non-development of the permanent laniarics. It 
will be interesting to determine at what period these sutures are ob- 
literated in the more anthropoid Simia Morio. 

The OS nasi is a single narrow long triangular bone, slightly di- 
lated at its upper end or apex, with the basal margin entire, pre- 
senting no indications of original separation into two parts, as has 
been observed in skulls of the Chimpanzee. 

In the contraction of the interorbital space, and the general 
form of the orbit and its boundaries, the Simia Morio resembles the 
Simia Satgriis, but the orbital cavitj', as before obsen^ed, is smaller. 
In the plane of the orbit and straight contour of the upper jaw, the 
Simiti Morio resembles the Bornean species oi Pongo or Simia Wurmbii, 
rather than the Simia Abclii or Sumatran Pongo. 

The orbital process of the os make is perforated in the S. Morio 



-95 

as in the Pongo, by several large foramina. There is one princii)al 
and two ^'ery small infraorbital /o/-om2n« on either side ; the upper 
maxillary bones are relatively smaller, as compared M'ith the other 
bones of the face, and especiallythe intermaxiUaries, than in the Pongo; 
a structure which coincides with the smaller proportional develop- 
ment of the canine teeth. The nasal aperture has the same form as 
in the adult Simla Wurmhii, being more elongated than in the imma- 
ture Orang. 

The main and characteristic difference then between the Simla 
Mario and the Pongo, whether of Borneo or Sumatra, obtains in 
the size of the laniary or canine teeth, to the smaller development of 
which in the S. Morio, almost all the other differences in the cranium 
are subordinate or consequent. Tlie laniary teeth, it may be ob- 
ser\'ed, have little relation to the kind of food habitual to the Orangs; 
had they been so related they would have been accompanied with a 
structure of the glenoid cavity fitting them, as in the true Carnivora, to 
retain a living prey in their gripe, till its life was extuiguished or resist- 
ance effectually quelled. But the flattened surfaces on which the con- 
dyles of the lower jaw rotate are in subserviency to the flattened tu- 
berculate molars, showing the mastication of vegetable substances to 
be the habitual business of the jaws, and the application of the lani- 
aries to be occasional, and probably defensive in most cases. We 
perceive the utihty of formidable canine teeth to the Orangs, whose 
stature makes them conspicuous and of easy detection to a carnivo- 
rous enemy; such weapons, in connexion with the general muscular 
strength of the Pong as, enable them to otter a successful defence 
against the Leopard, and may render them formidable opponents even 
to the Tiger; but in the smaller species, which we have been describing, 
to which concealment would be easier, the canines are of relatively 
smaller size, and those of the lower jaw are so placed as to be worn 
down by the lateral incisors of the upper jaw ; they were reduced in 
the specimen described, to the level of the other teeth ; and the points 
of the upper canines were also much worn. The size, forms, and 
proportions of the teeth which relate more immediately to the food 
of the Orangs, viz. the molars and incisors, show indisputably that 
the Simla Mario derives its sustenance from the same kind of food as 
the larger Orangs. The singular thickness or antero-posterior dia- 
meter of the incisors, which are worn dowTi to a flattened surface, 
like molar teeth, show that they are put to rough work ; and it is 
])robable that their common use is to tear and scrape away the tough 
fibrous outer covering of the cocoa-nut, and, perhaps, to gnaw through 
the denser shell. 

With respect to minor differences not noticed in the descrliitiou. 
these may be deduced from the subjoined table of comparative ad- 
measurements. 



96 



Table of Admeasurements. 



Length of the skull from the vertex to the base 1 

of the occipital condyle J 

Length of the skull from the posterior plane of 1 

the occqmt to the margin of the incisors .... J 
Length of the skull from the posterior plane of 1 

the occiput to the fronto-nasal suture j 

Length of the skull from the fronto-nasal suture 1 

to the margin of the incisors J 

Greatest lateral diameter of the skull (at the post- 1 

auditory ridges) j 

Smallest lateral diameter of the skull (behind the \ 

orbits) J 

Distance between temporal ridges 

Diameter of -the skull at the zygomata 

Length of the zygomatic /bssa 

Diameter of skull taken between the outsides of T 

the orbits j 

Interorbital space 

Transverse diameter of orbital cavity 

Vertical diameter of orbital cavity 

Vertical diameter of nasal aperture 

Transverse diameter of nasal aperture 

Interspace between infraorbital ybraniiwa 

Distance between the inferior margin of the nasal "1 

bone and the inferior margin of the intermaxil- > 

lary bone J 

From the anterior margin of the occipitaiybrawjen T 

to the posterior margin of the bony palate. ... J 
Length of the bony palate along the mesial suture. 
From the anterior margin of the intermaxillary T 

bones to the anterior palatal _/brami«a j 

Breadth of the crown of the first incisor, upper jaw. 
Breadth of the crown of the second incisor, upper 1 

jaw J 

Breadth of the four incisors, in situ, upper jaw .... 
Longitudinal extent of grinding surface of the T 

molares, bicuspides included, of one side, upper > 

jaw J 

Length of the enamelled crown of the canine 1 

tooth, upper jaw. J 

Breadth of ditto „ 

Length of the lower jaw from the condyle to the 1 

anterior surface of the sockets of the incisors, j 

Length of the ramus of the lower jaw 

Greatest breadth of ditto 

Interspace between the mental /oramtna 



Shnia 
Morio^ 
adult. 


Simia 

adult 
male. 


inch. lin. 

3 7 


inch. 
4 


liu. 

6 


7 10 


10 


6 


4 4 


5 


3 


■1 l-i 


5 


7 


4 8 


5 


4 


2 4 


2 


9 


7 








5 1 


6 


9 


1 9 


2 


6 


3 6 


4 


6 


4 





7 


I 3 


1 


6 


1 6 


1 


7 


1 1 


1 


6 


9 


1 





1 7 


2 





2 5 


3 


3 


2 3 


2 


10 


3 H 


4 





10 


1 


3 


6 





7 


^ 





4 


1 6 


1 


9 


2 2 


2 


5 


e! 


1 





5 





9 


5 7 


7 


4 


3 4 


4 


7i 


2 


3 


1 


1 8 


2 


1 



97 

Mr. H. E. Strickland read the following list of Birds noticed or ob- 
tained by him in Asia Minor, in the winter of 1835 and spring of 1836. 
He stated that the winter of last year was one of unusual severity 
in all parts of Europe. At Smyrna, where he resided from Novem- 
ber to February, the weather, which had been mild in the early 
part of December, underwent a sudden change about Christmas- 
day. A north wind and violent storms of snow brought vast flocks 
of northern Birds to take shelter in Smyrna Bay. A frost of more 
than three weeks followed, a circumstance almost without parallel 
at Smyrna, which is situated close to the sea and in the low latitude 
of 38i°. This statement will explain the occurrence in the follow- 
ing list, of many Birds whose usual abode is in high northern lati- 
tudes. 

In the month of February he visited Constantinople, and returned 
overland to Smyrna, which he reached at the end of April. A great 
change had now taken place in the ornithology of that neighbour- 
hood. The spring was now at its height, and numerous summer 
birds had arrived, of a more exotic race than those which had been 
observed during the winter. Mr. Strickland was now, however, com- 
pelled to return to Europe ; but the few days which passed before 
he left Smyrna, served to give him a taste of the rich ornitholo- 
gical harvest which might be reaped by a summer's residence in Asia 
Minor. 

Of those species in the following list which have an asterisk at- 
tached, specimens had been obtained by Mr. Stricldand and were 
exhibited. 

" Vultur, 111. "1 
Aquila, Briss. J 
Two or three species of each of these families frequent the neigh- 
bourhood of Smyrna, but all my endeavours to procure specimens of 
these wary birds were unavailing. 

*1. Fulco ^salon, Linn. Smyrna; rare. 
*2. Falco Tinnunculus, Linn. SmjTiia; rare. 
*3. Falco tinnunculoides , Temm. Very abundant in Asia Minor 
during the spring. It frequents the Turkish villages, and builds in 
the roofs of the houses. Its mode of hovering is similar to that of the 
common Kestrel, but it is more gregarious in its habits than that bird. 
*4. Accipiter Fringillaria, Ray. Smyrna. 
*5. Buteo vulgaris, Beciist. Smyrna. 
*6. Circtis cyaneus, Flem. Smyrna. 
*7. Circus rufus, Briss. Smyrna. 

8. Otus bruckyotus, Cuv. Smyrna. 
*9. Ulula Stredula, Selby. Smyrna. 
*10. Bubo maximus, Sibb. Smyrna. 

*11. Noctua nudipes, Nilss. Very common in the Levant. 
*12. Lanius minor, Linn. Smyrna, in April. 
*13. Lanius rufus, Uriis. Smyrna, in April. 
*14. Lanius Collurio, Linn. Smyrna, in April. 

15. Turdus Merula, Linn. Smyrna. 

16. Turdus solitarius,\Jmn . Frequents the rocks and hills near 
Smyrna. 



98 

17. Turdus visclvorus, Linn. Sm)'rna, during the winter. 

18. Turdus pilaris, hinn. Smyrna, during the winter. 

19. Turdus nwsicus, Linn. Smyrna, during the winter. 

20. Turdus iliacus, Linn. Smyrna, during the winter. 

21. Cinclus aquuticus, Bechst. Rivulets near Smyrna. I cite 
this bird with some doubt, not having been able to obtain a specimen. 
It is possible that the Smyrna Cinclus may be the C. Pallasii, Temm., 
though I am inchned to refer it to the former species. 

*22. Oriolus Galbula, Linn. Smyrna, April. 

*23. Saxicola Rubicola, Bechst. Winters at Smyrna. 

*24. Saxicola aurita, Temm. Arrives at Smyrna in April. Its 
habits are similar to those of our Wheatear, and from its shy and 
restless motions it is very difficult to procure. 

*25. Saxicola (Enanthe, Bechst. Smyrna, in April. 

26. Saxicola Rubetra, Bechst. Common at Smyrna during the 
winter. 

27. Phanicura suecica, Selby. I believe that I saw this bird near 
Smyrna in April. 

*28. Phanicura Tithys, Jard. and Selb. This bird is common on 
the bare rocky hills near Smyrna, where it remains during the 
winter. 

29. Philomela luscinia. Swains. First heard on the 5th of April at 
Hushak in the interior. 

30. Salicaria phragmitis, Selby. Seen at Smyrna in December. 

31. Curruca ci?ierea, Bechst. Smyrna, April. 

*32. Curruca tnelanocephala, Bechst. This delicate little bird, which 
is only found in the most southei'n parts of Europe, remains through 
the winter in the neighbourhood of Smyrna. It is a retired solitary 
bird, frequenting sheltered ravines thickly beset with various ever- 
green shrubs. 
*33. Sylvia rufa, Temm. Shot near Smyrna in November. 
*34. Sylvia brevirostris, mihi. Also killed in November near 
Smyrna. This species, which I beheve to be new, may be thus cha- 
racterized : 

Sylvia brevirostris. Sylv. corpore suprd, olivaceo hrunneo, sub- 
tus albido ; pedibus nigris. 

Plumage closely resembling that of S. Trochilus. Above brown 
with a tinge of olive. A pale yellow streak over the eye. ITiroat and 
breast pale fulvous with a slight tinge of yellow ; belly whitish. 
Inner wing-coverts of a pale yellow. Remiges: the 4th and 5th long- 
est and equal: the 2nd equal to the 8th. Beak dusky; legs black. 
Long. tot. poll. 4J ; rostri, \; caudte, 2^; al<e, 2|; tarsi, ^. 
Differs from S. rufa in its greater size, and from S. Trochilus in 
the shortness of the beak, and the dark colour of the legs. 
Habitat prope Smymam. Hyeme occisa. 
*35. Accentor modularis, Cuv. Killed near Smyrna in the winter, 
but is rare. 

*36. Regulus ignicapillus, Cuv. Frequents the olive groves near 
Smyrna. 

*37. Troglodytes ruropceus, Linn. Common near Smyrna. Un- 
dibtinguishablc from English si)ccimcns. 



99 

38. Motacilla alba, Linn. Smyrna. 

39. Motacilla boarula, Linn. Smyrna. 

*40. Anthus pratensis, Bechst. Common at Smyrna. 
*41. Anthus aqmticus, Bechst. Killed on the coast near Smyrna. 
42. Hirundo rustica, Linn. I believe that all the British species 
of Hirundinid<e frequent the Levant, but have only ascertained the 
above species. 

*43. Alauda arvensis, Linn. Immense flocks of this bird arrived 
from the northward at the commencement of the severe weather at 
Christmas. 
*44. Alauda cristafa, Linn. Very common. 
*45. Alauda arborea, hinn. Smyrna ; common. 
*46. Alauda calandra, Linn. Arrived during the cold weather. 
*47. Parus major, Linn. SmjTrna. 
*48. Parus caruleus, Linn. Smyrna. 
*49. Parus lugubris, Natt. Smyrna. 
*50. Emberiza miliaria, Linn. Common. 

*51. Emberiza Cia, Linn. Frequents the rocky hills near Smyrna. 
*52. Emberiza Cirlus, Linn. Haunts the vicinity of streams. It 
seems to replace the E. citrinella, which I never noticed in Asia 
Minor. 

*53. Emberiza palustris, Sav. The habits of this species of Reed 
Bunting exactly resemble those of E. Schceniclus. The beak is rather 
less gibbous than in the Dalmatian specimens. 

*54. Emberiza casia, Cretzsch. Killed at Smyrna in April. It is 
frequent in Greece and in the Ionian Islands. 
*55. Emberiza hortulana, Linn. Smyrna, April. 
*56. Emberiza cinerea, mihi. This new species is thus character- 
ized: 

Emberiza cinerea. Emb. capite viridi-flavescente ; corpore suprtt 
cinerascenti, subt^s albo. 

Male. Crown of the head greenish yellow, becoming cinereous at 
the nape. Back cinereo-fuscous with an obscure streak of brown in 
the middle of each feather. Rump cinereous; tail dark brovra ; the 
two lateral pairs of feathew white on the inner webs for near half 
their length towards the extremities. 

Wings dark brown, the coverts and quills margined with whitish, 
the scapulars with fulvous. Chin and throat yellow, becoming green- 
ish on the cheeks. 

Breast cinereous ; abdomen white, sides cinereous. 
Bill dusky; legs flesh-coloured. 

Long. tot. poll. 6; rostri, f ; ala, 3|; caudce, 2|; tarsi, |. 
The beak of this species most nearly resembles that of Emberiza 
Cia. 

Habitat in coUibus juxta Smyrnam. Mense Aprili occisa. 
57. Pyrgita domestica, Cuv. This is the common house Sparrow 
of the Levant. 

*58. Pyrgita hispaniolensis, Cuv. A single specimen was ob- 
tained in April at Smyrna. 
*59. Linaria cannabina, Swains. Common. 
60. Carduelis elegans, Steph. Common. 



10» 

*61. FringiUa Calebs, Linn. Very common in tlie Levant. 

62. FringiUa Montifringilla, Linn. Occurred during the winter. 
*63. FringiUa Serinus, Linn. Gregarious during the winter. As- 
sembles in large flocks, which chirp incessantly in a small low note. 

64. Coccothraustes Chloris, Flem. Common. 

65. Sturnus vulgaris, Linn. Smyrna. 
Q6. Corvus Corax, Linn. Smyrna. 

67. Corvus Cornix, Linn. Common near Smyrna. 

68. Corvus Monedula, Linn. Common near Smyrna. 

Obs. The common Rook was not noticed, and I do not believe that 
it exists in the country. 

69. Pica caudata, Ray. Common in the Levant. 

*70. Garrulus melanocephalus, Bonelli. This bird was first described 
by M. Gen^ in the Memoirs of the Academy of Turin, vol. xxxvii. 
p. 298, PI. L, from specimens in the Turin Museum, received from 
Lebanon. It is common in the vicinity of Smyrna, and its note and 
habits are identical with those of the European Jay, whose place it 
supplies. 

*7 1 . Siita syriaca, Ehrenb. Frequents the open hills near Smyrna, 
where it is seen climbing up the masses of rock, or perched on their 
summits. It never is seen on trees. The note is a loud clear 
warble. 

*72. Sitta europaa, Linn. Inhabits the groves of aged olive trees 
which aboimd in the bottoms of the valleys. The specimens are 
smaller than British ones, but not otherwise distinguishable. 
73. Upupa Epops, Linn. Seen at Hushak in April. 

*74. Alcedo ispida, Linn. Common. 

*75. Alcedo rudis, Linn. This bird may often be seen in the salt- 
water marshes west of Smyrna. It never seems to follow the rivers, 
but always remains near the coast. It sometimes hovers for several 
minutes, about 10 feet above the water, and then drops perpendicu- 
larly on to its prey. 

76. Picas martius, Linn. I saw a specimen of this bird in the 
possession of Mr. Zohrab at Broussa. It was shot in the pine forests 
of Mount Olympus. 

*77. Picus major, Linn. Common near Smyrna. 

*78. Cuculus canonis, Linn. Smyrna, in April. 

79. Phasianus colchicus, Linn. Common near Constantinople on 
both sides of the Bosphorus. It has probably migrated thither spon- 
taneously from Colchis, its native country. 

80. Francolinus vulgaris. Occurs in the marshes of the Hermus 
and the Cayster, whence it is sometimes brought to market at 
Smyrna. 

*81. Perdix saxatilis, Meyer. Abundant im the hills round Smyrna. 

82. Coturnix dactylisonans. Remains near Smjmaa during winter. 

83. Columha Palumbus, Linn. Smyrna. 

84. Columba JEnas, Linn. Smyrna. 

*85. Columba Turtur, Linn. Smyrna, in April. 

*86. Columba cambayensis. Lath. This bird inhabits the Turkish 
burial-grounds at Smyrna and Constantinople, which are dense forests 
of cypress trees. It is strictly protected by the Turks, and it was 



101 

with some difficulty that I obtained a specimen. It was, perhaps, 
originally introduced by man, but now seems completely natu- 
ralized. 

87. Olis tarda, Linn. Frequents the plains south of Smyrna. It 
is called icild Turkey by the European residents. 

*88. Otis tetrax, Linn. Abundant during the winter in the poultry 
shops at Smyrna. 

89. (Edicnemus crepitans, Temm. Said to occur in this part of 
Asia Minor. 

90. Vanellus cristatus, Meyer. Appeared in vast flocks at the 
commencement of the cold weather. 

91. Grus cinerea, Bechst, A flock seen in the plain of Sardisthe 
end of April. 

*92. Ardea Egretta, Linn. Frequents the sea marshes west of 
Smyrna. 

*93. Botaurus stellaris, Steph. Smyrna. 

*94. Ciconia alba, Bellon. Very abundant in Turkey during sum- 
mer. It swarms in every village, and is ])rotected with the same 
strictness by the Turks as by the Dutch. It is said to have quite 
deserted Greece, since the expulsion of its Mahometan protectors. 

95. Numenius arquatus, Cuv. Smyrna. 

96. Scolopax Rusticola, Linn. So abundant were Woodcocks at 
SmjTna during the severe weather, that many were killed in small 
gardens in the midst of the town. 

97. Scolopax Gallinago, Linn. "1 Abundant in the marshes near 

98. Scolopax Gallinula, Linn. J Smyrna. 

*99. Tringa variabilis, Meyer. Common on the coast. 

*100. Tringa Temminckii, heisl. Smyrna, in winter. 

*101. Totantts Glottis, Bechst. Smyrna, in winter; rare. 

102. Totanus Calidris, Bechst. Common in the marshes. 

103. Totanus ochropus, Temm. Seen on the coast. 
*104. Recurvirostra Avocetta, Linn. Smyrna; rare. 
*105. Rallus aquaticus, Linn. Smyrna. 

106. Crex pratensis, Bechst. Smyrna, in winter. 
*107. Crex porzana, Bechst. Smyrna, in winter. 

108. Gallinula Chloropus, Lath. Smyrna, in winter. 

109. Fulica atra, Linn. Smyrna in winter. 

*110. Glareola torquata, Meyer. A pair of these birds were brought 
to me at Smyrna in April. 

*111. Podiceps cristatus, Lath. The young of this bird is abundant 
in the harbour at Constantinople, where, in common with all other 
waterfowl, it is strictly protected. 

*H'2. Pvffinus Anglorum, Ray. Flocks of this bird are constantly 
seen flying up and down the Bosphorus. They are rarely seen to 
alight, and from their unceasing restlessness, the Franks of Pera 
have given them the name of dmes damn^es. I am not aware that 
this bird has before been noticed in the southern parts of Europe. 
*113. Larus ridibundus, Linn. 

*114. Larus argentatus, Brunn. These two species of Gull fre- 
quent the Golden Horn at Constantinople, where they are so tame 
that they may easily be struck with an oar. 



102 

115! Pelecanus Onocrotalus, Linn. Frequents the marshes near- 
Smyma, where it remains during tlie winter. 

*1 16. Phalacrocorax Carbo, Briss. Abounds in the harbour of Con- 
stantinople, and roosts on the roofs of the houses. 
*117. Phalacrocorax pygmceus, Briss. Shot near Smyrna in winter. 

118. Cygnus Olor, Linn. Visited Smyrna Bay in the winter. 

119. Clangula vu/garis, Leach. Smyrna, during the winter. ^ 

120. FuUgula ferina, Steph. Smyrna, during the winter. 

121. FuUgula cristata, Steph. Smyrna, during the winter. 
*122. Rhynchapsis clypeata, Shaw. Smyrna, during the winter. 

123. Tadorna Vulpanser, Flem. Smyrna, during the winter. 

124. Querquedula acuta, Selby. Smyrna, during the winter. 

125. Anas Boschas, Linn. Smyrna, during the winter. 

126. Mareca Penelope, Selby. Smyrna, during the winter. 

127. Tadorna Rutila, Steph. Frequent in the poultry shoi)s at 
Smyrna, but owing to the Turkish practice of cutting the throats of 
birds as eoon as shot, I was unable to obtain a perfect specimen. 

128. Querquedula Crecca, Steph. Smyrna, in the winter. 
*129. Mergus albellus, Linn. Smyrna, in the winter." 

Mr. Strickland also exhibited the skin of a variety of the common 
Fox, Canis Vulpes, Linn., which occurs near Smyrna: together with 
a specimen of the Lepus hybridus. Pall., from the South of Russia, 
purchased of a furrier at Rome. 

Also a specimen of an Argonauta, Linn., which was brought to him 
in Cephalonia with the animal alive in it. Mr. Strickland stated 
that he kept it for some hours alive, and when dead it fell out of 
the shell with its own weight ; proving that there is no muscular 
connexion between the animal and the shell. In this instance the 
shell did not contain any ova, 

Mr. Ogilby called the attention of the Society to two Antelopes 
at present living in the Gardens, which he regarded as the Koba and 
Kob of Buffon. He expressed his pleasure at having it in his power 
to identify two animals originally described imperfectly, and of which 
the zoological characters have been hitherto almost unknown ; ob- 
serving that the re-discovery of an old species was at all times more 
gratifying to him, and, he considered, more beneficial to the science 
of zoology, than the original description of twenty that were new ; 
because, whilst it equally added an authentic species to the substan- 
tive amount of our knowledge, it had the further merit of dispeUing 
the many doubts and surmizes which unavoidably obscured the sub- 
ject. Mr. Ogilby entered at some length into the identification of 
these two interesting species, referring to the scanty materials afforded 
by the original descriptions of Buffon and Daubenton, and pointing 
out the various other Ruminants vdth which subsequent naturalists 
had confounded them ; at the same time reserving his more detailed 
demonstration of this subject, and his descriptions of the animals 
themselves, for the monograph which he has been long preparing for 
the Transactions of the Society. Among other errors, he pointed 
out that the Koba of Pennant {A. Senegalensis) was the Caama ; 



103 

and that the Korrkjum of Denham and Clapperton's Travels, identi- 
fied with A. Senegalcnsis by Mr. Children and Colonel Smith, was a 
very distinct animal from the Koba, and even belonged to a different 
natural genus. It has horns in the female sex and lachrymal si- 
nuses, both of which characters are absent in the Koba : he there- 
fore proposed to distinguish the Bornou animal by the specific name 
t)i A. Korrigum. The same observation applies to the two species 
which Colonel H. Smith has described under the names oi A. Ade- 
nota and A. Forfex, and which he identified with the Kob and Gam- 
btan Antelope respectively ; both these animals had lachrymal sinuses, 
whereas, both Buifon and the more accurate Daubenton, expressly 
declare that the Kob is without this character. The animals in the 
Gardens, however, corresponded in all respects with the original de- 
scriptions; their comparative size, their colour, their habitat, their 
zoological characters, as far as they were reported, and, in the case 
of the Koba, even the name, were identical ; and it therefore gave 
him peculiar satisfaction to be able to congratulate the Society on 
the possession of two of the rarest and most interesting Antelopes 
ever brought together. He observed, in conclusion, that the female 
of the Kob had been observed by him six or eight months ago in 
the Surrey Zoological Gardens, but that he had only recognised its 
identity with Buffon's animal on the arrival of the fine male speci- 
men at present belonging to the Society. 

Mr. Ogilby afterwards exhibited the skin of a Fox from the Hima- 
layan mountains, which he has described in the Zoological Part of 
Mr. Royle's "Flora Himalaica," under the name of Canis Himalaicus . 
This animal, of which Mr. Ogilby stated that he had examined three 
skins, two belonging to the Zoological Society, and one procured by 
Mr. Royle at Mussooree, (the two former in their summer, the latter 
in its winter dress,) appears to be rare in Nepaul, since Mr. Hodg- 
son has never been able to procure a specimen, but contents himself 
with indicating its existence {vide Proceed. Zool. Soc. H. 97); it is 
not uncommon, however, in the Doon, in Kumaon, and the more 
western and elevated parts of the Mountains, where it is called the 
hill Fox by the Europeans, and greatly admired for the beauty of its 
form, and the brilliancy and variety of its colours. The whole length 
to the origin of the tail is 2 feet 6 inches ; that of the tail, 1 foot 6 
inches; that of the ears, 4 inches; and the height may be about 1 foot 
4 or 5 inches. The animal agrees with the common European and 
American Foxes, (C. Vulpes and C.fulvus,) in the black marks on 
the backs of the ears, and in front of the hind and fore legs. The 
coat consists of long close rich fur, as fine as that of any of the Ame- 
rican varieties, and of infinitely more brilliant and varied colours. It 
consists of two sorts of hair, an interior of a very fine cottony tex- 
ture, and aii external of a long silky nature, but perfectly pliant, and, 
like the fur of the Sable, lying almost equally smooth in any direc- 
tion. The inner fur is of a smoky blue or brown colour along the 
back, as is likewise the basal half of the outer silky hair, which, up to 
this point, is of the same soft cottony texture as the interior fur; it 
then assumes its harsher silky character, is marked with a broad 



104 

whitish yellow ring, and terminated by a long point of a deep bay 
colour. Hence, along the whole upper surface of the head, neck, 
and back, the uniform colour is unmixed deep and brilliant red. On 
the sides of the neck, on the throat, ribs and flanks, is pure white, 
changing to light smoky blue on the last-named parts. The outer 
hair of the hips and thighs is tipt with grey instead of red, which 
gives these parts a hoary appearance, and this colour predominates 
on all the upper parts of the Society's two specimens, in which the 
fur is moreover much shorter and coarser, and the coloiU'S less bril- 
liant and varied than in Mr. Royle's. The whole under surface of 
the body is of a smoky brown colour, without any intermixture of 
long silky hairs. The external colours of the body are, therefore, 
bright bay on the back, yellowish red on the sides of the bod)% 
white on the sides of the neck, hoary grey on the hijjs, and smoky 
brown on the throat, breast, and belly. The ears are pretty large 
and elliptical, their outer surface black; a stripe of the same colour 
runs down the front of the legs, both fore and hind; the soles of the 
feet are thickly covered with hair of a yellowish brown colour, ex- 
cept the balls of the toes, which are naked. The brush is large and 
well finished, of the same colour as the body throughout the greater 
pai't of its length, and terminated by a large white pomt. 

Mr. Gray related a series of facts in reference to the habits of a 
Cuckoo, which appeared to prove that the female, though she leaves 
the eggs to be hatched by another bird, sometimes at least takes 
care of the young bird and feeds it after it leaves its nest, and teaches 
it to fly. They may explain how they are taught to migrate. 

He also expressed some doubt respecting the eggs of Cuckoos be- 
ing laid ill the nest of Granivorous birds, and stated an instance 
where a chicken had been hatched under a Pigeon, that the Pigeon 
neglected it when it found that it would not eat the soaked peas, and 
eventually ejected it from its nest. 

Mr. Gray then exhibited and explained a peculiarity in the struc- 
ture of the ligaments of bivalve shells, and pointed out the pecu- 
liarity of some mactraceous shells which had this part, contrary to 
the general structures, inclosed in the cartilage pit, observing that 
this structure was found in his genus Gyiathodon, and in a new genus, 
which Mr. Graj^ had called at the British Museum Mulinia, of which 
he described five species ; and he also stated the necessity for forming 
a new genus, of which Mactra Sprengleri may be regarded as the tj'pe. 

Mr. Han'ey, of Teignmouth, exhibited various fossils from Devon- 
shire. Of these, sections in different directions had been made, and 
the surfaces highly polished. The structure was thus rendered 
beautifully apparent. 

Mr. Hai-vey also'exhibited various specimens of Asterias&nd Ophiura 
fiom the Devonshire coast, and explained the mode by which they 
had been prepared, 

Mr. Gould brought under the notice of the Meeting several spe- 



105 

cies of Birds from Now South Wales, wliich he considered to be 
new to science, as they are not contained in the collection of the 
Linnean Society; nor, as far as he is aware, described in any publica- 
tion. Mr. Gould embraced this opportunity to characterize and 
name ten species, and stated that at subsequent meetings of the So- 
ciety he would bring forward the remainder of his collection. 

Mr. Gould more particularly pointed out a species of Petroica ; a 
new and interesting species of Ptilonorhynchus, allied to Ptil. nu- 
c/ialis, and which he proposed to make the tyjje of a new genus ; a 
new species (belonging to the Society) of the genus Calyptorhynchus, 
which he compared with all the other members of the group then on 
the table, and described as Calyptorhynchus Naso; and four new spe- 
cies of the genus Amadina, Swains., which he n^ivnei. Amadina cincta, 
riificauda, modesta, and Castanotis. The characters of the above spe- 
cies are as f jUows : 

Petroica thcenicea. Mas. Pet. corpore superni fuliginoso-griseo 
fronte, naribus, marginibusqiie anterioribus remigmn tertialium 
albo notatis ; remigibus primariis rectricibtiKque griseo-nigris, 
harum externis plur.iis penitus ulbis, guld fiiHginosa ; corpore 
subths coccineo ; crisso albo ; rostro pedibusque nigris. 

Fcem. Coipore superrie toto brunneo, tectricibus alee rufo-griseo 
emarginatis ; rectricibus externis albis corpore subtus rufescenti- 
griseis -, rostro pedibusque nigris. 

Long. tot. 5^ unc; roslri, \; ala, 3^; caudce. 2; tarsi, J. 

Hab. Novti HoUandia. 

' Amadina Castanotis. Am. corpore superni cinereo-fusco ; uro- 
pygio albo, tectricibus caudte nigi-is, albo guttatis; genis castaneo- 
rvfis lined albd ad basin roslri; pectore griseo lineis nigris trans- 
versim striata; notd nigrd in medio pectoris; abdomine albo, crisso 
ochraceo, lateribus castaneis albo guttatis ; rostro aurantiaco ; 
pedibus subfluvis. 

Long. tot. 4i unc; alee, 2^; caudce, 1|; tarsi, ^. 

Hab. Nova Hollandia. 

Amadina modesta. Ama. fronte sanguinolentd ; corpore superiore 
fusco ; alls albo-guttatis ; uropygio crissoque alternatim striatis 
lineis albis atque fuscis ; rectricibus nigris, duabus lateralibus ex- 
ternis ad apicem albo notatis ; guld nigrd; corjwris inferiore parte 
cinereo-albido lineis ti'ansversis fuscis striata, abdomine intermedia 
crissoque albis ; rostro nigra, pedibus nigrescentibus. 

Long. tot. 4^ unc; ala, 1^; caudce, 2; tarsi, ^. 

Hab. in Nova Hollandia. 

Amadina ciNCTA.*'^?>i«. capite toto argentata cinereo; guld nigrd; 
corpore toto pallide castanea ; fascid nigrd corporis inferiurcm 
partem cingente ; tectricibus caudce superioribus et inferioribus 
albis ; caudd nigrd ; rostra nigro ; pedibus brunneis. 

Long. tot. 4h unc; ahe, 2f^; caudce, 2.]^; tarsi, ^. 

Hab. in Nova Hollandia. 



106 

Amadina huficauda. Mas. Ama. fronte gcnisque coccineis his 
albo striatis; corpore supernk olivaceo-fusco ; tectricibus caudce 
cauddque fusco-coccineis, illis guttis pallido-rubris ornutis ; gttld 
corporeque infertie olivaceis, griseis, albo transversim notatis, ab- 
domine intermedia crissoque flavidi-albis ; rostra caccinea ; pedi- 
bus paUidi-brunneis. 

Foem., re/ mas junior. Corpore toto cinerea fusco, abdomine interme- 
dio albo; caudd rufescente-brunned. 

Long. tot. 4:^ unc; alee, 2^; caudce. If; tarsi, ^. 

Hab. in Nova Hollandia. 

Calodera maculata. Cal. capite suprcl auricularibus, et guld 
nitide brunneis, scupuld plumd cinerco-argentato cinctd ; fascid 
nucliali rasaced; corpore superne cauddque intense brunneis ; apici- 
bus plumarum in dorso, uropygia, scapulisque.fulvo large guttatis; 
remigibus albidis ; rectricibus flavido-albis , ad apicem notatis ; 
corpore subtiis cinereo ; lateribus transversaliter brunneo striatis ; 
rostro pedibus fusco h-unneis. 

Long. tot. 11^ unc; rostri, \\; alte, 6; caudce, 4|; tarsi, 1^. 

Hab. in Nova Hollandia. 

Differt h Ptilonorhgncho nuchale, Jard., magnitudine inferiore, nee 
non maculis supern^ sparsis. 

Cracticus htpoleucus. Cract. nuchd, dorso, tectricibus caudee, 
crisso, rectricibusque caudce ad basin, albis, reliquis partibus 
nigris, rostra ad basin plumbeo in nigrum transeunte. 

Long. tot. 14^^ unc; rostri, 2; alee, 9 J; caudce, 5 J; tarsi, 2. 

Hab. Van Diemen's Land. 

Differt a specie Cracticus Tibicen appellata, rostro et tarsi breviori- 
bus, seque ac dorsi albo colore. 

Hab. in Terra Van Diemen dicti. 

Cracticus fuliginosus. Cract. corpore toto fuliginoso; remigiis, 

rectricibusque caudce ad apicem albis ; rostro pedibusque nigris. 
Long. tot. 18 unc; rostri, 2^; alee, 10; caudce, 7; tarsi, 2^. 
Hab. in Terra Van Diemen dicta. 

Calyptorhtnchus naso. Mas. Calyp. capitis cristd, et toto cor- 
pore nitide nigris, rectricibus caudce duabus intermcdiis exceptis ; 
fascid lati caccined cinctis ; rostro prcegrandi ad basin pallidi 
plumbeo ; pedibus coeruleo nigris. 

Foem. Differt cristd genis corpore supern^ guttis flavis adspersis ; 
corpore inferiore transversis lineis coccineis atque flavis ornato ; 
fascid caudali caccined, lineis nigris interruptd, rostro albo. 

Long. tot. 22 unc; mensura rostri verticalis, 2 J unc; alcs, 14 
caudce, 10^; tarsi, ^. 

Hab. in Nova Hollandid, ad fluminem Cygnorum. 

Calyptarhynchus Naso differt a reliquis generis speciebua rostri 
magnitudine, sed corporis magnitudine prieter unam omnibus in- 
feriore. 



107 

November 8, 1836. 
Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair. 

A letter, addressed to the Secretary, by Robert Mackay, Esq., the 
British Vice-Consul at Maracaibo, and a Corresponding Member of 
the Society, was read, describing the habits of a Vulture {Vultur 
Papa, Linn.) forwarded to the Society for the Menagerie, but which 
had unfortunately died during the voyage. 

After noticing the peculiar habit attributed to these birds, (which 
frequently congregate to the number of three hundred,) of paying 
deference to an individual differing from the rest in plumage, and 
to which the inhabitants of Maracaibo give the title of king, Mr. Mac- 
kay proceeds to state : 

" 'ITiese birds, in their flights, ascend to such a height as to be 
lost sight of, and from their elevation, discover objects of prey. 

" They reside in the savannas of a warm and dry temperature ; 
and their travels do not extend beyond five or six leagues of the 
place where they have been bred. 

" They lay their eggs, and hatch their young, in the small con- 
ca^'ities of mountains. 

" At a distance from towns, villages, and frequented roads, they 
generally assemble in large numbers ; but in the immediate vicinity of 
such situations the king never deigns to associate with his vassals." 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. W. Martin read the follow- 
ing description of a new species of the genus Felis. 

"The beautiful species of Felis to which I beg leave to call the 
attention of the Meeting was brought from Java or Sumatra, and 
obtained, with other specimens from the same locality, from Mr. 
Gould. The only writer, as far as I can learn, who notices it, is 
Sir W. Jardine in the ' Naturalist's Library,' in which work are two 
figures from specimens in the Edinburgh Museum; but he there 
confounds it with the Felis Diardi of Cuvier, to which sj)ecies, as 
indeed also to the Felis Bengalensis, it bears a close affinity in the 
style and colour of its markings. It will be easy, however, to show 
that the Felis Diardi is a very different species to the present. The 
first description of the F. Diardi is in the fourth volume of Cu\'ier's 
Ossemens Fossiles, p. 437. 'There is,' says Cuvier, 'in Java an- 
other wild Cat larger than Felis Bengalensis, very remarkable for the 
beautiful regularity of its blotches, of which Messrs. Diard and Du- 
vaucel have transmitted to us a skin and a drawing. We shall de- 
signate it Felis Diardi.' After describing its colour, he adds, ' The 
head is six inches, the tail 2 feet 4 inches, the body 2 feet and a 
half, and its height at the shoulder must be 18 inches.' (French mea- 
sures.) With regard to the Felis Diardi, it is somewhat questionable 
whether it be distinct from the Felis macrocelis, or not ; at all events 

No. XLVn. — Proceedings ok the Zoological Society. 



108 

it is a large Cat closely allied to, if not identical with that animal, 
but certainly distinct from the Cut before the Meeting. 
" The admeasurements of this species are as follows : 

Feet. Inches. 

Head and body 1 11 

Head from nose to occiput, following 1 r. r i 

the arch of the skull J ^ 

Tail 1 31 

Height at shoulder 10^ 

Total length 3 2-i 

" It may be observed, that the individual is adult, as proved by 
the state of the dentition; its colouring agrees closely with that de- 
tailed by Sir W. Jardine. The ground tint is rusty grey the rufous 
tinge prevailing on the top of the head down the middle of the back, 
over the cheeks, chest, scapulse, fore limbs, and thighs. On the top 
of the head are two longitudinal markings of black inclosing a space 
cut up by irregular small rings or dashes of black, and external to 
these begin two decided black lines (commencing over each eye), 
which become broader on the occiput and back of the neck, on 
which latter part they converge, but do not come in contact with 
each other; they then sweep over the top of each shoulder blending 
with the markings of the body. 

" Continued from the first-described central markings on the head, 
there runs between these two decided stripes a broken line, as- 
suming between the shoulders the form of elongated open fepots, and 
ultimately a black dorsal stripe continued to the base of the tail ; 
on the haunches, however, it divides into two parallel stripes. The 
ears are short and somewhat rounded, black at the tips, grey in the 
centre, and black at and around their base ; beyond the black mark 
at their base, there is a space of dusky grey, which merges into the 
colour of the neck. The sides of the neck, scapulae, fore and hind 
limbs, are thickly spotted with black. The sides of the body are 
marbled with obliquely longitudinal marks of dark grey, each mark 
having an irregular margin of black. 

" The lower angle of each eye is black, and two black lines cross 
the cheek, passing into a throat-mark carried across beneath the 
angle of the lower jaw; below this is a similar mark but more in- 
definite ; the chest is spotted with black. The abdomen is dirty white 
which is crossed by rows of black spots in regular order. The upper 
surface of the tail is grey, the lower yellowish grey ; it is marbled 
by spots of black forming indistinct rings, which, towards the tip, 
assume a more definite character; the extremity being black. The 
fur of the body is moderate and sleek; on the tail it is full and soft. 

" For this beautiful species of Cat I venture to propose the title of 
Felis marmorata. Though inferior in size to the Felis macrocelis, 
this species is related to it, not only in the style of the markings 
of the fur, but in the elongation of its form, and the length and 
thickness of the tail; it is a Rimau Day an in miniature; nor, though 
larger than the Felis Bengalensis, is it less allied to that species, be- 
tween which and the former it constitutes an intermediate grade." ■ 



109 



November 22, 1836. 

Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair. 

A communication from Mr. Harvey, of Teignmouth. in Devon- 
shire, was read, which referred to a specimen of the electric Ray 
then on the table. The fish was caught in a trawl-net near Teign- 
mouth, and was presented to the Society by Mr. Harvey. When 
taken, part of a specimen of the small spotted Dogfish was hanging 
from its mouth. The fishermen handle the electric Ray while it is 
alive without being at all affected by it, always taking care to lay 
hold of the tail. 

Mr. Yarrell exhibited a very large Carp taken by a net in a piece 
of water called the Mere, neare Payne's Hill, in Surrey. The length 
of the specimen was 30 inches, the girth of the body at the com- 
mencement of the dorsal fin 24 inches; the weight, 22 pounds. The 
fish belonged to Edward Jesse, Esq., author of the " Gleanings in 
Natural History," by whose permission it was exhibited. Mr. Yar- 
rell observed, that he could find no record of any Carp so large 
having before been taken in this country. 

Mr. Martin, at the request of the Chairman, read the following 
notes on the anatomy oi Koala, Phascolarcios fuscus, Desm. 

" The acquisition of a young male Koala preserved in spirits, and 
presented to the Society by Captain Mallard, has afforded me the 
opportunity of examining the viscera of this rare and curious animal; 
which I did with the utmost care. Differing from the Wombat in 
its dental formula, in which respect it closely resembles the Kanga- 
rqps, the visceral anatomy of the Koala closely approximates to that 
of the former animal, as will be perceived by comparing the follow- 
ing notes with the description of the anatomy of the Wombat by 
Mr. Owen. 

" On reflecting the skin of the abdomen, there appeared a small 
transverse muscle arising from the skin on either side, which passed 
over the marsupial bones, towards their upper extremity, acting as 
a support to, and a compressor of them. 

" ITie pyramidalis muscle, to which, on its outer side is attached 
the inner edge of the marsupial bone, radiated from this bone to the 
middle line, and sent off a broad/asda of fibres over the rectus mus- 
cle to the cartilages of the ribs. The rectus began broad from the 
cartilages of the lower ribs, its fibres appearing to mix with those of 
the j}ectoralis; it continued its course broad to the ^Mi/s, and was 
inserted in the usual manner. The external oblique was thick and 



no 

its fibres remarkably strong ; the internal oblique gave off a strong 
cremaster, which ran down the spermatic cord as far as the testis. 

" The transversalis as usual. 

" The first head of the triceps adductor femoris was connected by 
a slip of fibres to the external apex of the triangular base of the 
marsupial bone, giving to that bone, by its contraction, a slight ex- 
ternal motion. 

"The panniculus carnosus was very strong, especially over the 
back and sides. 

" The capacity of the thorax was very small in comparison with 
that of the abdomen. 

" The stomach occupied the left side of the abdominal cavity, 
scarcely passing the mesial line ; its pyloric portion bent down 
abruptly, forming a narrow arch through which protruded the lo- 
bulus Spigelii of the liver. 

" The liver consisted of two equal parts, a right and left, both 
closely attached by membranous (or peritoneal) processes to the 
diaphragm; the ligamentum latum verged towards the left side. The 
right portion of the liver was divided into three foliaceous lobes, the 
left into two : the free edges of this viscus were deeply and abruptly 
fissured, as if cut with a knife ; and its under surface presented an 
irregular congeries of small lobuli or appendages, clustered thickly 
together ; on the left side, the outer lobe of the liver passed com- 
pletely behind or dorsad of the stomach, the cardiac portion of which 
advanced as low as the left kidney. The outer lobe of the liver on 
the right side advanced in a pointed form, and passed behind the 
whole of the dorsal surface of the right kidney. The great mass 
of the liver had, in fact, a dorsad position, the anterior portion being 
comparatively very trifling. 

" The gall-bladder was seated in the fissure between the first and 
second lobes, reckoning from the right side ; it was very large, but 
empty. Of great width at its base, it narrowed gradually to an al- 
most vermiform apex, and its total length was 3| inches. Its duct, 
of considerable calibre, terminated exactly one inch below the py- 
lorus. 

" The spleen was long, thin, and tongue-shaped ; it lay loosely 
adhering to the cardium; its greatest breadth was |- an inch, its 
length, 2 1 inches; its edges were very thin and slightly crenulated. 

" The pancreas presented a thin, flat portion, attached to the 
spleen, whence ran a broad slip attached to the peritoneal reflection 
at the back of the stomach, and advancing round to the duodenum. 
Its duct joined that of the gall-bladder | of an inch firom its inser- 
tion. 

" The stomach was divided by a contraction, into two distinct 
portions ; of these, the cardiac was large and almost globular, its 
breadth across being 2, its length across 2^ inches; itsparietes were 
much thinner than those of the pyloric portion, which, as we stated, 
bent down abruptly, so as to form a narrow arch. The breadth of 
the pylorus at its commencement, was little more than an inch, but 
it swelled out into a saccnlus, whence it narrowed to the pyloric 



Ill 

orifice. Following its greater curve it measured 2^ inches, along 
its smaller, only i| of an inch. It was slightly puckered transversely 
on the sides by a posterior longitudinal band of fibres. Anterior to 
the entrance of the asophagus, and occupying the space of the smaller 
curvature of the stomach, between the oesophagus and the contraction, 
was situated a large thick gland, opening by numerous ducts, whose 
mouths clustered together, formed a sort of network. On each side 
of this gland the inner membrane of the stomach was longitudinally 
corrugated with small rugce, whence larger plica, and more distinct 
from each other, were continued down the inner surface of the j}i/- 
lorus, to its orifice, which was closed with a strong sphincter-valve ; 
the cardiac pouch was lined with a thin smooth cuticular membrane. 
The duodenum began pyriform with a small sacculus | of an inch in 
breadth, whence it narrowed to f of an inch; this being its average 
breadth. Its course was as follows : Leaving the pylorus, and bound 
to the spine by mesentery, it advanced over the right kidney, then 
crossed the spine, turned up on the left side under the cardiac por- 
tion of the stomach, and merged into jejunum. The whole of the 
inner membrane of the small intestines exhibited a beautiful velvety 
tissue. 

" The ctecum was of enormous magnitude, and slightly puckered 
equidistantly or nearly so throughout its whole length into sacculi, 
by a slight longitudinal (mesenteric) band of muscular fibres ; there 
a])peared also, faint traces of an opposite band. Turning spirally 
on itself and beginning large, it gradually narrowed, the decrease 
of its last portion, for the length of 18 inches, being very marked; 
this portion running to a long vermiform point. The total length 
of the cacum was 4 feet 2 inches. Basal breadth, 2 inches. The 
colon, resembling in character the first portion of the cacum, was 
slightly contracted into large sacculi, the first sacculus just below 
the entrance of the ileum, being more decided and larger than those 
which succeed ; it was, however, nothing more than a simple en- 
largement, without any pyramid figure. After a course of 1 7 inches, 
the colon decreased in size to the breadth of ^ of an inch ; the total 
length of the large intestines was 6 feet 4 inches. The inner mem- 
brane of the rectum was corrugated longitudinally. 

" The lungs consisted of 3 right lobes, one large, and two small ; 
and of two left lobes, the lower by far the largest. 

"The heart was compressed and pointed; its length was two 
inches. 

" The aorta gave nflf as usual 3 branches for the supply of the an- 
terior portion of the body. The first or arteriu innominata, however, 
almost immediately divided into carotid and subclavian. The right 
auricle presented at its upper part a semilunar notch fitting to the 
base of the aorta, two points rising up, one on each side of the aorta, 
as auricular appendages. Into the upper part of the auricle just be- 
hind the right appendix entered the right vena cava superior ; and 
into the inferior portion of the auricle close to the entrance of the 
vena cava inferior, entered the left vena cava superior. The ve?ia 
azygos running up on the left side of the aorta, entered the left vena 



112 

cava superior an inch from its termination. This arrangement of 
the vence cavce appears to be normal in the Marsupials, as Mr. Owen 
has previously observed*. 

" Six coronary veins entered the right auricle round its junctional 
margin with the ventricle. 

" The auriculo-ventricular opening on the right was of moderate 
size, with a simple valve, the edges of which were bound down by 
the tendons of two distinct carnece columns ; a third fasciculus of 
fleshy fibres, but very indistinct, were to the right of these, but they 
could hardly be said to constitute a third carnea columna. The 
right ventricle does not approach the apex of the heart by ^ of an 
inch. No trace oi foramen ovale. Pulmonary artery very wide, 
dividing after a course of ^ an inch in two branches, a right and 
left. Right ventricle very thin ; the left, very thick and firm. 

" Of the kidneys, the right was seated higher, nearly by its whole 
length, than the left ; the lower end of the former and the upper end 
of the latter being parallel. In shape, these organs were oval, and 
but slightly compressed. Their pelvis was small, the papilla single 
and obtuse; the cortical and cineritious layei's very distinct. Length, 
1|- of an inch ; breadth, f of an inch. 

"T\iG penis, of small size and conical figure, was placed imme- 
diately anterior to the anus ; it was slightly bifurcate, or rather had 
two projecting papilla, one on each side of the urethral orifice. 
Length of spongy portion, ^ of an inch. Bladder small, oval, and 
much contracted. Testis, of the size of a horsebean. Total length 
oi vastt deferentia, 2-^ inches; their entrance was below and external 
to the ureters, which opened as usual. Prostate small. Vesiculce 
seminales small; they entered ^ of an inch below the bladder, with 
Cowper's glands, which were as large as a tare. 

" The thyroid glands were oval, compressed, and small; their co- 
lour pale; they began at the 4th ring of the trachea from the thy- 
roid cartilage, and extended to the 9th or 10th. 

" There was a round subzygomatic gland the size of a pea on the 
masseter, and two others of the same character were placed on the 
front of the neck, on the platysma myoides. 

" The submaxillary glands were thin and long, measuring 1 inch 
in length. Their situation was as usual. 

" The parotid glands, very extensive but superficial, occupied the 
usual situation ; the duct passed over the masseter, and entered op- 
posite the 3rd molar, anterior to the edge of the buccinator. 

" The sterno-cleido-mastoideus was attached not only to the mas- 
toid process, but also to the whole extent of the occipital ridge ; it 
consisted of two portions arising as usual, from clavicle and ster- 
num. 

" The tongue was thick at its base, which rose abruptly from a 
deep furrow surrounding its root ; the distance from its root to the 
epiglottis § of an inch. Its form was narrow, equal, and rounded at 
the tip ; its surface was velvety, and one large central papilla was 

* Proceedings of Zool. Soc. April 10, 1832, p. 72. 



113 

seated near its base. Length altogether 2 inches. Breadth ,] an 
inch. Length of free part ^ of an inch. The palate was divided 
by elevated transverse ridges into 8 furrows. 

" Pharynx spacious, and lined with a corrugated membrane. 
(Esophagus narrow, its inner membrane being puckered longitudi- 
nally. 

" The anterior surface of the thyroid cartilage was regularly con- 
vex, but not so protuberant as in the phalangers ; nor did the os 
hyoides play freely over it." 

Mr. Edward Burton, of Fort Pitt, Chatham, communicated a de- 
scription of a small species of Pipra received from the Himalaya 
mountains, and considered by Mr. Burton to be the first species of 
this genus yet discovered in those regions. 

Genus Pipra, Linn. 

P. squalida, capite et cervice suprcL brunneis ; interscapulio, dorso, 
alis et caudd viridescenti-brunneis ; hdc ad regionem subapicalem 
brunned saturation, sed apice externo albo graciliter fimbriatd ; 
alarum caudaque pogoniis externis olivaceo leviter tinctis; corpora 
infra uhique albido. 

Mandibula superior fusca, inferior albida apice fusco. Pedes nigri. 

Longitudo 3^ poll. Ahe caudam sequantes. 

Hab. apud Montes Himalayenses. 

In Museo Medico-Militari, Chatham. 

The following observations on a species of Glaucus, referred to 
the Glaucus hexapterygius, Cuvier, by George Bennett, Esq., F.L.S., 
Corresponding Member of the Zoological Society, Surgeon and 
Superintendent of the Australian Museum at Sydney, New South 
Wales, were read. 

" On the 20th of April, 1835, during a voyage from England to 
Sydney, New South Wales, in latitude 4° 26' N., and longitude 19° 
30' W., with light airs and calms prevailing at the time, about 3 
P.M., a number of damaged and perfect specimens of the Glaucus 
hexapterygius, Cuv., were caught in the towing net. On being im- 
mediately removed from the net and placed in a glass of sea water, 
they resumed their vital actions and floated about in the liquid ele- 
ment, exhibiting a brilliancy of colour and peculiarity of form, 
which did not fail to excite the admiration of the beholders. 

" The back of the animal, as well as the upper surface of the fins 
and digitated processes, and the upper portion of the head and tail, 
was of a vivid purple colour, varying occasionally in its intensity ; 
ap])earing brighter in colour when the animal was active or excited, 
and deeper when remaining floating tranqmlly upon the surface of 
the water. The abdomen, and under surface of the fins, are of a 
beautiful pearly white colour, appearing as if it had been enamelled. 
The usual length of my specimens, measured from the extremity of 



114 

the head to the tail, when extended floating upon the surface of the 
water, was 1 finches; sometimes one or two lines more or less. 
The body of the animal is subcylindrical, terminating in a tail, which 
gradually becomes more slender towards the extremity, until it 
finally terminates in a delicate point. The head is short, with very 
small conical tentacula in pairs ; two superior, and two inferior ; 
three (and in G. octopterygius, Cuv., four) branchial fins on each 
side, opposite, palmated, and digitated at their extremities; the num- 
ber of digitations, however, varying; and the centre digitations are 
the longest; the first branchial fins, those nearest the head, are 
larger and denser than the others. The mouth is armed witli bony 
jaws; the body is gelatinous and covered by a thin and extremely 
sensible membrane. 

" These little animals were very delicate and fragile in their struc- 
ture, and although many, indeed, I may say numbers, were caught, 
yet very few in comparison were found to be in a perfect condition, 
some being deficient in one, two, or more fins, and others being com- 
pletely crushed. Not one of the specimens caught on this occasion, 
or during the voyage, had the silvery line or streak running down 
the back, from the head to the extremity of the tail ; branching oif 
also to the fins and along the centre of each of the digitations. Seve- 
ral Porpitce were also captured in the net at the same time with 
these animals, and serve as food for them. 

" It caused much regret to see the change death produced in the 
beauty of these interesting little animals, and all means of preserving 
them were found to be useless. When placed in spirits, the digits 
of the branchial fins speedily became retracted, the beautiful purple 
gradually faded and at last disappeared, and the delicate pearly white 
of the under surface of the body and fins peeled oif and disappeared; 
thus did this beautiful moUusk become decomposed in less than the 
space of an hour. Some moUusks quickly lose their colour after death, 
but retain their form for a long time ; but these speedily change 
after death, both in form and colour, and the beauty before so much 
admired perishes never to be regained. 

" When taken in the hand, the under surface of the animal soon 
becomes denuded of the beautiful pearly white it previously had, 
and at that time appears like a small transparent bladder, in which 
a number of air-bubbles are observed, together with the viscera. On 
the abdomen being laid open, a large quantity of air-bubbles escaped, 
and perhaps a query may arise how far they assist the animal in float- 
ing upon the surface of the water ? 

" The figure of Glaucus hexapterygius in Cuvier's work ' Sur les 
MoUusques,' is tolerably well executed, but no engraving can convey 
to the beholder the inconceivable delicacy and beauty of this mollusk; 
in the engraving alluded to, there is an inaccuracy at least as compared 
with the specimens before me, — in the digitated processes of the fins 
not being sufficiently united at the base ; in the living specimens 
before me, they were united together at the base, and then branch- 
ing off became gradually smaller until they terminated in a fine 
point. Again, in the engraving in Cuvier's work, the anal orifice is 



115 

placed on the right side, whereas in my specimens it was situated 
on the left ; for in all the specimens I examuied, I found the anus 
was disposed laterally and could be plainly distinguished situated on 
the left side of the animal, a little below the first fin. This I con- 
sider also the orifice of generation, as in some of the specimens ex- 
amined, a rather long string of dots resembling ova were seen to 
protrude from it. One of the animals discharged from this orifice a 
large quantity of very light brownish fluid; this no doubt was the 
faces. 

" But few of these animals were caught after the 20th until the 
24th of the same month, in latitude 2° 26' N., longitude 19° 51' W., 
when having light airs from S. by E., nearly calm ; in the morning 
a great number were seen floating by the ship, and it was not difh- 
cult, by aid of my towing-net, to capture as many as I required, for 
they swam very superficially upon the water. The whole of those 
taken proved to be of the same species (G. hexapterygius) as thos8 
before caught. I again placed several of the specimens in a glass 
of sea water; they were full of life, sometimes moving about, not 
very briskly, however, — and at other times remaining floating upon 
the surface of the water, merely gently moving the fins. As they 
floated upon the surface of the water in the glass, the sides of the 
head, back, tail, fins, &c., exhibited at the time a light silvery blue 
colour, which was admirably contrasted with the deeper blue of the 
upper surface, and falling into the elegant pearly or silvery white of 
the under surface of the animal, displaying an exceedingly rich and 
elegant appearance. Often, when at rest, the animal would drop one 
or more of the fins, but on touching them, they Avould be immediate- 
ly raised to the former position, and that organ was turned back as 
if to throw off the offending object, followed at the same time by a 
general movement of the whole body. On touching the animal upon 
the back, it seemed to display more sensitiveness in that than in any 
other part of the body, judging from the effects produced, in com- 
parison with similar experiments on other portions of the body ; for 
instance, the centre of the back was touched lightly and rapidly with 
a feather; which caused the little creature to sink as if under the 
pressure of the touch, throwing at the same time the head, tail, and 
all the fins upwards, followed by a general distortion of the whole 
body of the animal, as if the gentle touch had been productive of 
severe pain . 1 invariably found every part of the upper surface of 
the body very sensitive when touched, and displayed a general move- 
ment of uneasiness throughout the whole of the body of the crea- 
ture. 

" These creatures have a peculiar manner of throwing the head 
towards the tail, and flouncing the tail towards the head, when they 
are desirous of removing anjr object of annoyance. It is at that time 
these animals seem to recover from their toi-pidity, and evince the 
greatest activity in their movements. When much annoyed, they 
throw the body about mth great activity, coiling up the head, tail, 
fins, &c., in a somewhat rotundiform position ; and if the tormenting 



116 

"object Is not removed, dash out again in full activity of body, then 
return to the rotundiform position, and there remain for a short 
period apparently exhausted by their efforts. But on the cessation 
of the irritatmg cause, the animal quietly resumed its original po- 
sition, perhaps dropping one or two of its wearied fins according 
as its own sensations of ease or comfort might dictate. 

" When nothing irritated this tender mollusk, it would remain 
tranquilly floating upon the surface of the water with scarcely any 
movement but that M'hich proceeded from the undulating movements 
of the digitated extremities of the fins, as well as an occasional 
slight twisting motion of the same organs. 

" I felt much interest in the beautiful display of a circulating fluid 
on the dorsal surface of these animals, which was aff"orded me by 
the assistance of a microscope. Through the semi-transparent mem- 
brane of the back, a fluid could be readily perceived close to the sur- 
face, evidently flowing in two directions, one taking a course down- 
wards, and the other returning upwards; but I was unable to di- 
stinguish two distinct vessels for these separate actions. 

" These animals seemed to be very torpid in their movements, 
although sometimes, when floating upon the water, thej^ would 
be seen busily engaged in moving their fins about, but those actions 
were soon suspended and their fins were suffered to hang lazily 
down, as if fatigued with the short exertion, which did not move 
them one inch about the glass of water ; and even when the little 
indolent creatures did take the trouble to move themselves from one 
side of the glass to the other, it was effected by a tardy motion, 
stirring themselves first with one fin and then with the other, ac- 
cording as circumstances might require. 

" I placed some small specimens of For pita in the glass of water 
containing the Glauci, to observe if they would attack them ; for 
some time one of the Glauci was close to a Porpita and was even 
annoyed by the tentacula of the latter touching its back, yet the 
Glaucus bore this, although with the usual characters of impatience, 
yet without attemjiting to attack it. At last it seized the Porpita 
between its jaws, and by aid of a powerful lens, an excellent oppor- 
tunity was afforded me of closely watching the devouring process, 
which was effected by an apparently sucking motion; and at this 
time all the digitated processes of the fins were floating about, as at 
other times when the animal was at rest; but I did not observe, in 
one single instance, that they were of any use to the animal, either 
to aid in the capture or to securely hold their prey when in the act of 
being devoured; for the animal seems to depend merely upon the 
mouth in capturing its prey, as in this and other instances, which 
I had opportunities of observing, they seized their prey instantly 
with the mouth, and held it by that power alone, whilst by a kind 
of sucking motion the prey was devoured. The digitations may 
therefore only be regarded as appendages to the fins to aid the ani- 
mal perhaps in the direction of its movements, as it was observed 
that they turned and twisted them about during the progressive mo- 



117 

tion, (that is, when this tardy animal is pleased to progress, which 
appeared to me very rarely to meet with its inclination,) as if in some 
way or other to direct the movements of the animal. 

" The Glaums, after eating the tentacles and nearly the whole of 
the soft under surface of its prey, left the horny portion, and re- 
mained tranquilly reposing upon the surface of the water after its 
meal, the only motion visible in the animal being the playing of the 
digits of its fins. The mutilated remains of the Porpita sank to the 
bottom of the glass. 

" Soon after, another G/«Mras began a devouring attack upon an- 
other Porpita which had been placed in the glass, eating a little of 
it and then ceasing after a short meal, occasionally renewing the at- 
tack at short intervals. On examining the Porpita, which had been 
partially devoured by the ravenous Glaucus, L found the disc had 
been cleared of the tentacles and other soft parts ; a small part of the 
fleshy portion only remaining upon the disc. Only one part of the 
horny disc exhibited any injury, and that appeared to be the place 
where the animal was first grasped by the Glaucus. 

" When any of these animals came in contact with another in the 
glass, they did not display any annoyance, or coil themselves up, 
nor did they evince any savage propensities one towards the other ; 
and they would often float about, having their digitated processes in 
contact one with the other, without exhibiting any signs of annoy- 
ance ; even when placed or pushed one against the other, they did 
not manifest any irritation, but remained undisturbed as in their 
usual moments of quiet repose. 

" On the back of the animal being seen in a strong light, a black 
line could be discerned on each margin, and passing down the centre 
of each fin, and sometimes varied in having two black lines on the 
upper part of one fin, although the opposite fin may display but one. 

" The margin between the falling of the purple colour of the back 
into the silvery white of the abdomen often exhibited beautiful tints 
of a golden gieen ; but these variations were probably produced by 
the effect of different rays of light. 

" These animals soon perished ; I could not preserve them for any 
length of time in the glass of sea water, although the water was 
changed as often as it was thought necessary ; the digitated pro- 
cesses of the fins were observed to shrink up on the death of the 
animal, and the process of decomposition rapidly took place, the 
whole body becoming a shapeless mass, having a bluish colour of 
deadly hue for a short period, and then became of a blackish or 
brownish black colour. 1 have seldom seen a gelatinous animal 
which appeared so firm whilst in the water, that proved so speedily 
to decompose when removed from it ; even the beautiful purple of 
the back, the silvery or enamel of the abdomen, and the silvery blue 
of the sides, all speedily vanish, indeed instantly disappear, upon the 
death of the animal, as if it had been washed off; the expansive, de- 
licate, and beautiful fins and digitated processes are no longer seen; 
they shrank up to nothing. 

" Even on taking the animal alive out of the water and placing it 



118 

upon the hand, that instant almost, from its extreme delicacy, it was 
destroyed : the digitations of the fins fell off, the least movement 
destroyed the beauty of the animal; it speedily lost all the deep 
purple and silvery enamelled tints, and became a loathsome mass. 
Thus do we too often find animals beautiful in external adornments, 
curious in their habits and organization, and calculated in every re- 
spect to supply us with inexhaustible sources of intellectual gratifi- 
cation, doomed speedily to perish ; brief is the period allotted to 
them in the busy theatre of animated existence; but doubtless, with 
the gift of existence, they have received from the bounteous hand of 
their Creator, the means of enjoying their fleeting lives. 

" To place these little animals in the glass of water from the towing 
net without injury to their delicate structure required care ; so that as 
soon as they were captured in the net, attached to the meshes, they 
were not handled, but carefully washed off, which was efi'ected by 
dipping the meshes in the glass of water, when the animal soon 
detached itself without sustaining any injury, and floated in the 
water. 

" Although these animals are so fragile, so easily destroyed on 
being taken out of their natural element, yet they fling themselves 
about in the water without sustaining any injury, without even the 
loss of any of the digitated processes of the fins ; yet when there is 
much movement of the water in carrying the glass from one place 
to another, they are evidently disturbed and restless, and the fins 
are dropj^ed; if therefore, a slight motion of the water disturbs them, 
what can become of these delicate moUusks during tempestuous 
weather ; can they be similar to the delicate Ephemeris, doomed to 
live merely for the space of a day and perish in myriads ? From the 
immense number seen only from the ship — and how many myriads 
more extended beyond our range of vision! — it conveyed to the mind 
some idea of the profusion of living beings inhabiting the wide ex- 
panse of ocean, and a feeling of astonishment at the inconceivable 
variety of forms and constructions to which animation has been im- 
parted by creative power. 

" The tail of this animal has been described as resembling that 
of a Lizard: the comparison is good, not only with regard to form, 
but also, with perhaps a little more flexibility of motion, when in 
action. Sometimes the animal throws its tail up to the body, as if in- 
tended to brush ofl" any annoying object, and at other times, it has 
been observed to turn the head towards the side as if for a similar 
purpose. It seems, in the action of eating, to resemble a Cater- 
pillar. 

" No more of these animals were seen until the 15 th of May at 
10 P.M., when in lat. 24" 18'-5, long. 31° '-01 W.. moderate 
breezes and fine weather; a number of Glauci were captured as well 
as Porpitee ; some of the latter had been partially devoured, and in 
some only the horny disc remained; this, there was no doubt, from 
the previous knowledge of the carnivorous propensities of the 
Glaucus, was their work, more especially as we had positive proof 
that tribes of them were wandering or prowling about the ocean to- 



night. Tlvis was the last time during the voyage the Glauci were 
captured. 

" From these animals devouring the Porpita, we had positive 
evidence of their carnivorous habits, independent of the structure of 
the jaws ; and the tentacula of the Porpitee were no protection against 
their enemies; indeed, these appendages were first devoured and the 
horny disc was alone left, in many instances being quite picked 
clean ; from this circumstance we may infer, that the horny discs of 
the Porpitee and Velelhe, which previously, and for the last four days 
were found in the net, were the remains of those which had been de- 
voured by the Glauci or similar carnivorous moUusks, among which 
we may with safety include (from the structure of its jaws, and 
from often capturing it attached to Velella,) the inhabitant of the 
Janthina fragilis or violet shell. 

" The more we pursue the investigation of the actions of living 
objects, the more we see of the unbounded resources of creative 
power; and, after all our reasoning, must conclude that some wise 
purpose, though dimly perceirtible to our imperfect understandings, 
is no doubt answered by this great law of organic formation, — the 
law of variety." 

Mr. Ogilby called the attention of the Meeting to the various 
presented specimens of Antelopes then exhibited, and made the fol- 
lowing observations on some hollow-horned Ruminants. 

" In arranging the Society's collection subsequent to the late re- 
moval from Bruton Street, the following rare or undescribed species 
of Ruminants were observed, which it is thought proper to bring 
under the public notice of the Society. 

" 1. Ixalus Probaton. A single skin of the very anomalous animal 
to which I propose assigning this name, was presented to the So- 
ciety by Dr. Richardson, and has been considered as the female of 
A. Furcifer, from which, however, it differs in some of the most 
important characters. Of its origin there can be no reasonable 
doubt; it was contained in the same box with the skins of A. Fur- 
cifer, and other animals obtained by the celebrated zoologist just 
mentioned, during Capt. Franklin's memorable expedition, and 
the hay with which it was stuifed contained numerous small locks 
of the very peculiar hair of A . Furcifer. The specimen is a male 
about the size of a fallow Deer, the length from the nose to the 
end of the tail being 4 feet 10 inches. The head is 9^ inches long, 
the tail, 5^ inches; and the ear, 3f inches. Though the skin is 
that of an adult individual, as is proved by the incisors, which are 
all of the permanent class and considerably worn down, the head is 
without horns, having only two small, naked, flat scales, in the po- 
sitions usually occupied by these organs ; yet the bones of the skull 
remain beneath, and the specimen is unquestionably the spoil of a 
male animal. In form, as well as size, the animal resembles the fal- 
low Deer {Cervus Dama). The colour is a uniform pale reddish 
brown above and on the outsides of the members ; the breast, belly, 
and inner face of the anus and thighs are greyish white ; the lower 



120 

part of the cheeks, the lips and beneath the chin are of the same 
colour, but the whole throat or under surface of the neck is pale 
reddish brown, like the back and sides. The tail is covered above 
with short reddish hair like that of the body, but it is perfectly naked 
beneath, and in form and length resembles the tail of some species 
of Deer (Cervus). The nose is hairy like that of a Goat; the animal 
is furnished with lachrymal sinuses of considerable size, opening by 
very obvious apertures of a circular form ; it has inguinal pores and 
two teats, as in the common Antelope (A. Cervicapra); large sj^urious 
hoofs, and no appearance of scopts or knee-brushes either on the 
anterior or posterior extremities. These characters will not permit 
it to be associated with any known group of Ruminants. That it is 
not merely a Deer which has cast its horns, is proved by the absence 
of the pedestals which support these organs in the solid-horned Ru- 
minants, as well as by the hairy lips, two teats and inguinal pores ; 
neither can it be a Sheep or a Goaf, as is evinced by the lachrymal 
sinuses, inguinal pores, and the length and form of the tail, which, 
in the wild species of these genera, is nearly tuberculous. The sup- 
position of its being the female of A. Furcifer is disproved by the sex 
of the specimen ; in other respects, the existence of large spurious 
hoofs shows plainly enough that it has no affinity to that animal. 
There is but one other supposition: may it not be a species of An- 
telope allied to the typical group of that genus? and may not the 
abortive horns of the present specimen be the result of some acci- 
dent? This may certainly be the case ; the other characters of the 
specimen agree with those of the common Indian Antelope, and if the 
animal should eventually j^rove to belong to that genus, it may bear 
the specific name of A. Ixalus, which the classical scholar will re- 
cognise as the name of an undetermined species of Ruminant men- 
tioned in the Iliad. 

" 2. AntUope Eurycerus. Of this magnificent and hitherto unde- 
scribed species, two pairs of horns, one attached to the skuU, the 
other to the integuments of the head, have long existed in the So- 
ciety's collection. Their origin is unknown, but I have reason to 
believe that they come from Western Africa. Tlieir length in a 
straight line is 2 feet 1^ inch ; on the curve, 2 feet 7o inches ; 
their circumference at the base is 10 inches ; their distance at base 
1 inch, and at the points 11 inches. In form they bear some re- 
semblance to those of A. Sfrepsiceros, being wrinkled as in that spe- 
cies, and havmg a prominent ridge on their posterior face ; but they 
form onlj- one spiral twist instead of two, and their direction through- 
out lies in the plane of the forehead, whilst in the Koodoo these two 
planes form an angle of about 100°. The characters of the skull are 
likewise similar to those of the Koodoo, but it is broader and larger 
than in that animal. The points of the horns are of an ivory colour. 
The animal has a large muzzle, but is without lachrymal sinuses ; it 
has a white band across the face, immediately under the eyes, and two 
white spots on each cheek. All these characters are distinctive of 
the natural group which includes the Koodoo, the present sjiecies, 
the Boshbok, the Guib, and the beautiful species mentioned by Mr. 



121 

*- -■. «=- 
Bennett (Proc. Zool. Soc, 183^ P- \) which is a real Antelope, and 
■which I hope sliortly to have an opjiortunity of describing in detail 
under the name oiA. Boria, as a friend, who has connexions with the 
West Coast of Africa, has kindlj' undertaken to procure me skins. 

" 3. AntilopePhilantomba. Two females of this minute speciesUved 
for some tune in the Society's Gardens : they were brought from 
Sierra Leone and presented by Mr. M'^Cormick. Mr. Kendall, who 
saw them with me at the Gardens, assured me that they were the 
PMlantomba of the Sierra Leone negroes. The larger and older spe- 
cimen has small horns about 1 1 inch long, bent slightly forwards 
and surrounded at the base with 5 or 6 small rings : the species is 
distinguished from the pygmy Antelope of the Cape by its longer tail 
and ears, the latter clothed with white hair on the inside, by the 
darker mouse -colour of the body and the uniform hue of the legs, 
which instead of being sandy red as in the Cape species, are of the 
same colour as the body, only rather paler. But for the circumstance 
of the female possessing horns, I should have been inclined to iden- 
tify this animal with the A. Maxwellii of Col. Smith. 

"4. Antilope Siimatrensis. This species and A . Thar were exhibit- 
ed together for the purpose of pointing out the similarity of their 
zoological characters, and correcting a mistake into which Messrs. F. 
Cuvier, Desmarest, and Col. Smith have fallen with regard to the 
former species. According to these zoologists the Cambing Out an 
{A. Sumatre7isis) possesses both the lachrymal sinus and the longi- 
tudinal gland on the maxillary bone, which distinguishes the Duy- 
kerbok (A . Mergens) and some other Antelopes : in reality the lachry- 
mal sinus is sufficiently distinct, but there is not the slightest trace 
of any maxillary gland. The same zoologists represent the female 
Cambing as being without horns and having only two teats : the spe- 
cimen exhibited, a young female, had tolerably large horns and di- 
stinctly showed four teats, thus agreeing in all respects with the adult 
female TJiar with which it was compared. 

"5. Antilope patmata. Colonel Smith has described the horns of 
this species from an imperfect pair preserved in the Museum of the 
College of Surgeons, but was undecided whether it should be con- 
sidered as a distinct species or only a variety of the Pi-ongbaick {A. 
Furcifer). The present perfect pair, with the skin of the head at- 
tached, goes far to prove the specific distinction, but the habitat is 
widely different from that assigned by Colonel Smith. The speci- 
men came from Mexico, where Dr. Coulter informs me it is sufficient- 
ly common. The horns are twice or thrice as large again as those of 
A. Furcifer, and instead of preserving a tolerable degree of parallelism, 
as in that species, spread widely, and are much hooked a1 the points. 
The face also is of a very dark brown colour, whilst in A. Furcifer it 
is of the same light fawn as the upper parts of the body." 

Mr. Gray exhibited a specimen of Argonaut with an Ocytkoe 
from the Cape of Good Hope, and stated that as the subject had 
been brought forward at the last meeting, he was induced to remark 
that every time he considered it, and compared it under its various 



122 

bearings with the relations of other Molhscans and their shells, he 
■was more and more inclined to believe that the animal foimd in the 
shell of Argonauta was a parasite. He gave the following reasons 
for tliis belief. 

" 1. Theanimalhasnoneofthoseijeculiaritiesof organization for the 
deposition, formation, and growth of the shell, nor even the muscles 
for attaching it to the shell, which are found in all other shell- 
bearing MoUuscans ; instead of which it agrees in form, colour, and 
structure with the naked Mollusca, especially the nalied Cephalo- 
pods. 

" 2. The shell, although it agrees in every respect with the shells 
of other MoUuscans in structure, formation, and gi-owth, is evidently 
not moulded on the body of the animal usually found in it, as other 
shells are; but exactly agrees in every point (except in the form of 
the spire), with the shell of Carinaria, which coincided -with the other 
MoUuscans in all these respects. 

"3. The body of the animal does not appear to have the power of 
secreting calcareous matter, for it does not, like all the MoUusca 
which have that power, secrete either a solid deposit or distinct sapta 
to adapt the cavity of the shell to the increase of the body, nor does 
it cover over with calcareous matter any sand or other extraneous 
bodies which may have accidentally intruded themselves between the 
mantle and the shell, but leaves the sand, which is often found mixed 
with the eggs, free, without taking any means to prevent it from 
irritating the skin. 

" 4. The young shell of the just hatched animal which forms 
the apex of the shell at all periods of its growth, is much larger 
(ten times) than the eggs contained in the upper part of the cavity of 
the Argonaut. 

Mr. Gray further stated, that he does not think that any inference 
can be drawn in favour of the opinion that the Ocythoe forms the 
shell, from either of the three arguments which have been produced 
in favour of that hypothesis, which he then examined in detaU. 

"5. He believes that Poli must have been misled when he thought 
that he had discovered the animal in the e^^ of an Ocythoe covered 
with the " rudiment of a shell," because all the MoUuscans which 
he has seen in the egg (Cephalopods as well as others) were covered 
with a well- developed shell, even before all the organs were deve- 
loped, and the figure which Poli gives of the rudiment does not 
agree with the nucleus found on the apex of the shell of the Argo- 
nauts. Unfortunately, none of the eggs of the Ocythoes that have 
been examined by other observers have been enough developed to 
show the foetal animal. 

" 6. The different species of Argonauta are said to be inhabited by 
different species of Ocythoe; but allowing this to be the case, it 
only proves that each of these genera have local species : the same 
may be observed with respect to the Hermit Crabs, without proving 
anything in favour of their being the framers of the shell they live 
in. 

" 7. That though some specimens of Ocythoe presers'ed in their 



123 

shells are marked with cross grooves resembling the grooves on the 
shell, yet these grooves are only formed by the pressure of the dead 
animal against tlie shell ; for the specimens of the animal which are 
found out of the shell, or which are taken out of the shell while re- 
cent, are always destitute of these grooves, or of the compressed 
form of the cavity of the shell. That some specimens which he 
had received from the Cape (of which that now on the table was 
one), which had been packed on their sides, had the upper side 
of the animal smooth and rounded, and the lower flat, and curved 
like the shell on which it was pressed by its own weight ; while a 
specimen which he had received from the Mediterranean packed 
erect, with the mouth upwards, so that the animal was equally pressed 
against each side of the shell, was flattened and curved on each side, 
lilie the specimen examined by M. Ferussac. 

Mr. Gray also stated that, so far from the animal using the finned 
arms as sails, they were the means by which it retained itself in the 
shell ; and he further observed, that it was very difficult to distin- 
guish the species of Argonauta, as they varied greatly in shape, and 
that on a comparison of many specimens, he had found that the 
presence or absence of the spines or ears at the back of the mouth 
were of no importace as a specific character, specimens of each of 
the recorded species having this process developed only on one or the 
other side. 

The Chairman, after premising some observations on the diseases 
to which the mortality of the larger feline animals in the Society's 
Menagerie was attributable, proceeded to read the followdng descrip- 
tion of two Entozoa infesting the stomach of the Tiger, (Felis Tif/ris, 
Linn.,) one of which forms the type of a new genus of Nematoidea. 

" I received a few days ago, from the Medical Superintendent of 
the Society's Menagerie, a portion of the stomach of a young Tiger 
(which died of rupture of the aorta), exhibiting on the internal or 
mucous surface what were considered to be scrofulous tumours. 
They were five or six in number, of a round and oblong form, vary- 
ing in size from half an inch to two inches in the largest diameter, 
and the largest of them projecting about half an inch from the plane 
of the inner surface : they made no projection externally. The mu- 
cous membrane covering the smaller tumours was puckered up into 
minute reticulate ruga: the surface of the largest tumour was smooth. 
On wiping away the tough thick mucous secretion from the tu- 
mours, and examining more closely their surface, two or three orifices 
presented themselves in the larger, and a single orifice in each of the 
smaller tumours. These orifices conducted to irregular sinuses which 
were the nidi of two kinds of Nematoid Entozoa, some measuring 
nearly an inch in length and a line in thickness; the others being 
more minute, not exceeding 5 lines in length, and about ^L of an 
inch in diameter. Only a pair of tlie larger Entozoa were found ia 
each of the three largest tumours ; the smaller species existed in 
countless numbers. 

" Before proceeding with the description of the worms, I may 



124 

briefly conclude the history of the tumours by observing that they 
were composed of condensed accumulated layers of the sub-mucous 
cellular tissue, presenting a flat surface next the muscular coat, to 
Avhich the larger tumours firmly adhered, and projecting with a 
rounded convexity towards the cavity of the stomach, where the si- 
nuses opened and terminated. They did not contain any of the 
caseous secretion characteristic of sU-uma, but were most probably 
caused by the irritation of the Entozoa. 

"The dimensions of the larger Entozoa above given are those of 
the female : the male is about one fourth smaller. In both sexes the 
body is slightly attenuated at the two extremities ; the caudal ex - 
tremlty is more inflected and more obtuse in the male ; the oral ex- 
tremity in both is obtuse and truncate. 

" The surface of the body appears to the naked eye to be mi- 
nutely striated transversely : it is variegated by the white genital, 
and amber-coloured digestive tubes appearing through the transparent 
integument. When examined witli a lens of half-inch focus, the 
anterior two-thirds of the body are seen to be covered with circular 
series of minute reflected spines, which, viewed with a still higher 
power, present three distinct points, one large one in the middle and 
two small lateral ones. 

' ' The mouth is surrounded by a tumid circular lip armed with six 
or seven circular rows of well-developed spinous processes of a simi- 
lar complex structure to those on the body. The oral orifice itself 
presents the form of a vertical elliptical fissure, bounded on each 
side by a jaw-like membranous fold or process, the anterior margiri 
of which is produced in the form of three straight horny points or 
processes, directed forwards. These lateral processes can be pro- 
truded beyond the circular lip by compressing the smooth spineless 
skin behind the latter; and the elasticity of the structure causes them 
to be again retracted on remitting the pressure. 

" The vulva is situated at the junction of the middle and posterior 
thirds of the body ; the anus in the female is in the form of a trans- 
verse semilunar fissure immediately behind the obtuse posterior apex, 
and on the concave side of the inflection. 

" The anus of the male, from the anterior part of which a single 
slightly-curved intromittent spiadum Is proti'uded, is surrounded by 
eight distinct pointed papilla, three of which are placed in a vertical 
row on each side, and two smaller ones at the low^er boundary of 
the common opening to the recttan and male gland. 

" On comparing this Nematoid worm with those already described, 
it approaches most nearly to some species which are referred by 
Rudolphi to the genus Strongylus, as the Strongylus trigonocephalus, 
R., (Hist. Entoz. ii. pi. I. p. 231.,) in which species the 'Biirsamaris 
suhglobosa, ' biloba, multiradiata,' presents an approximation to the 
structure of the external male organs above described, in which the 
eight tubercles surround the opening somewhat after the manner of 
rays. But on pursuing the comparison we find that here the re- 
semblance ceases : there is no subglobose bilobed sheath to the in- 
tromittent organ in the species here described ; the head is sur- 



125 

rounded by a circular instead of a trigonal lip ; the Strong, trlgono- 
cephttlus is placed by Rudolphi in the section c, ore nudo, while 
the armature of the mouth, in tlie present species, is so remarkable, 
as to induce me to regard it as the type of a new genus, which I pro- 
pose to denominate Gtiathostoma*. 

. " Gen. Char. Co?'j3ms teres, elasticura, utrinque attenuatum. Caput 
unilabiatum, labio circulari tumido integro ; os emissile, processibus 
cornels maxilliformibus duobus lateralibus denticulatis. Genitale 
masculum spiculum simplex, ad basin papillis circumdatum. 

" Sp. Gnath. spinigerum. Gnath., capite truncato, corporeseriebus 
plurimis spinulorum armato. 

" The generic difference indicated by the external peculiarities of 
the Entozoa above described, is confirmed by the internal anatomy, 
which presents some peculiarities which appear not to have been 
hitherto detected in the class Entozoa : I refer more particularly to 
a distinct salivary apparatus, conformable to that which exists in the 
Holothuria and other Echinodermata. This apparatus consists of four 
elongated straight blind tubes, each about two lines in length, which 
are jilaced at equal distances around the commencement of the ali- 
mentary canal, having their smaller extremities directed forward, 
and opening into the mouth, at the base of the lateral tridentate 
processes, and their closed obtuse ends passing backwards into the ab- 
dominal cavity. When examined with a lens of \ inch focus, the 
parietes of these salivary tubes present very distinct oblique or spiral 
decussating fibres ; their contents are semi-pellucid in the recent 
worm, but become opake in spirit of wine. 

" I'he coexistence of these salivary glands with an oral apparatus 
which is better adapted for trituration than any that has hitherto 
been detected in the Entozoa, is conformable to the laws which re- 
gulate the existence and condition of the salivary apparatus in higher 
animals ; and is highly interesting on that account. The only allu- 
sion which I can find to salivary organs in other Entozoa is in Clo- 
quet' s ' Anatomie de rAsca7-ide Lomhricoide,' in which he considers the 
thickened glandular parietes of the oesophagus to serve for an analo- 
gous secretion. 

" The first portion of the alimentary canal or stomach, is about 3 
lines in length ; it contains a milk-white substance, and is separated 
by a well-marked constriction from the remaining poi'tion, which we 
may regard as intestine : this is filled with a pulpy substance of an 
amber colour, which grows deeper in tint as it approaches the anus. 
The intestine enlarges slightly as it passes backward ; it is wide and 
straight : is not tied down to the parietes of the body by mesenteric 
filaments as in the Strongylus gigas, &c. ; its surface is irregular, and it 
seems to contain a spiral tube or valve, but this appearance arises 
from the nature of the internal surface of the intestinal tunics, which 
is beset with large regular obtuse lozenge-shaped processes arranged 
in alternate longitudinal rows. 

" The lateral lines of the body consist distinctly of two vessels, 

* yuxSoi; maxilla, aro/xx os. 



126 

which project into the interior of the body, being attached by a small 
part of their circumference ; and becoming very wide and free near the 
head. The dorsal and ventral nervous cords are plainly visible in 
the midspace of the lateral vessels. The muscular tunics of the body 
are well developed, consisting of external transverse and internal 
longitudinal fibres. The latter are lined with a layer of pulpy floc- 
culent substance. 

"The male organs consist of a shghtly-curved slender single 
spiculum, projecting from the caudal extremity of the body, as 
above described. The base of this spiculum communicates with a 
dilated receptacle, 2 lines long, of an opake white colour, which is 
separated by a slight constriction from the rest of the seminal tube ; 
this is, as usual, single : it is semi-transparent, and gradually grows 
smaller to its blind extremity, which is attached by cellular tissue to 
the middle line of the ventral surface of the body, half-way between 
the two extremities. The whole length of the seminal tube is ten 
times that of the entire worm. 

" The female organs consist of the vulva, vagina, uterus hicornis, 
and oviducts or ovarian tubes. 

" From the vulva, the situation of which has been already men- 
tioned, the vagina is continued, at first wide, then narrower, and lastly 
widening again to pass into the uterus: it exceeds an inch in length. 
The tM'o cornua of the uterus are each about -^ a line in diameter, and 
5 lines in length ; they diminish and are continued without any con- 
striction into tiie ovarian tubes ; these are of immense proportional 
length, each exceeding, by 30 times, the length of the body ; their at- 
tenuated extremities or beginnings are not attached to the parietes 
of the body; although the coils of the oviducts appear at first sight 
to be inextricably interwoven around the intestine, they in reality 
cover it in aggregate folds, which are easily separated from the in- 
testine, and unravelled." 

Mr. Owen stated in conclusion, that preparations exhibiting the 
male and female organs thus unfolded, with the digestive canal and 
salivary apparatus, had been deposited in the Museum of the Royal 
College of Surgeons. 



1-27 



December 13. 1836. 

Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair. 

Part of a paper by M. Frederick Cuvier was read, on the Family 
of the Dipodida, including the Jerboas and Gerbillas*. 

Mr. F. Debell Bennett, Corresponding Member of the Society, 
then read some Notes on the anatomy of the Spermaceti Whale, 
{Physeter macrocephalus, Auctorum,) principally relating to its den- 
tition, and to the struclure and appearances presented by the soft 
parts. 

Mr. Bennett remarks that a greater disproportion exists between 
the sexes in this species of Whale than is observed in any other 
cetaceous animal ; for while the usual length of the largest male 
Cachalots, taken in the Soutfi Seas, is about 60 feet, that of full- 
grown females is only 28, and rarely, if ever, exceeding 35. 

When the young male Cachalot has attained the length of 34 feet, 
its teeth are perfectly formed, though not visible until it exceeds 28. 
The upper jaw usually described as toothless, has on either side a 
short row of teeth, sometimes occupying the bottom of the cavities 
which receive the teeth of the lower-jaw, but generally corresponding 
to the intervals between them. The entire length of these teeth is 
about three inclies ; they are slightly curved backwards, and elevated 
about half an inch above the soft parts, in which they are deeply 
imbedded, having only a slight attachment to the maxillary bone. 
Their number is not readily ascertained, because the whole series are 
not always apparent ; but in two instances Mr. Bennett found 8 on 
each side. These teeth exist in adult Whales of both sexes, and 
though not visible externally in the young Cachalots, may be seen 
upon the removal of the soft parts from the interior of the jaw. 

" The eye of the Cachalot is small, and placed far back on the head, 
above and between the pectoral fin and angle of the lower jaw. Its 
situation is chiefly marked by a raised portion of integument around 
it. Tlie aperture for visicm does not exceed 2 inches in the longitu- 
dinal, and 1 inch in the vertical direction. The eyelids are without 
cilia and tarsal cartilages ; they are composed of two horizontal bands 
of integument, each, in the example from which I describe (viz. a half- 
grown male), two inches in depth, and connected with each other at 
the inner and outer canthus. Between each of the eyelids and the 
blubber exists a distinct line of separation, marked by a somewhat 
deep groove, having a duplicature of thin membrane, serving as a 
surface or hinge on which the lids move. At these lines of demar- 
cation all integument partaking of the nature of fat ceases, and the 
texture of the tarsi thus insulated is composed solely of common 
skin and cellular and other membranes, together with a dense layer 

• The abstract of this and the concluding part of thn Memoir will be 
foiuul in the Proceedings for IJecenibev 27, 1836. 

No. XLVIII. PaOCEKDINGS OK THE ZoOLOfiUAL SoClETY. 



128 

of muscular fibres deposited in its centre. The conjunctiva of the lids 
is highly vascular, injected with blood, and covered with orifices of 
mucous ducts. At the inner canthus of the eye it forms a thick 
duplicature, of crescentic form, constituting a rudimental third eye- 
lid, not unlike the haw of the horse. The globe of the eye is chiefly 
lodged in the soft parts, but little if any of its substance entering 
the bony orbit. It is deeply set within the Uds, and does not in size 
much exceed that of an ox. Its size in an adult female was 2^ inches 
in the longitudinal, and the same in the vertical direction. The in- 
terior or cavity was l^ inch in each of the last-named directions, and 
its depth f rds of an inch only. 

" The globe at its greatest circumference was 7| inches : the trans- 
parent cornea at its transverse or broadest diameter measured 1 inch, 
and in its vertical or narrowest f ths of an inch. The muscles of the 
globe formed a dense mass surrounding the sheath of the optic nerve, 
and were inserted in one continuous line over the circumference of 
the globe at its greatest convexity. 

"The optic nerve before penetrating the sclerotic is continued to 
some length. It does not exceed the circumference of a crow's quill, 
but is surrounded by a dense fibrous sheath nearly 4 inches in peri- 
meter, and which, where the nerve perforates the globe, terminates 
on the posterior surface of the latter. Around the globe and its 
muscles much cellular tissue and true fat are deposited. The eyeball 
in shape is not a perfect sphere ; its anterior and posterior surfaces 
are flattened : that portion of the conjunctiva of the globe immediately 
surrounding the cornea, and the only portion exposed between the 
aperture of the lids, is of an intense black hue. It is possible this 
dark portion may be a membrane distinct from the conjunctiva, since 
around the extent it occupies, it terminates by an irregular margin, 
and is capable of being detached from the conjunctiva, when it presents 
the form of a delicate layer of cuticle, with a black pigment deposited 
beneath its surface*. 

" The cornea of the Cachalot is dense, and composed of many 
layers ; when divided, a small quantity of limpid aqueous humour 
flows forth : the anterior chamber of the eye is very limited, and the 
crystalline lens projects into it through the pupillary aperture. The 
iris is a coarse membrane of a dull-brown colour, with a narrow zone 
of lighter hue surrounding its outer margin. Its inner and free margin 
is very thin, and embraces the protruding convexity of the lens. 

"The lens is small, certainly not exceeding in size that of the human 
eye : it forms nearly a perfect sphere : the vitreous humour tolerably 
abundant. The retina was spread with beautifully delicate arbo- 
rescent vessels, and afforded a small bright spot at the insertion of 
the optic nerve. Beneath the retina was spread a tapetum of dense 
membranous texture, and yellow-green or erugo-green colour. The 
sclerotic at its posterior third is thick, fibrous, and resisting, whilst 
its anterior third is thin and flexible; no lachrymal apparatus 
exists." 

* A slight dark tint around the covnea is not uncommon amongst the 
dark-skinned natives of warm countries. 



129 

In the description of the organs of generation ; the cavity in the 
head containing the spermaceti ; and some more of the soft parts, 
Mr. Bennett's observations coincide with those of Hunter and other 
comparative anatomists. 

A foetus apparently of mature growth, taken from the abdomen of 
a Sperm Whale, measured 14 feet in length and 6 in girth; its 
position in the uterus was that of a bent bow. 

Mr. Reid brousht before the notice of the Meeting a new species 
of the genus Perameles, and read a paper giving some account of its 
habits, and pointing out its distinguishing characters. 

The author states that he was indebted to William Holmes, Esq.. 
of Lyon's Inn, for the ojjportunity of exhibiting this specimen, which 
was brought from Van Diemen's Land, where these animals are said 
to be common. The same species is also found in Western Australia, 
and is there called by the natives Dalgheit, and by the colonists the 
Rabbit, under which name it is mentioned by Cunningham in his 
work on New South Wales. Widdowson, in his account of Van 
Diemen's Land, notices it ; but neither of these writers has given 
any description of the animal. From its resemblance to the Rabbit, 
Mr. Reid proposes for it the specific name of Lagotis. 

Perameles Lagotis. Per. griseus, capite, nuchd, et dorso, castaneo 
lavatis ; buccis, lateribus colli, scapulis, lateribus, femoribus extus, 
cauddque ad basin, pallide castaneis ; mento, guld, pectore, abdo- 
mine, extremitatibus intus anticeque, antibrachiis postice, pedi- 
busque suprcl albidis ; antibrachiis externe pallide griseis, femo- 
ribus extus posticeque saturate plumbeis ; caudd, pilis longis albes- 
centibus ad partem basalem, indutd, dein pilis nigris tectd, parte 
apicali albd, pilis longis supra ornatd. Vellere longo molli. 
Cauda pilis nidis vestitd ; pilis ad pedes brevissimis. Labia su- 
periore, buccisque, mystacibus longis sparsis. Auriculis longis, 
ovatis, intus nudis, extus pilis brevissimis brunneis, ad mai-ginem, 
ulbescentibus indutis, pilis ad bases eos plumbeis, apicibus albis 
aut castaneis, illis in abdomine omnino albis. Marsupio ventrali 
magna, mammis novem, in faciem posticam ; quorum una centra- 
lis est, reliquis circumdata, intervallis aqualibus, gyrumque faci- 
entibus, transversim ttnciam cum quadrante reddentem. 

poll. lin. 
Long, capitis 3 3 

corporis 13 

caudae 10 

auriculae 3 10 

antibrachii 4 U 

pedis antici 1 ^ 

tibise 3 9 

pedis postici 4 6 

ab auriculae basi usque ad oculum . . 2 

ab oculo usque ad nasum 2 8 

Latitude auriculae 1 9 

Hab. In Australia Occidentali et in Terr^ Van Diemen. 



130 

"The ears are long, broad, and ovate, having several semitransparent 
dots scattered over their surface (the remains of sebaceous glands) . 
On the anterior extremitjr the nails are much elongated ; the second 
and third are about ^th of an inch longer than the first ; they are 
all flattened at the tips, thus furnishing the animal "with a very 
efficient apparatus for burrowing. The tail offers many differences 
from that of the other species of the genus Perameles. I'he basal 
fourth is clothed with hairs about the same length and colour as those 
of the bod)^. The middle half is black, the hairs on the upper part 
being elongated ; the remaining part is M'hite, with a ridge of long 
white stiff hairs forming a crest. 

" The pouch in this specimen (a female) is large, and has 9 nipples 
on its posterior surface ; one being placed in the centre, and the 
remainder at equal distances form a circle, the diameter of which is 
1 inch 3 lines. 

" The skull is perfect, but the state of the skin was such as totally 
to prevent its removal, and the description is therefore defective in 
particulars concerning the bones of the face. The interparietal and 
occipital crests are clearly defined and large. Tlie bulla of the ear 
is large, and its shape that of a flattened ovoid. The tympanum was 
entire, and on removing it the manubrium of the malleus was found 
to be twice the length of its bod}^. The zygomatic arch is imperfect 
for about the space of ^ an inch. The lower-jaw is slender, with a 
salient process at its angle. Dent.: Prim, -g-. Can. i^, Mol. spur. 
1^, Mol. ver. *^. = 48. 

" The two front suj)erior incisors are nearly a line apart, small, and 
quadrangular ; a small space intervenes between these and the three 
succeeding, which are larger, and placed in a continuous series. The 
fourth and fifth incisors are about the same distance from each other 
as the two anterior. Posterior to the incisors is a space about 5 lines 
in width, for the reception of the inferior canines. The canines are 
well developed : another space intervenes between them and the false 
molars, which latter are all rather widely separated, of a conical 
shape, and have a small tubercle anterior to the body of the tooth. 

" The molars oi Perameles, as figured by M. F. Cuvier in his 'Dents 
des Mammifires,' consist of two prisms fixed to a slightly curved 
base, with the concavity towards the inside of the jaw; but in 
this species the molars are quadrangular, ha%4ng had but two sets 
of tubercles, and in the present specimen these teeth are worn 
down and present a square surface, inclosed by enamel, having a 
band of the same running transversely across the middle of the tooth. 
The two last molars of the upper jaw approximate so clDsely, as to 
require careful examination to detect the line of separation. The 
teeth of the lower jaw, except in number and in the circumstance of 
all the incisors forming a continuous series, do not differ from those 
of the upper. When the jaws are closed, the posterior molars of the 
upper and lower jaws are in contact. 

"A friend of Mr. Gould's, residing in Western Australia, states that 
these animals are found beyond the mountains of Swan River, in 



131 

the district of York. They feed apou Itirge maggots and the roots 
of trees, and do considerable damage to the maize and potato crops 
by burrowing. A specimen kept by him in confinement became iu 
a few days very docile, but was irritable, and resented the slightest 
affront or ill usage. It took bread, which it held in its fore-paws. 
A young one to" which it gave birth unfortunately escaped, after 
being carried in the mother's pouch for several days." 

Mr. Reid considers the distinctions between this and the rest of 
the species belonging to the genus Perumdes so marked, that sho\dd 
more of the same form be discovered, the above characters would 
constitute a subgenus to which the name of Macrotis might be 
applied. 

Mr. Waterhouse exhibited a second specimen of Myrmecobins, 
and directed the attention of the Meeting to certain differences ex- 
isting between it and the one upon which he had founded the cha 
racters of the genus, and described under the specific name of 'fus- 
ciatus.' 

The present animal differs from the one previously described in 
having the black and fulvous colouring of the back less decided, 
owing to a larger proportion of interspersed white hairs. The fascia;, 
instead of being white, are of a yellowish cream-colour, and they also 
differ in number and arrangement. Commencing from the tail, the 
three first are distinct and uninterrupted, the intermediate spaces 
being about ^ an inch in width, black, with white hairs interspersed, 
and a few of an ochraceous colour. The fourth is also distinct, but 
instead of being continued across the back, it is met by two fascia; 
from the opposite side. The two following are continuous, but less 
distinct than either of the foregoing. Bej-ond these, the fasciae are 
almost obsolete, there being only faint indications of them on the 
sides of the body. 

The most important distinction, however, exists in the teeth, the 
present specimen possessing altogether four more molars than the 
one brought before the notice of the Society on a previous occasion. 
The entire number of teeth is 52, (26 in each jaw), and the -5 posterior 
molars arc placed closely together, differing in that respect from 
those of the previously examined specimen. 

The animal was brought from Van Diemen's Land, and others 
similar to it were observed scratching at the roots of trees, and 
feeding upon the insects which are generally abundant in such situ- 
ations. 'I'heir favourite haunts are stated to be the localities in 
which the Port Jackson willow is most plentiful. 

Mr. Waterhouse remarked that although the differences between 
the two animals were considerable, yet he did not consider the di- 
stinctions such as to justify his characterizing the one then before 
the Meeting as a second species. 

A Paper was then read by William Ogilby, Esq., with a view of 
pointing out the characters to which the most importance should be 
attached in establishing generic distinctions among the Rinnhuiniin. 



132 

Mr. Ogilby commences by observing that " It has been justly re- 
marked by Professor Pallas, that if the generic characters of the Ru- 
minantia were to be founded upon the modifications of dentition, in 
accordance with the rule so generall)' applicable to other groups of 
Mammals, the greater part of the order would necessarily be comprised 
in a single genus ; since the number, form, and arrangement of the 
teeth being the same in all, except the Camels and Llamas, these 
organs consequently afford no grounds of definite or general distinc- 
tion. Hence it is that naturalists have been obUged to resort to other 
principles to regiilate the distribution of ruminating animals ; and the 
form, cun'^ature, and direction of the horns, selected for this purpose 
at a period when the extremely limited knowledge of species permitted 
the practical application of such arbitrary and artificial characters 
without any very glaring violation of natural affinities, still continue 
to be the only rule adopted by zoologists in this department of Mam- 
malogy. The illustrious Illiger forms a solitary but honourable ex- 
ception ; he first introduced the consideration of the muzzle and la- 
chrj-^mal sinus into the definitions of the genera Antilope, Capra, and 
Bos ; but his labours were disregarded by subsequent 'vsTiters, or his 
principles applied only to the subdivision of the genus Antilope. It 
is ob\'ious, however, that as the knowledge of new forms and spe- 
cies became more and more extensive, the prevailing gratuitous rule 
above mentioned, founded as it is upon purely arbitrary characters 
which have no necessary relation to the habits and oeconomy, or even 
to the general external form, of the animals themselves, would even- 
tually involve in confusion and inconsistency the different groups 
which were founded upon its application ; and such has long been 
its acknowledged effect. The genus Antilope, in particular, has be- 
come a kind of zoological refuge for the destitute, and forms an in- 
congruous assemblage of all the hollow-homed Ruminants, without 
distinction of form or character, which the mere shape of the horns 
excluded from the genera Bos, Ovis, and Capra ; it has thus come to 
contain nearly four times as many species as all the rest of the hollow- 
homed Ruminants together ; so diversified are its forms, and so in- 
congruous its materials, that it presents not a single character which 
will either apply to all its species, or suffice to differentiate it from 
conterminous genera. 

" To meet this obvious evil, MM. Lichtenstein, De Blainville, Des- 
marest, and Hamilton Smith have applied lUiger's principles to sub- 
divide the artificial genus Antilope into something more nearly ap- 
proaching to natural groups ; the reform thus effected, however, was 
but partial in its operation ; the root of the evil still remained un- 
touched, for none of these eminent zoologists appears to have been 
sufficiently aware of the extremely arbitrary and artificial character 
of the principal group itself, which they contented themselves with 
breaking up into subgenera, nor of the actual importance and exten- 
sive application of the characters which they employed for that pur- 
pose. By mixing up these characters, moreover, with others of a 
secondarj' and less important nature, the benefit which might have 
been expected from their labours has been, in a great measure, neu- 



133 

tralized ; and even the subdivisions which they have introduced into 
the so-called genus Antilopc, are less definite and comprehensive than 
they might otherwise have been made. 

' ' The truth is, however, that the presence or absence of horns in 
one or both sexes ; the substance and nature of these organs, whether 
solid or concave, permanent or deciduary ; the form of the upper lip, 
whether thin and attenuated as in the goat, or terminating in a broad 
heavy naked muzzle as in the Ox ; and the existence of lachrymal 
sinuses and interdigital pores, are the characters which really influ- 
ence the habits and oeconomy of ruminating animals, and upon 
which, consequently, their generic distinctions mainly depend. These, 
with the assistance, in a very few instances, of such accessory cha- 
racters as the superorbital and maxillary glands, the number of teats, 
and the existence of inguinal pores, are sufficient in all cases to de- 
fine and characterize the genera with the strictest reference to logical 
precision and zoological simplicity. It is not my intention to discuss 
the value of these characters, or to state the reasons which induced 
me to adopt them in preference to those more generally employed in 
this department of Mammalogy ; these will form the subject of a 
future communication, and I shall content myself for the present 
with observing, that the presence or absence of horns in the females 
regulates, in a great measure, the social intercourse of the sexes , 
that upon the form of the lips and muzzle, the only organs of touch 
and prehension among the Ruminantia, depend the nature of the food 
and habitat, making the animal agraze)- or a browser, as the case may 
be ; and that the existence or nonexistence of interdigital glands, 
the use of which appears to be to lubricate the hoofs, has a very ex- 
tensive influence upon the geographical distribution of the species ; 
confining them to the rich savannah and the moist forest, or enabling 
them to roam over the arid mountain, the parched karroo, and the 
burning desert. 

" Having thus briefly explained the necessity of reforming the 
characters of the diflferent groups of the Order Ruminantia, as they 
are at present constituted, and the nature and value of the principles 
which I propose to employ for that purpose, I shall at once proceed 
to their practical application, confidently anticipating that their 
employment will remove the most serious objections which exist 
against the present distribution of the order, and place our knowledge 
of these interesting animals, in point of scientific accuracy, precision, 
and affinity, on a par with the more generally cultivated departments 
of zoology. 

Fam. I. CamelidvE. 

Pedes subbisulci, subtus callosi, digitis apice solo distinctis ; uu- 
guise succenturiatse nuUse ; cornua nulla ; denies primores supr!> 
duo, infra sex. 

2 Genera. 

I. Camelus, cujup charactcrcs sunt: 
Digili conjuncti, immobilcs. 



134 

Rostrum chilomate instructum, labro fisso. 
Sinus lachrymales nuUi. 
Fossce inter digitales nullae. 
FoUiculi ingjiinales nulli. 
Mamma quatuor. 

2. AUCHENIA : 

Digiti disjunct!, mobiles. 

Rostrum chilomate instructum, labro fisso. 

Sinus lachrymales nulli. 

Fossce interdigitales nuUse. 

FoUiculi inguinales nulli. 

Mammce duse. 

" The Camelida form what Mr. MacLeay would call an aberrant 
group ; they differ essentially from other Ruminants in the structure 
both of the organs of locomotion and of mastication, and their ge- 
neric distinctions consequently depend upon characters which have 
no application to the remaining groups of the order. On the other 
hand, the principles of generic distribution which subsist among the 
rest of the Ruminantia appear to furnish negative characters only 
when applied to the Camelida;; but though necessarily expressed 
negatively, the absence of lachrymal, inguinal, and interdigital sinuses 
forms, in reality, positive and substantial characters, and as such, as 
well as for the sake of uniformity, should be introduced into the de- 
finition of these, as well as of other genera, in which they unavoid- 
ably appear under a negative form. 

Fam. II. Cervid^. 

Pedes bisulci ; cornua solida, plerilmque decidu<a, in mare solo, aut 
in utroque sexu ; denies primores supra nulli, infr^ octo. 

6 Genera. 

1. Camelopardalis. 

Cornua in utroque sexu, perennia, simplicia, cute obducta. 
Rhinaria nulla. 
Sinizs lachrymales nulli. 
Fossce interdigitales parvee. 
FoUiculi inguinales nulli. 
Mamma quatuor. 
Duo species sunt C. JEthiopicus ct C. Capcnsis. 

2. Tarandus. 

Cornua in utroque sexu, .subpalmata, decidua. 
Rhinaria nulla. 
Sinus lachrymales exigui. 
Fossa interdigitales parva?. 
FoUiculi inguinales nulli. 
Mamma quatuor. 
Typus est Tarandus Rangifcr (Ccrvus Tarandus). 



135 

3. Alces. 

Cornua in marc solo, palmata, decitlua. 
Rhiuaria nulla. 
Sinus lachrymales exigui. 
Fossx interdigitales raagnse. 
FollicuU inguinales nuUi. 
Mamm(£ quatuor. 
Typus est Alces Machlis {Cervus Alces). 

4. Cervus. 

Cornua in mare solo, ramosa, decidua. 
Rhinaria magna. 

Sinus lachrymales distincti, mobiles. 
Fossa interdigitales mag-na?. 
FollicuU inguinales nulli. 
Mammas quatuor. 
Typi sunt C. Elaphus et C. Saumer aut Hippelaphus, Cuv. 

5. Caprea. 

Cornua in mare solo, subramosa, decidua. 
Rhinnria distincta. 
Sinus lachrymales nulli. 
Fossa interdigitales magn?p. 
FollicuU inguinales nulli. 
Mamma quatuor. 
Typus est C. Capreolus. 

6. Peox. 

Cornua in mare solo, subramosa, decidua. 
Rhinaria magna. 

Sinus lachrymales maximi, mobiles. 

Sinus duo supraorbitales ad basin cornuum, magiai, mobiles. 
Fossa interdigitales magnse. 
FollicuU inguinales nulli. 
Mamma quatuor. 
Typus est Prox Moschatus {Cervus Muntjac). 

Fam. III. MoscHiDiE. 

Pedes bisulci ; cornua nulla ; denies primores supra nulli, infra 

octo. 
2 Genera. 

1. MOSCHUS. 

Rhinaria magna. 
Sinus lachrymales nulli. 
Fossa interdigitales nullse, 
FollicuU inguinales nulli. 
Mamma quatuor. 
Typus est Moschus Moschijerus. 

2. IXALUS ? 

Rhinaria nulla. 



136 

Sinus lachrymales exigui, distincti. 
Fossa interdigitales nullae. 
Folliculi inguinales exigxii. 
Mamma duse. 
Typus est Ixalus Prohaton, Proc. Zool. Soc, Part IV. page 119. 

"The genus Ixalus, founded upon the obsen'ation of a single spe- 
cimen, may eventually prove to belong to a different family ; it differs 
little, indeed, from the true Antelopes : but even supposing it to 
be correctly placed among the Moschida, other forms are still want- 
ing to fill up the chasms which evidently exist among the characters 
of that group. Two are more especially indicated, and our know- 
ledge of the laws of organic combination and of the constituent parts 
of other groups, gives us every reason to believe in their actual 
existence, and to anticipate their discovery. They will be character- 
ized nearly as follows, and will probably be found, one in the tropical 
forests of the Indian Archipelago, and the other on the elevated table 
lands of Mexico or South America. 

HiNNULUS. 

Rhinaria magna. 
Sinus lachrymales distincti. 
Fossa interdigitales nullae. 
Folliculi inguinales nulli. 
Mamma quatuor. 

Capkeolus. 
Rhinaria nulla. 
Sinus lachrymales nulli. 
Fossa interdigitales parvae } 
Folliculi inguinales ? 
Mamma duse. 

" It may appear a bold, perhaps a presumptuous undertaking, thus 
to predict the discovery of species, and define the characters of 
genera, of whose actual existence we have no positive knowledge ; 
but, as already remarked, all the analogies of nature, whether derived 
from organic combination or from the constituent members of similar 
groups, are in favour of the supposition ; and I may observe further, 
that the recent discovery of the genus Ixalus, if indeed it eventually 
prove to be a genus, of which I had long previously defined the 
characters, as I have here done for the presumed genera Hinnulus 
and Capreolus, strengthens my belief in the actual existence of these 
forms, and increases the probability of their future discovery. 



Fam. IV. Caprid^. 

Pedes bisulci; cornua cava, persistentia ; rhinaria nulla; denies 
primores supra nulli, infra octo. 



137 

7 Genera. 

1. Mazama. 

Cornua in mare solo. 
Sinus lachrymales niiUi. 
FostscE interdigitales distincttx;. 
Folliculi inguinales nuUi. 
Mamma quatuor. 
Typus est M. Furcifer (Antilope Furci/er). 

2. Madoqua. 
Cornua in mare solo. 
Si?ius lachrymales distincti. 
Fossa interdigitales distinctae. 
Folliculi inguinales nuUi. 
Mamma quatuor. 

Typus est M. Saliiana (Ant. Saltiana et Hemprichii). 

3. Antilope. 
Cornua in mare solo. 

Sinus lachrymales distincti, mobiles. 
Fossa interdigitales raaximse. 
Folliculi ingtiinales maximi. 
Mamma duae. 
Typus est A. Cervicapra. 

4. Gazella. 

Cornua in utroque sexu. 
Sinus lachrymales distincti, mobiles. 
Fossa interdigitales maximse. 
Folliculi inguinales maximi. 
Mamma dnae. 
Typus est Gazella Dorcas {Ant. Dorcas). 

5. Ovis. 

Cornua in utroque sexu. 
Sinus lachrymales exigui, immobiles. 
Fossa interdigitales parvae. 
Folliculi inguinales nulli. 
Mamma duse. 
Typus est Ovis Aries. 

6. Capra. 

Cornua in utroque sexu. 
Sinus lachrymales nulli. 
Fossa interdigitales parvae. 
Folliculi inguinales nulli. 
Mamma duae. 
' Typus est Capra Hircus. Ad hoc genus pertinent Ovis Tragelaphus, 
et Antilope Lanigeru aut Americana, Auct. 

7. OviBOS. 

Cornua in utroque sexu. 
Sinus lachrymales nulli. 



138 

Fossx ititerdigitales ? 
FoUicuIi ingvi/ialcs nulli. 
Mammee qufituor. 
Typus Ovibos Moschatus. 

Fam. V. BoviD-E. 

Pedes bisulcl ; cornua cava, persistentia ; rhinaria distincta, nuda ; 

denies primorcs suprci nulli, infrci octo. 
9 Genera. 

1 . Tragulxis. 

Cornua in utroque scxu. 
Glandulce maxUlares oblongjE. 
Fossa interdigilales nullsc?. 
Folliculi inguinales nulli. 
MammcE quatuor. 
Typus est T. Pygmeeus {Ant. Pygmxa). 

2. Sylvicapra. 
Cornua in mare solo. 
GlandulcE maxUlares oblongac. 
Fossa interdigilales parvac. 
Folliculi inguinales distinct!. 
Mamma quatuor. 

Typus est S. Mergens {Ant. Mergens). 

3. Tragelaphus. 
Cornua in mare solo. 
Sinus lachrymales magni. 
Fossa interdigilales distinctse. 
Folliculi inguinales nulli. 
Mamma quatuor. 

Typus est T. Hippelaphus {Ant. Picla) ; the Neel-gJiae, and not 
the Saumer Deer of India, as I shall show elsewhere, is the animal 
described by Aristotle under the name of Hippelaphus . 

4. Calliope. 
Cornua in mare solo. 
Sinus lachrymales nulli. 
Fossa interdigilales nullse. 
Folliculi inguinales distincti. 
Mamma quatuor. 

Typus est Calliope Strcjjsiceros {Ant. Strepsiceros). 

5. Kemas. 

Cornua in utroque sexu. 
Sinus lachrymales nulli. 
Fossa interdigilales magnae. 
Folliculi inguinales nulli. 
Mamma quatuor. 
Typus est Kemas Choral {Ant. Goral). 



I3y 

(j. Capricornis. 

Cornua in utroque sexu. 
Sinus lachrymales magni. 
Fossce interdigitales distinctae. 
FoUiculi inguinales nulli. 
Mammce quatuor. 
Typus est C. Thar (Ant. Thar. Hodg.). 

7. BUBALUS. 

Cornua in utroque sexu. 
Sinus lachrymales exigui, distincti. 
Fossa: interdigitales magnse. 
FoUiculi inguinales nulli. 
Mammce duse. 
Typus est Bubalus Mauritanicus {Ant. Bubalus). 

8. Oryx. 

Cornua in utroque sexu. 
Sinus lachrymales nulli. 
Fossce interdigitales magnse. 
FoUiculi inguinales nulli. 
Mammae quatuor. 
Species sunt 0. Capensis {Ant. Oryx), Leucoryx, Leucophtea, &c. 

9. Bos. 

Cornua in utroque sexu. 
Sinus lachrymales nulli. 
Fossce interdigitales nulla;. 
FoUiculi inguinales nulli. 
Mammce quatuor. 
Typus est Bos Taurus. 

" I have here confined myself strictly to generic characters ; the 
synonyma and discrimination of species will form the subject of a 
future monograph ; in the mean time, with t^ie assistance of the Ar- 
ticle Antelope in the Penny Cyclopsedia, or, with the proper cor- 
rections, of Col. Smith's Treatise on the Ruminants in the fourth 
volume of Griffith's Translation of the ' Regne Animal,' the student 
will have no difficulty in referring any particular species to its appro- 
juinte genus. He will thus be enabled to judge of the coiTCctness or 
incorrectness of the affinities here indicated, and consequently to form 
a tolerable estimate of the value of the characters by which I propose 
to distinguish the genera of ruminating animals ; and indeed it is 
principally from the wish to excite the attention of zoologists to 
more extensive observation than I myself possess, that I have been 
induced to publish the present analysis of my own investigations in 
this dejjartment of Mammalogy." 

Mr. Gould exhibited numerous examples of the genus Strix (as 
at present restricted), from numerous parts of the globe, including 
three undescribed species from Australia, which he characterizes as 
follows : 



140 

Strix castanops. Str. disco fasciali castaneo, ad marginem satU' 
ratiore, et nigra circumdato ; corpore supra alls cauddque Iceti 
rufo-brunneis, plumis singulis fasciis latis saturate brunneis, dis- 
pariter ornatis ; capite humerisque maculis sparsis minutis albis ; 
corpore infrcL flavescenti-brunneo ; lateribus colli corporisque gut- 
tis nigris sparsi ornatis ; femoribus tibiisque flavo-brunneis pedi- 
hus flavescentibus ; rostra fiavo-fusca . 

Long. tot. 18 unc. ; rostri, 2^; a/«, 15 ; cauda, 7 ; tarsi, 3^. 

Hab. In Terra Van Diemen. 

This is the largest known species of the restricted genus Strix, of 
which the common Barn Owl is a typical example. 

Steix Cyclops. Str. disco fasciali alba, venuste annulo saturate 
brunneo, circumdato ; corpore supra albo ; dorso humerisque pal- 
lide stramineis, maculis brunneis et albis lentiginosis ; primariis, 
fasciis ulternis stramineis brunneisque ; pogoniis externis apici- 
busque lineis brunneis rectis, frequentibus, et retortis ; caudd albd 
fasciis brunneis ; interstitiis albis brunneo crebre guttatis, corpore 
infrii albo, maculis brunneis ; femoribus iarsisque albis ; pedibus 
flavo-fuscis ; rostra livido. 

Long. tot. 15 unc; rostri, IJ; alis, H^; cauda,5^; tarsi, 2\. 

Hab. In Nova Cambria Australi. 

This is one of the most beautiful species of the genus. 

Stkix delicatulus. Str. disco fasciali alba, margine stramined 
circumdato ; corpore supra pallidi cano-fusco, flavo tincto, notis 
nigricantibus et albidis intermixtis delicatulis frequentibusque 
ornato ; alls pallide fulvis , fasciis lineisque rectis retartis,pallide 
brunneis ; primariis ad apicem guttd albd notatis ; cauda rectri- 
cibus quoad colorem remiges fingentibus at guttd apicali albd ob- 
scuriore ; carpore infrii albo ; pectore lateribusque maculis brunnes- 
centibus sparsi notatis ; femoribus tibiisque albis ; pedibus flaves- 
centibus rostra livido. 

Long. tot. 14 unc; rostri, IJ; ala, 11 ; cauda, 4; tarsi, 2^. 

Hab. In Nova Cambria Australi. 

This species in some respects very closely resembles the common 
British Owl, St. flammea ; but it has a longer bill, and is considerably 
smaller. 



141 



December 27th, 1836. 
Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair. 

The remainder of M. F. Cuvier's Paper on the Jerboas and Ger- 
b'dlas was read. 

M. Cu\4er commences this memoir with observing that his atten- 
tion has been particularly directed to the Rodentia, with a view of 
arriving at a natural classification of the numerous species composing 
that order, among which considerable confusion had hitherto pre- 
vailed, particularly in the genera Dipus and Gerbillus, the relations 
of which to other allied groups have been but very imperfectly un- 
derstood by previous writers. 

The species included in the genus Dipus have been formed by 
M. Lichtenstein into three divisions, which are distinguished by the 
absence and number of rudimentary toes upon the hind feet. In the 
first section are placed those with three toes, all perfectly formed ; in 
the second, those with four, one of which is rudimentary ; and in the 
third, those with five, two of these being rudimentary. M. Cuvier 
states that he is unacquainted with the second division of M. Lich- 
tenstein, but in the examination of the species belonging to the first, 
in addition to the absence of rudimentary toes, he finds they are also 
distinguished from those of the third by the forin of the teeth, and 
the osteological characters of the head. These points of difference 
he considers of sufficient importance to justify his making a distinct 
genus for the Jerboas with five toes, adopting the name Allactaga, 
given by Pallas to a species, as the common generic appellation. 

" We know," observes M. Cuvier, " that the three principal toes 
of the AUactagas, as well as the three only toes of the Jerboas, are 
articulated to a single metatarsal bone, and that the two rudimentary 
toes of the first genus have each their metatarsal bone ; whence it 
results that the penultimate segment of the foot is composed of three 
bones in the AUactagas, and of one only in the Jerboas. The incisors 
of the AUactagas are simple, whilst those in the upper-jaw of the 
Jerboas are divided longitudinally by a furrow. The molars of the 
latter genus are complicated in form, and but little resemble those of 
the former. They are four in number in the upper-jaw, and three in 
the lower, but the first in the upper is a small rudimentary tooth, 
which probably disappears in aged individuals." 

The structure of the grinding teeth is then described in detail, and 
illustrated by drawings which accompanied the paper. 

" The general structure of the head of the AUactagas and Jerboas 
is evidently the same, and is characterized by the large size of the 
cranium, the shortness of the muzzle, and above all by the magnitude 
of the suborbital foramina. The cranium of the Jerboa is distin- 
guished by its great breadth posteriorly resulting from the enormous 
development of the tympanic bone, which extends beyond the occi- 



142 

pital posteriorly and laterally as far as the zygomatic arch, which 
is by no means the case in the AUactagas, where all the osseous parts 
of the ear are of moderate dimensions. Another differential character 
between the two genera, is presented by the maxillary arch, which 
circumscribes externally the suborbital foramina, and wliich, in the 
AUactagas, may be said to be linear, and presenting a very limited 
surface for the attachment of muscles. Lastly, we may note a dif- 
ference in the relative development of the jaws, the lower being com- 
paratively much shorter in the AUactagas than in the Jerboas." 

The author then proceeds to describe a new species of Allactaga, 
a native of Barbary, for which he proposes the name of A . arundinis. 
Its length from the origin of the tail to the end of the muzzle, 5 inches ; 
length of the tail, 5 inches and 2 or 3 lines; of the ears, 1 inch; length 
of the tarsi from the heel to the extremity of the toes, 22 lines. AU 
the upper parts of the body are of a beautiful greyish yellow, with 
yellowish sides and tail of the same colour, terminated by a tuft of a 
blackish brown at its origin, and white at the extremity. The sides 
of the cheek, the ventral surface of the body, and tlie internal limbs 
are white ; large brovv'u moustaches adorn the sides of the muzzle. 
The incisors are white and entire, the eai's almost naked. 

M. Cuvier next proceeds to consider the characters and affinities 
of the genera Gerbillus and Mei'iones, and enters into a critical ex- 
amination of all the species referred to that group. To these he adds 
another species, the habits of which he details, and describes at length 
under the name of G. Burtoni. The species which he thus includes 
are, 1st, G. Egypt iacus, syn. Dipus Gerbillus, Meriones quadrima- 
cw/a/M5, Ehrenberg ; 2nd, Gerbillus pyramidum, syn. Dipus pyramidum 
Geoff., Meriones robustus Rupp. ; 3rd, G.pygargiis, syn. Meriones 
Gerbillus, Rupp. ; 4th, G. Nidicus, syn. Dipus Nidicus, Hardwicke ; 
5th, G. Africanus, syn. Meriones S c hi eg e I ii Snwitz., G. Afra Gray; 
6th, G. brevi-caudatus ; 7th, G. Otaria ; 8th, G. Burtoni. Theautlior 
enters into detailed descriptions of each of these species from original 
specimens. M. Cuvier lastly considers the affinities of the Gerbillus 
and AUactagas to the Gerboas, and concludes that the Gerbillus have 
a much nearer affinity to the Muridte. 

Mr. Gould exhibited to the Meeting all the species from ■which the 
drawings had been taken for the first part of his new work on the 
Birds of Australia, among which were several new and very remark- 
able forms. The following hitherto undescribed genera and species 
were named and characterized. 

OcYPTERUs suPERCiLiosus. Oc.facle, guld, pectoreque nigrescenti- 
griseis ; lined superciliari alba ad basi7i rostri excurrente ; summo 
cupite, corpore superiore alisque fuliginosis ; abdomine crissoque 
castaneis ; rectricibus griseo-fuliginosis, ad apicem ulbescentihus, 
intermediis duabus exceptis ; rostro plumbeo, ud apicem nigra ; 
pedibus plumbeis. 

Long. tot. 7 unc; rostri, 1 ; ala, 4J; caudte, 3 ; tarsi, |. 

Hah. In NovS Cambria Australi. 



14:5 

Vanga cinerea. Mas. Vang, capite et nuchd nigris loro albo ; dorso, 
humeris et uropygio griseis ; tectricibus cauda albis, rectricibtis 
Cauda nigris, interne ad apicem albis, duabus intermediis exceptis, 
secondariis in medio, tectricibus majoribus, guld et corpore subti>s, 
albis ; rostro ad basin plumbeo, ad apicem nigra ; pedibus nigris. 

Long. tot. 12|^ unc. ; rostri, 1|; ala, 6; cauda, 5f ; tarsi, \\. 

Hab. In Terrei Van Diemen. 

Vanga nigrogularis. Mas. Vang, capite, collo, et pectore nigris; 

torque nuchali, ptilis, pteromatum strigd longitudinali, dorso imo, 

uropygio, abdomine, crisso, rectricumque lateralium apicibus albis ; 

rectricibus duabus, intermediis omnino nigris ; rostro ad basin 

plumbeo in nigrum transeunte ; pedibus nigris. 
Fcem. vel mas jun. ? Partibus quce in mare nigris in h6c cinerascenti- 

brunneis, vittd occipitali fer'h ubsoletd ; guld pectoreque fulvo 

brunneis ; partibus reliquis ut in mare adult o. 
Long. tot. 13^ unc; rostri. If; al<B, 7; Cauda, 6; tarsi, 1^. 
Hab. In Nova Cambria Australi. 

Struthidea. 
Rostrum validum, robustum, tumidum, suprk arcuatum, altitudine 
latitudinem excellente ; gonyde angulato ; naribus rotundatis 
opertis; mandibula inferiore ad basin incrassat^, et in genas 
pereunte ; ala raediocres, rotundatae ; remige primo brevi, quarto 
et quinto longissimis, remigibus secundariis elongatis et latis ; 
tarsi mediocri longitudine et robusti, anticfe scutellati, postic^ 
plani ; digitis subvalidis ; poUice medio digito breviore et va- 
lidiore. 

Struthidea cinerea. Struth. capite, collo, partibusque corporis 
inferioribus griseis ; singulis plumis ad marginem pallidioribus ; 
alis brunneis ; rectricibus cauda nigris, metallic^ viridi nitentibits ; 
rostro pedibusque nigris. 

Long. tot. 11|^ unc; rostri. J; ala, 5^; cauda, 6; tarsi, l^. 

Hab. In Nova Cambria Australi. 

Tropidorhynchus citreogularis. Trop. summo capite, dorso, 
uropygio, alis, cauddque brunneis, his pallidioribus ; pogoniis ex- 
ternis remigum secundariorum olivaceo marginatis ; caudd ad 
apicem grised ; nuchd ac lateribus colli albescenti-griseis ; mandi- 
buld inferiori ad basin notdque nudd pone oculos cceruleis ; guld 
et lateribus pectoris citreis ; abdomine pallid'^ griseo ; rostro 
nigra ; pedibus plumbeis. 

Long. tot. \0\ unc. ; rostri, \\; ala, 5\; cauda, 4^; tarsi, l^. 

Hab. In Nov^ Cambria Australi. 

Meliphaga penicillata. Mel. facie plumisque auricularibus fla- 
vidis ; pone has penicilld sericed albd oriente ; corpore superiore 
flavescenti-griseo ; pogoniis remigum externis latioribus ; corpore 
subtiis pallidi brunnescenti-pinereo ; rostra pedibusque brunneis. 

Long. tot. 6^ unc. ; rostri, | ; ala, 3 ; canda, 3 ; tarsi, |. 

Hab. In Novi Cambrift Australi, 



144 

Meliphaga sericea, Mel. summo rapite, guld, et regione circa 
oculos nigris ; strigd frontali ulbd supra oculos tendente ; penicilld 
pilosd alba, genas auresque tegente ; dorso hrunnescenti-cinerco , 
longitudinaliter nigro striata ; corpore subtiis albo singulis plumis 
in medio longitudinaliter nigris ; alis brunnescenti-nigris, pogoniis 
remigum externis, late flavidis ; rectricibus cauda brunneis, pogo- 
niis ad marginem flavescentibus ; rostra pedibusque nigris. 

Long. tot. 6^ unc. ; rostri, ^ ; alee, 2-| ; caudce, 2^ ; tarsi, |. 

Hab. In Nova Cambri-^ Australi. 

HjEMATOPS. 

Rostrum capite brevius, levitfer arcuatum, acutum, sine denticulo 
ad apicem ; compressiusculum : naribus longitudinalibus, et 
operculo tectis, setis nullis ad rictum : al(c mediocres, remige 
primo brevi, tertio et quarto fere Eequalibus et longissimis : 
caudd mediocri, eequali vel leviter forficata : tarsi medioci-es, 
.sub validi halluce et ungue, digitum medium et unguem sequan- 
tibus ; digitis externis longitudine paribus ; ncEvi sanguinolenti 
supra oculos. 

H^EMATOPS validirostris. Hccm. summo capite splendide nigro, 
vittd accipitali albd, pone oculos oriente ; plumis auricularibus, 
mento, et nuclid nigris ; summo corpore oliimceo, griseo lavato ; 
uropygio rectricumque pogoniis externis latioribus ; alis brvnneis, 
olivacea leviter tinctis ; guld albd, corpore subtHs brunnescenti- 
grisea ; rostra nigro, et ad apicem depressiusculo ; pedibvs 
carnosis. 

Long. tot. 6 1 unc. ; rostri, | ; alee, 34 ; caudce, 3 ; tarsi, ^. 

Hab. In Terra Van Diemen. 

H^matops gularis. Ham. summo capite nigra, vittd accipitali 
albd pone oculos oriente ; plumis auricularibus et nucha nigris ; 
dorsa et uropygio aurato-olivaceis ; alis caudd que brunneis ; guld 
cinerascenti-albd, strigd nigrd per medium partem tendente ; cor- 
pore subti<s cinerascenti-brunneo ; rostra nigro ; pedibus pallid^ 
brunneis. 

Long. tot. 6 unc. ; rostri, f ; alee, 3f ; caudcs, 2| ; tarsi, ^. 

Hab. In Nova Cambria Australi. 

Neomorpha. 

Rostrum longitudine caput excellens ad latera compressum, arcu- 
atum, corneum, solidum, acutum ad apicem denticulo ; nares 
opertae, in sulco basali ; caring mandibulae superioris in pontem 
tendente ; lingua dura, gracilis, ad apicem setosa ; anguli oris 

carunculis carneis pendentibus conferti ; ala ; pedes 

; Cauda corpus longitudine requans. 

Neomorpha acutirostris. Neom. rostra gracili,elangato,arcuato, 
colore cornea, in plumbeum ad basin transeunte ; carunculis late 
aurantiacis ; corpore tola nigro ; caudd largf'. ad apicem albd. 

Long. tot. 16-^- unc. ; rostri, ?,\; ala, — ; cavda, 7 ; tarsi, — . 



145 

Neomori'ha I'RASsiROSTRis. Ncovi. roslfo suburcuato, valido, 
aculo, corneo colore, in plambeum ad basin transeunie ; corpore 
nigra ; caudcl large ad apicem albd. 
Long. tot. 17^ unc. ; rostri, 2^; alee, — ; caud<e, 7^; ta7-si, — . 
Remark. It is to be regretted that the only examples known of 
both these species are imperfect, wanting the feet and the greater 
portion of the wings : they form a part of the Zoological Society's 
collection, and were obtained from the captain of a vessel, who had 
received them from a native chief in New Zealand. 

PoDiCEPS GULARis. Pod. sutnmo capite, et nucha, intense nigres- 
centi-brunneis, olivaceo lavatis ; gutture genisque nigris ; strigd 
castaned pone oculos oriente et per latera colli excurrente ; corpore 
suprci nigrescenti-brunneo ; tcctricibtts aloe secundariis albo niar- 
ginatis, hoc colore vittam transversain faciente ; collo imo,pectore 
et corpore subtus argenteo-griseis, hoc colore in hriinneum ad la- 
tera transeunte ; rostro et pedibus nigris. 

Long. tot. 10 unc. ; rostro, \\\ nice, 4^; tarsi, \\. 

Hob. In Nova Cambria Australi. 

PoDicEPS Nestou. Pod. capite plumis elongatis sericeis albis in- 
duto ; gutture et occipile nigris ; corpore suprci intensi brunneo, 
subtus argenteo-griseo, ad latera brunneo lavato ; rostro nigro ad 
apicem pallidiore ; tarsis oUvaceo-nigris. 

Long. tot. 9 unc. ; rostri, 1 ; al<jc, A\ ; tarsi, 1 g. 

Hub. In Terrii Van Diemen et in Nova Cambria Australi. 

Calodera.* 

Rostrum validum, arcuatum, capite brevius, naribus basalibus rotun- 
datis, fere apertis, mandibula superiore ad apicem levit^r inden- 
tata marginibus sulcatis ; margine mandibulae inferioris in sul- 
cum superioris recepto ; ales mediocres, remige primo brevissimo ; 
tarsi validi, antrorsim scutellati, poUice cum digito interno con- 
juncto, hoc ejusque ungue, validis, at medio digito ungueque, 
brevioribus ; ungues incurvati et acuti ; cauda mediocris, penitiis 
ccqualis. 

* The species belonging to thcgeuus Calodera, aie characterized at page 100. 



INDEX. 



The names of New Species and of Species newly characterized are printed 
in Roman Characters : those of Species previously known, but respecting which 
novel information is given, in Italics : those of species respecting which 
Anatomical Observations are made, in Capitals. 



Page. 

Actinodura, n. g., Gould. 17 

Egertoni, Gould. ... 18 

.^Ices, 111 135 

Allactaga, n. g., F. Cuvier 141 

arundinis, F. Cttvier.... 142 

Amadina Castanotis, Gould 105 

cincta, Gould 105 

modesta, Gould 105 

ruficauda, Gould 106 

Anas marmorata, Tern 59 

Anthropoides paradisaus, Bechst. 30 

Antilope, Pall 137 

adenofa, H. Smith 103 

Cervicapra, Pall 34 

Eurycerus, Ogilb 120 

Forfex, H. Smith 103 

hob, Ogilb 102 

Koba, Ogilb 102 

Korrigum, Ogilb 103 

montana, Riipp 3 

palmnta, H. Smith 121 

Philantomba, Ogilb. ... 121 

Sumalrensis Desm 121 

Aplonis, n. g., Gould 73 

fusca, Goidd 73 

marginata, Gould 73 

Argonauta Argo, Linn 102 

hians, Lam 22 

rufa, Owen 23 

Auchenia, 111 134 

Bos, Linn 139 

Bnbalus, n. g., Ogilb 139 

Bulinus Crichtoni, 5/orf 44 

inflatus, Brod 45 

pusio, Brod. 45 

Calliope, n. g., Ogilb 138 

Calodera n. g., Gould 145 

maculata, Gould 106 

Calyptorhynchus Naso, Gould... 106 



Page. 

Camelopardalis, Linn 134 

Giraffa, Linn. ... 9 

Camelus, Linn 133 

Canis Himalaicus, Ogilb 163 

Capra, Liim 137 

Caprea, n. g., Ogilb 135 

Capreolus, n. g., Ogilb 136 

Capricornis, n. g., Ogilb 139 

Capros Aper, hstCey 54 

Cephalopoda 19 

Cercoleptes bvachyotus. Mart. ... 83 
megalotus. Mart. ... 83 

Cermis, Linn 135 

Aristotelis, Cuv 39 

Barhaiya, Hodg 46 

Muntjac, Gmel 66 

Charadrius Morinellus, Linn. ... 1 

Chironectes Yapock, Desm 56 

Colluricincla fusca, Gould 6 

Conus Adamsonii, Brod 44 

Corvus curvirostris, Gould 18 

pectoralis, Gould 18 

CoRYTHAix BuFFONii, VaiU 32 

Cracticus fuliginosus, Gould 106 

hypoleucus, Gould 100 

Cranchia Bonelliana, Fer 20 

cardioptera, Peron 20 

minima, Fer 20 

scabra, Leach 20 

Ci"ax rubra, Linn 1 

Cursorius rufus, Gould 81 

Cynictis melanurus, Mart. ... 56 

Cynogale, n. g., Gray 88 

Bennettii, Gray 88 

Cyprinus carpio, Linn 10!) 

DicnoLopHus cristatus. 111 29 

Dipodidce 127 

Dipus, Schreb 141 

Edoiius Chrishua, Gould 5 



Its 



JNDES, 



Page. 

Edolius grandis, Gould 5 

Rangoonensis, Gould ... 5 

viridescens, Gould 6 

Emberiza cinerea, Sir kid 99 

Enhydra marina, Flem 59 

Felis Diardi, Cuv 107 

marmorata, Mart 107 

Tigris, Linn 123 

Fringilla serinics, Linn 59 

Gallinago hetemra, ^orfgr 8 

media, Ray 8 

nenioricola, Hodg. ... 8 

solitaria, Hodg 8 

Gallinula ventralis, Gould 85 

Cazella, n. g., Ogilb 137 

Geocichla rubicola, Gould 7 

Gerbillus, Desm HI 

Glaucus hexapterggius, Cuv 113 

Gnathodon, Gray" 104 

Gnathostonia, n. g., Owen 125 

spiNiGERUi\t, Owen 125 

Hasmatops, n. g., Goi<W 144 

gularis, Gould 144 

validirostris, Gould... 144 

Haliaitus albicilla, Sav 49 

Herpestes brachyiniis, Gray ... 88 

Hinnulus, n. g., Ogilb 136 

Ixalus, n. g., Ogilb 135 

Piobaton, Ogilb 119 

Ixos leucotis, Gould <3 

Kemas, n. g., Ogilb 138 

Kitlacincla, n. g., Gould 7 

Lepus Califomica, Grag 88 

Douglasii, Grag 88 

lougicaudata, Grag 88 

Lob'go corolliflora. Til 21 

laticeps, Owen 20 

Pealii, Leacb 21 

Macropus penicillatus, Gray 41 

Macroramphus griseus. Leach ... 1 

Mactra Sprenylcri, Linn 104 

Madoqua, n. g., Ogilb 137 

Mazauia, n. g., Ogilb 137 

Meliphaga penicillata, Gould ... 143 

sericca, Gould 144 

Meriones, 111 142 

Micetes seniculus, Desm 25 

Moschus, Linn 135 

Americanus, Linn 66 

delicatulits, Shaw 66 

lulviventer, Grag 65 

Griffithii, Fisch 66 

Javanicus, Gniel 64 

Kanvhil, Raff. 64 

. Meininna, Linn 63 



Page. 

Moschus Musckiferus, Linn 63 

pygmtBus, Linn 66 

Stanleyanusj Gray 65 

Mulinia, n. g., Gray 104 

Myrniecobius, n. g., Walerhouse . 69 
fasciatus, Waterh. 69, 1 32 

Neomorpha, n. g., Gould 145 

acutirostris, Gould... 145 

crassirostris, Gould.. 145 

OcTODON CuMiNGii, Benu 70 

Octopus semipalmatus, Owen ... 22 

Ocypteius superciliosus, Gould... 142 

Ocgtho'c 121 

Craiichii, Leach 19 

Orpheus modulator, Gould 6 

Ortyx ocellatus, Gould 75 

Oryx, n. g., Ogilb 139 

Ovibos, De Blainv 137 

Ovis, Linn 137 

Oxyura Australis, Gould 85 

Paradoxornis, n. g., Gould 17 

flavirostris, Gould. 17 

I'aradoxurus leucomystax, Gray. 88 

Perameles Lagotis, Reid 129 

Petroica Phcenicea, Gould 105 

Phalangista vulpina, Cuv. ... 2 

PiiAscoLARCTOS Fuscus, Dcsm... 109 

PiiAscoLOMYS Wombat, Per 49 

Physcter macrocephalus, La Cep. 127 

Pipra squalida, Burton 113 

Plyctolophus productus, Gould... 19 

Podiceps gularis, Gould 145 

Nestor, Gould 145 

Porpita 116 

Prionites cosruliceps, Gould 18 

Prox, n. g., Ogilb 135 

Psittacus augustus, Vig 80 

Pteromys Guildingii, Vig SO 

albi venter. Gray 88 

Leachii, Gray 88 

melanotis. Gray 88 

Purpura Gravesii, iJrorf 44 

Rostellaria pes Pelicani, Lam.... 46 

Sciurus Douglasii, Gra?/ 88 

Scolopax Rusticola, Linn 7 

Scytalopus, n. g., Gould 89 

albogularis, Gould 90 

fuscus, Gould 89 

Simla Morio, Owen 92 

Salyrus, Linn 91 

Troglodytes, Linn 41 

IFurmbii, Fisch 91 

Spoudylus albldus, Brod 43 

Strix castinops, Gould, 110 

Cyclops, Gould 140 



INDEX. 



149 



Page. 

Strix delicatulus, Gould 140 

Struthidea, n. g., Gould 143 

cinerea, Gould 143 

Sylvia brevirostris, Strickl 98 

Sylvicapva, n. g., Ogilb 138 

Tamatia bicincta, Gould , 80 

Tarandus, n. g., Ogilb 135 

Testndo Indica, h'lnn 59 

Thryothorus guttatus, Gould 89 

Tiliqua Fernandi, Burton 62 

Tinamotis, n. g., Vuj 79 

Pentlandii, Jig 79 

Torpedo vulgaris, Fleiii 109 

Tragelaphus, n. g., Ogilb 138 

Tragopon Temminclcii, Gray 59 

Tragulus, Gray, n. div 63 

Tragulus, n. g., 0(;//6 138 

Trichophorus flaveolus, Gould ... 6 



Page. 

Troglodytes leucogastra, Gould . 89 

MagellaHicus, Gould 88 

Trogon pavo7unus, ii\>\x 12 

resjjle)idc7is, Gould 12 

Tropidorhynchus citreogularis, 

Gould 143 

Tubulavia gracilis, Harv 54 

indivisa, Ellis 54 

Turdus niacrourus, Lalh 7 

Vanga cinerea, Gotdd 143 

nigrogularis, Gould 143 

Velella limhosa, Lam 79 

VespertilionidcB 46 

Voluta Beckii, Brod 43 

concinna, Brof/ 43 

Fnltur Papa, Linn 107 

Zosterops albogularis, Gould ... 75 

tenuirostris, Gould ... 76 



THE EXD. 



PttlNTED Br RICHARD AND JOHN E. TAYLOR, 
RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF LONDON. 




PART V. 
1837. 



PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY, 
BY R. AND J. E. TAYLOR, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREKT. 



LIST 



OF 



CONTRIBUTORS, 

With References to the several Articles contributed hy each. 



Abbott, K. E., Esq. P<19^ 

Letter announcing a donation of Birds' Skins from Erze- 
roum 70 

A DAMSON, Rev. J. 

Letter acknowledging the receipt of the Society's Transac- 
tions at the South African Literary and Scientific Institution 15 

Allis, T., Esq. 

Letter addressed to Mr. Gould respecting the Sclerotic 
Ring in the Podargus 67 

Barry, Dr. M. 

Exhibition of a living specimen of the Proteus anguinus . 1 07 

Bell, T., Esq. 

Observations on the Genus Galictis, and the description of 
a New Species ( Galictis Allamandi) 45 

Bennett, F. De Bell, Esq. 

On the Natural History of the Spermaceti Whale {Phy- 

seter macrocephcdus) 37, 39 

On marine Noctilucce 50, 51 

Bennett, G., Esq. 

Observations on the Phosphorescence of the Ocean, made 

during a voyage from England to Sydney 1 

Observations on Physalia pelagica 43 

Blyth, Mr. E. 

On the Osteology of the Great Auk (^Alca impennis) ... 122 

Bonaparte, C. L. (Prince of Musignano). 

Exhibition of a Lithographic Print of the Gigantic Sala- 
mander 96 



IV 

Bonaparte, C. L. (Prince of Musjgnano). page 

On the Habits of tlie Long-tailed Trogon {Trogon re- 

splendens, Gould) 101 

Description of new or interesting Birds from South America 
and Mexico 108 

BosTOCK, Dr. 

Analysis of the Fluid found in the chambers of the Spon- 
dylus varius 66 

Burton, E., Esq. 

Description of a New Kingfisher (^Ceyx microsoma), and 
a female specimen of Caprinmlgus monticolus 89 

Chambers, R., Esq. 

On a simple method of taking Impressions of Feathers 
upon Paper 36 

On the Habits and Geographical Distribution of Humming- 
Birds 37 

Charlesworth, Mr. E. 

Remarks upon the mode of Reparation in the animal of 
the Argonaut 84< 

Cuming, H., Esq. "•* 

Letter accompanying a donation of Skins from Manilla . 70 

Darwin, C, Esq. 

Remarks upon the Habits of the Genera Geosjnza, Ca- 
marhynchus, Cactornis, and Certhidea of Gould 4-9 

Denny, H., Esq. 

Letter addressed to N. A. Vigors, Esq., M.P., noticing the 
capture of a male specimen of the Snowy Owl at Selby ... 45 

Desjardins, M. J. 

Letter from, accompanying a Memoir of the late Charles 
Telfair, Esq., Corr. Memb. Z.S 15 

Eyton, T. C, Esq. 

Notice of some Osteological Peculiarities in different skele- 
tons of the Genus Sus 23 

Gould, Mr. J. 

Remarks on a group of Ground Finches from Mr. Darwin's 
Collection, with characters of the New Species 4 

Exhibition of Australian Birds from his own Collection, 
and characters of New Species 7, 88 

Observations on the Raptorial Birds in Mr. Darwin's Col- 
lection, with characters of the New Species 9 

Exhibition of the Fissirostral Bii'ds from Mr. Darwin's 
Collection, and characters of the New Species 22 

Characters of New Species of Australian Birds 24 



Gould, Mr. J. p^g^ 

On a New Rhea {Rhea Danoinii) from Mr. Darwin's 
Collection 35 

On a New Species of Ortyx from the Collection of the late 
Mr. David Douglas, and a New Species of the Genus Po- 
dargits from Java 42 

Exhibition of some rare European Birds I'eceived from 
IVI. Temminck 48 

Remarks on the Common British Wagtail (^Motacilla 
Yarrelll) 73, 78 

Exhibition of Mr. Darwin's Birds, and description of a 
New Species of Wagtail (^Motacilla leticopsis) from India . . 77 

Characters of New Bii'ds in the Society's Collection ... 79 

Description of a New Goldfinch (^Carduelis Burtotii) from 
the Museum at Fort Pitt, Chatham 90 

Observations on the Raptorial Birds of Australia and the 
adjacent islands 96 

Description of a New Genus {Ambh/pterus) among the 
Caprinndgidoi, and characters of New Birds from Australia. 105 

Observations upon a small collection of Birds from Erze- 
roum, with characters of the New Species 126 

Characters of a New Grouse {Lyurus Derhianus) from the 
Collection of the Earl of Derby 132 

Characters of a New Genus (Sericornis) of Australian 
Birds 133 

Characters of a large number of New Species of Australian 
Birds 138 

Gray, J. E., Esq. 

Exhibition of the Horn of a supposed New Species of Deer, 
with remarks upon the enlargement of the Eggs of Biiccimim 
undatum 45 

On a New Species of Paradoxure {Paradoxurus Derhia- 
7ius), with remarks on some Manimcdia recently purchased by 
the British Museum, and characters of the New Species . . 67 

Remarks on the Boring of Patella and Pholas, and exhibi- 
tion of a drawing of a New Species of Telraplurus (T. 
Herschellii) 101 

Revision of the Genus Sorex, Linn 123 

General arrangement of the Reptilia 131 

Description of a New Fox ( Vuljjes dorsalis) from Senegal, 
and exhibition of a very young specimen of the Genetta Se- 
negatensis, GeoiF. 132 

Revised arrangement of the Ophidians 135 

Hamilton, H., Esq. 

Letter announcing a donation of a Chilian Eagle 67 

Harvey, J. B., Esq. 

Letter accompanying a donation of Eadiata and Fish . . 79 



VI 

Jones, T. W., Esq. page 
On the mode of closure of the Gill-apertures in the Tad- 
poles of Batrachia 38 

Lowe, Rev. R. T. 

Synopsis of the Fishes of Madeira 37 

Martin, Mr. W. 

Observations on three specimens of the Genus Felis pre- 
sented to the Society by Charles Darwin, Esq., Corr. Memb. 
Z.S 3 

Observations upon a New Fox from Mr. Darwin's Collec- 
tion ( Vulpes fulvipes) 11 

Observations on a Specimen of Dasypus hybridus, Desm., 
from Mr. Darwin's Collection 13 

Notes on the Anatomy of the Proboscis Monkey (Simia 
rmsalis) 70 

Description of a New Bat (Bhinolophus Landeri) from 
Fernando Po, and a New Hedgehog (Erhiaceus coficolor) 
from Trebizond 101 

MuLX^ER, Professor. 

Remarks on Dr. Smith's revision of the Linneau Genus 
Squalus 86 

Natterrer, M. J. 

Letter to Mr. Gould describing a New Species of Ara^ari 
(^Pteroglossus Goiddii) 44 

Ogilby, W., Esq. 

On a New Gibbon {Hylobates Choromandus), and a New 
Species of Colohus ( C. leucomeros) 68 

Exhibition of the Skins of Two Species of the Genus 
Kemas 81 

On a New Phalanger {Phalangista viverrina), from Van 
Diemen's Land 131 

Owen, R., Esq. 

Dissection of the Head of the Turkey Buzzard and that 
of the Common Turkey 34 

On the Structure of the Shell of the Water Clam (Spo7i- 
dylus variiis) 63 

Remarks upon the Cranium of an Oran Utan {Simia 
Wurmbil) 82 

Exhibition of a Festal Kangaroo, proving the existence of 
an Allantois 82 

Remark respecting the mode of reparation of the Shell of 
the Argonaut 84 

Read, C. R., Esq. 

Letter accompanying a donation of Birds' Skins from 
Singapore 15 

Reid, Mr. J. 

Notes on several Quadrupeds in Mr. Darwin's Collection . 4 
On a New Species of Monkey (Setnnopitkecus obscurus) . 14 



vn 



RiJppELL, Dr. page 

Notice of tlic Phytotoma tridactyla of Abyssinia 50 

Sells, W., Esq. 

On the Habits of the Vtiltur aura 33 

Short, T. K., Esq. 

Remarks upon the Habits of Apteryx Australis, Shaw . . 24 

Smith, Dr. A. 

Exhibition of the Drawings made during his Expedition 
into the interior of South Africa 49 

Exhibition of some small Quadrupeds collected in South 
Africa 69 

Revision of the Groups included in the Linnean Genus 
Squalus 85 

Sykes, Lieut.-Col. W. H. 

On the identity of the Wild Ass of Cutch and Indus, 
with the Dzeggetai 91 

Thompson, W., Esq. 

Notes relating to the Natural History of Ireland, with a 
Description of a New Genus of Fishes (Echiodoti) 52 

Wagner, R., Prof. 

On the Blood-globules of the Proteus anguinus 107 

Waterhouse, Ml-. G. R. 

Characters of New Species of the Genus Mus, from the 
Collection of Mr. Darwin 15, 27 

Characters of Two New Genera of Rodentia {Beithrodon 
and Abrocotna), from Mr. Darwin's Collection 29 

Characters of some New Species of the Genera Mus and 
Phascogale ' ^ 

Characters of a New Galago (G. Alleni) and a New 
Pteromys (P. Horsjieldii), in the Society's Collection .... 87 

Description of a New Species of Kangaroo {Macropus 
Bennetti) and a Mouse {Mus subspinosus) from the Cape of 
Good Hope 103 

Weissenborn, Dr. 

Letter relating to the Habits of the Hamster (Cricetus 
vulgaris) 50 

Westwood, J. O., Esq. 

Characters of some New Coleopterous Insects belonging 

to the Family of Sacred Beetles 12 

Characters of New Insects from Manilla 127 

Yarrell, W., Esq. 

Exhibition of a Quill, filled with a species of Pediculus, 

from the wing of a Harpy Eagle 1 2j^ 

Exhibition of a very large White-bait 127 

Exhil)ition of a Hybrid Pheasant 135 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



January 10, 1837. 

W. B. Scott, Esq., in the Chair, 

A paper was read, entitled " Observations on the Phosphorescence 
of the Ocean, made during a voyage from England to Sydney, 
N.S. Wales." By George Bennett, Esq., F.L.S., Corresp. Member 
of the Society. 

The author commences this paper v?ith adverting to the very slight 
progress which naturalists have made in their attempts to elucidate 
the history of the phsenomena connected with the phosphorescence 
of the ocean, and notices some of the imaginary advantages which 
former observers have attributed to its presence ; among others that 
of its indicating to mariners the existence of shoals and soundings, 
a circumstance which his own experience has not enabled him to 
confirm. He then proceeds to remark, that the sea, when phospho- 
rescent, exhibits two distinct kinds of luminosity, one in which its 
surface appears studded with scintillations of the most vivid descrip- 
tion, more particularly apparent as the waves are broken by the vio- 
lence of the wind or by the passage of the ship through them, as 
though they were electric sparks produced by the collision, and which 
scintillations he considers are probably influenced, in some measure, 
by an electric condition of the atmosphere, as at those particular 
times they were observed to be much more vivid and incessant than 
at others. The other kind of luminosity spoken of has more tlie 
appearance of sheets or trains of whitish or greenish light, often suf- 
ficiently brilliant to Uluminate the vessel as it passes through, being 
produced by various species of Salpa, Beroe, and other Molluscs, 
while in the former case the scintillations, which adhere in myriads 
to the towing net when drawn out of the water, probably originate 
in animalcules so minute that the only indication of their presence 
is the light which they emit. 

The author remarks that " the luminosity of the ocean is often 
seen with greater constancy and brilliancy of effect between the la- 
titudes 3° and 4° north and 3° or 4° south of the equator, than at 
any other part of the tropical regions. This circumstance, which I 
have observed myself, if found to be borne out by repeated obser- 
vations, may be occasioned by the eddies arising from currents, for 
it is a curious fact worth noticing, that where currents are known to 
exist, the luminosity of the ocean has been obsen'ed to assume a 
higher degree of brilliancy. Now the westerly current is supposed 
to run between those parallels of latitudes from 20° or 22° west Ion- 
No. XLIX. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



to 



gitudes towards the Brazilian coast perpetually, and it is not im- 
probable that nearly at the termination of the north-east trade wind 
a current joins with a similar current carried by the south-east trade 
wind ; both uniting in forming the westerly current may thus cause 
a greater assemblage of the various tropical molluscs and crustaceous 
animals, a number of which possessing luminous properties may im- 
part by their presence a higher degree of phosphorescence in that 
particular portion of the ocean than is observed in other situations 
except from similar causes. That the diffusion of the phosphoric 
light possessed by these molluscs does not solely depend on the 
creatures being disturbed (such as the passage of the ship through 
the water, or other somewhat similar causes,) is evident, as a lumi- 
nous mass may frequently be observed to gradually diffuse Its bril- 
liant light, at some distance from the ship, without any apparent 
disturbance ; and often during calm nights a similar glow of Ught is 
diffused over the water, without there being any collision of the waves 
to bring it forth ; and if a light breeze springs up during the same 
night, the passage of the vessel leaves no brilliant trace in its wake, 
although the same spontaneous diffusion of light is obser^'ed in the 
water at some distance to be repeated as before ; the phosphoric 
light being confined apparently solely to the occasional groups of 
molluscs, which when we succeeded in capturing them in the towing 
net, resembled for the most part pieces of crystal cut into various 
fantastic forms, round, oval, hexagonal, heptagonal, &c. From the 
bodies of these a faint or a bright light (according to the greater or 
less duration of time the animal may have been removed from the 
water, that is, we may say, by the intensity of its light we can 
judge of its healthy or ^dgorous state,) would be seen to issue in mi- 
nute dots from various parts ; and on the examination of both large 
and small specimens, the large with the naked eye and the small 
under a powerful lens, I could not detect any one peculiar secreting 
organ for this luminous excretion. 

" It has often occurred during the voyage that the ocean became 
suddenly brilliantly luminous, and at other times merely a constant 
succession of scintillations were visible. Again, it was remarked 
that no luminosity of the ocean was visible except what proceeded 
from the wake of the ship, the other parts of the ocean exhibiting no 
phosphorescence. 

" On the 15th of April, 1835, in lat. 8° 45' north, and longitude 
21° 02' west, during the day large quantities of a beautiful pink 
Medusa were taken in the towing net, which species I was pre- 
viously aware possessed luminous powers, and as expected, at night 
the ocean was brilliantly luminous, which luminosity continued until 
about 8 P.M., after which time it had almost totally disappeared. 
During the time the phosphorescence was visible, the Medusa before 
mentioned was captured in large numbers, but on the disappearance 
of the luminosity no more were caught, evidently showing that the 
phosphorescence of the sea this evening was occasioned by their 
presence. I have frequently remarked that when the ocean appears 
brilliantly luminous, besides the animals producing the phosphores- 
cence, several crustaceous animals and a number of small fish are 



usually taken in large quantities : the presence of these may proceed 
from their being attracted by the phosphoric light. Sometimes 
during heavy rains within the tropics the sea would become suddenly 
luminous, as rapidly passing off again, and the effect of the sudden 
transitions was exceedingly splendid to the beholders. During its 
continuance luminous si^ecies of Salpa, Beroe, Pyrosoma, and other 
molluscs were captured in the towing net if the weather admitted of 
its being placed overboard." 

On placing some of these luminous Meduste in a bucket of water, 
Mr. Bennett observed that the phosphoric light is not emitted from 
any one particular part of the animal, but commences at different 
points, gradually extending over the whole body, sometimes suddenly 
disappearing, and at others slowly dying away. Upon squeezing the 
animal the hands became covered with a profusion of the luminous 
secretion, which could be communicated from one object to another. 
In conclusion several additional instances are related, occurring in 
different latitudes, of the beautiful and varied appearances presented 
by the phsenomena of marine phosphorescence. 

Mr. Martin directed the attention of the Meeting to three speci- 
mens of the genus i^e/is, recently presented to the Society by Charles 
Darwin, Esq. One of these appeared to be a cat of the domestic race, 
shot in a wild state at Maldonado, differing only from our common 
cat in the elongation and greater size of the head. The second was 
the " Chat Pampa " of Azara, Felis Pajeros of Desmarest, shot at 
Bahia Blanca in latitude 33. The third and most interesting speci- 
men, which had been shot at Buenos Ayres, Mr. Martin was dis- 
posed to consider as the Yagourondi or a closely allied species, since 
it agrees with that animal in its elongate form, stout limbs and small 
head, but differs from it in the greater proportionate length of tail, 
and also in its entire dimensions, as recorded by Desmarest, who 
gives the following : 

ft in. lin. 
Length from nose to the root of the tail . 1110 

Length of tail ■ 1 1 9 

Length from nose to the ear 3 2 

In the present specimen, which is evidently adult, the measure- 
ments were found to be as follows : 

ft. in. lin. 

Length from nose to root of tail 2 2 

of tail 1 8 

■ from nose to ear 3 9 

Height at shoulders Oil 6 

• at haunches 1 6 

Length of ear 1 2 

Breadth of ear 1 6 

From nose to eye 1 2 

_ The hair is black, annulated with ochre, and sometimes with whi- 
tish yellow; each hair is pale brown at the base and then alternately 
black and yellow, the colpurs being repeated two or three times. 



Upon the head the yellow colour is most prevalent. The under fur 
is thick and of a pale brown colour. The hair is about the same 
length or rather shorter than in the domestic cat, and much harsher 
to the touch. The hind feet are black beneath from the heel to the 
toes, and there is a streak of black about an inch and a half in 
length, passing upwards from the front paw on the outer side. The 
hair of the tail is long and bushy ; the legs thick and moderately 
long; the general form is slender; the head small in proportion to 
the body, and considerably arched above. The region of the ante- 
rior angle of the eye is black, with a yellowish white spot immedi- 
ately above it. The eyes are very small; the ears short, broad, and 
obtusely pointed, thickly covered with hair, which on the outside is 
of a similar colour to that on the top of the head, excepting at the 
tip, where it is margined with black. Inside the ears the hair is of 
a paler hue. The under parts of the body are of the same general 
hue as the sides. The tail is of the same general colour as the body, 
but the hairs become gradually less annulated towards the tip, their 
basal portions being brown and the apices black ; the under side is 
of a somewhat paler hue than the upper. The lips and nose are 
black. 

Mr. Martin remarked, that there was some reason for supposing two 
species were confounded under the same name, for he was aware of 
the existence of a cat with a shorter tail, agreeing very closely with 
Azara's description of the Yagourondi. Without, however, being in 
possession of more ample materials he did not like to characterize 
the present specimen as a new species, but in the event of its ulti- 
mately being considered distinct, he proposed that it should be called 
Felis Darwinii. 

Mr. James Reid read some notes on several quadrupeds, also from 
the collection of Mr. Darwin, including a new species of Opossum, 
which he characterized as Didelphis hortensis*. He also noticed a 
very young specimen of the Viscache, Lagostomus trichodactylus of 
Brooks. This example, not much larger than our common Rat, dif- 
fers from the adult in wanting the ridge of stiff black hairs over the 
eyes so conspicuous in old specimens, and in wanting also the 
grooves on the teeth. 

Mr. Gould exhibited from Mr. Darwin's collection of Birds, a 
series of Ground Finches, so peculiar in form that he was induced to 
regard them as constituting an entirely new group, containing 14 
species, and appearing to be strictly confined to the Galapagos 
Islands. Mr. Gould believed the whole of these Birds to be un- 
described, and remarked that their principal peculiarity consisted in 
■ the bill presenting several distinct modifications of form, while the 
general contour of the species closely assimilated. He proposed to 
characterize them under the separate generic appellations of Geo- 
spiza, Camarhynchus, Cactornis, and Certhidea. 

* The characters of species newly described which have not yet been 
furnished by the respective authors, andare the refore necessarily omitted, 
will be inserted, if subsequent! 5' sent in, at the termination of the volume. 



Geospiza. 

Corporis figura Lrevissima et robusta. 

Rostrum magnum, robustum, validum, altitudine longitudinem 
prsestaute ; culmine arcuato et capitis verticem superante, apice 
sine denticulo, lateribus tumidis. 

Naribus basalibus et semitectis plumis frontalibus. 

Mandibuld superiori tomiis medium versus sinum exhibentibus, ad 
mandibula inferior is processum recipiendum. Mandibula inferior 
ad basin lata, hoc infra oculos teudente. Ala; mediocres re- 
mige primo paulo breviore secundo, hoc longissimo. 

Cauda brevissima et Eequalis. 

Tarsi magni et yalidi, digito posiico, cum ungue robusto et digito 
intermedio breviore ; digitis externis inter se sequalibus at di- 
gito postico brevioribus. Color in maribus niger, in foem. fuscus. 

Geospiza magnirostris. (Spec, tj'p.) Geos.fuliginosu, crisso ci- 
nerascenti-albo ; rostra nigro brunnescente lavato ; pedibus nigris. 

Long. tot. G unc. ; ala, 3^ ; cauda, 2 ; tarsi, 1 ; rostri, | ; alt. 
rost., 1. 

Foem., vel Mas jun. ; corpore intensi fusco singulis plumis oliva- 
ceo cinctis ; abdomine pallidiore ; crisso cinerascenti-albo ; pe- 
dibus et rostro, ut in mare adulto. 

Geospiza strenua. Geos . fuliginosa, a-isso albo, rostro fusco et 

nigro tincto ; pedibus nigris. 
Long. tot. 5| unc. ; alee, 3; cauda. If,- tarsi, |,- rostri, | ,- alt. 
rost. ^. 

Fosm. Summo corpore fusco singulis plumis nee non illis alarum 

caudaque, pallide cinerascenti-olivaceo cinctis ; guld et pectore 

fuscis ; abdomine lateribus et crisso pallide cinerascenti-fuscis ; 

rostro brunnescente. 

Geospiza fortis. Geos. intense fuliginosa, crisso albo ; rostro 

rifescenti-brunneo, tincto nigro ; pedibus nigris. 
FcEm. (vel Mas jun.) Corpore supra pectore et gutture intense 

fuscis, singulis plumis cinerascenti-olivaceo marginatis ; abdomine 

crissoque pallide cincrascenti-brunneis ; rostro rufescenti-fusco 

flavescente ad apicem ; pedibus ut in mare. 

Geospiza nebulosa. Geos. summo capite et corpore nigrescenti- 

fuscis ; singulis plumis cinerascenti-olivaceo marginatis ; corpore 

subtus pallidiore, abdomine imo crissoque cinerascentibus ; rostro 

et pedibus intense fuscis . 

Long. tot. 5 unc. ; ala, 2| ; cauda. If ; tarsi, f ; rostri, ^ ; alt. 

rost., ^. 

Geospiza fuliginosa. Geos. intense fuliginosa, crisso albo, ros- 
tro fusco ; pedibus nigresccnti-fuscis. 

Long. tot. 4^ unc. ; alee, 2^; caude, If; tarsi, f ; rostri, 1^; alt. 
rostri, ^. 

Foem. Summo corpore, alis, cuuddque intense fuscis ; singulis plumis 
cinerascenti-ferrugineo marginatis ; corpore infra cinereo, singulis 
plumis medium versus obscurioribus ; rostro hrunneo ; pedibus ni' 
grescenti-brunneis. ~ 



Geospiza dentirostris. (Fcem. Mas ignotus.) Mandibulce su- 
perioris margine in dentem producto ; vertice corporeque supra 
fuscis ; singulis plumis medium versus obscurioribus ; secundariis 
tectricibusque alarum ad marginem stramineis ; gutture et pectore 
pallida brunneis, singulis plumis medium versus obscurioribus, 
imo abdomine crissoque cinerascenti-albis ; rostra rufo-fusco ; 
pedibus obscuri plumbeis. 

Long. tot. 4| ; alee, 2f ; cauda, 1 J ; rostri, ^ ; alt. rost. |. 

Geospiza parvula. (Mas.) Geos. capite, gutture, et dorsofuli- 
ginosis ; uropygio cinerascenti-olivaceo ; caudd et alls nigrescenti- 
brunneis ; singulis plumis caudee et alarum cinereo-marginatis ; 
lateribus olivaceis fusco guttatis ; abdomine'et crisso albis, ros- 
tra et pedibus nigrescenti-brunneis. 

Long. tot. 4 unc. ; alee, 2|; cauda, 1|; tarsi, |; rostri, §; alt. 
rost., -j^. 

Fcem. Summo capite et dorso cinerascenti-brunneis , gutture, pectore, 
abdomine crissoque pallidi cinereis, straminea tinctis. 

Geospiza dubia. (Fcem. Mas ignot.) Geos. summa capite et 
corpore suprci fuscis, singulis plumis cinerascenti-olivaceo margi- 
natis ; strigd superciliari, genis, gutture carpore infrd cinera- 
scenti-olivaceis , singulis plumis notd centrali fused ; alis cauddque 
brunneis singulis plumis olivaceo-cinereo marginatis ^ rostra sor- 
didi alba, pedibus obscure fuscis . 

Long. tot. 3§ unc; alee, 2f; cauda. If; tarsi, ^; rostri, §; 
altitud. rostri,^. 

Camarhynchus (subgenus). 

Camarhynchus difFert a genere Geaspizd, rostra debiliore, mar- 
gine mandibulse superioris minus indentato ; culmine minils ele- 
vato in frontem et plus arcuato ; lateribus tumidioribus ; man- 
dibuld inferiore minus in genas tendente. 

Camarhynchus psittacula. (Spec, typ.) Cam. summo capite 
corporeque superiore fuscis ; alis cauddque obscurioribus ; gutture 
corporeque inferiore, cinerascenti-albis, straminea tinctis ; rostro 
pallida flavescenti fusco ; pedibus fuscis. 

Long. tot. 4 J unc. ; alee, 2| ; caudee, 1| ; tarsi, § ; rostri, ^ ; alt. 
rostri, ^. 

Camarhynchus crassirostris. (Foem.) Cam. corpore superiore 
intense brunneo, singulis plumis cinerascenti-olivaceo marginatis ; 
gutture pectoreque cinerascenli-olivaceis, singulis in medio plumis 
obscurioribus ; abdomine, lateribus crissoque cinereis tinctis stra- 
minea. 

Long. tot. 5^ unc. ; alee, 3f ; caudee, 2 ; tarsi, 1^ ; rostri, | ; alt. 
rostri, ^. 

Cactornis (subgenus.) 

Cactornis diifert a genere Geaspizd rostra elongato, acuto, com- 
presso, longitudine altitudinem excellente ; mandibulce superio- 



ris margine vix indcntato ; naribus basalibus et vix tectis ; 
tarsis brevioribus, unguibus majoribus et plus curvatis. 

Cactoknis scandens. (Spec, typ.) Cact. intensifuliginosa, crisso 
albo ; rostro et pedibus nigrescenti-brunneis. 

Long. tot. 5 unc. ; rostri, f ; ala, 2^; caudce, If; tarsi, ^. 

Foem., vel Mas jun. Corpore superiore, gutture pectoreque in- 
tense brunneis, singulis plumis palUdiore marginatis ; ubdomine 
crissoque cinereis, stramineo tinctis ; rostro pallide fusco ; pedi- 
bus nigrescenti-fuscis. 

Cactornis assimilis. (Mas jun. ?) Cact. corpore suprvL fuligi- 
noso, nee 7ion gutture abdomineque, illoriini plumis, cinereo mar- 
ginatis ; rostro pallid^ rufescenti-brunneo ; pedibus nigrescenti- 
brunneis. 

Long. tot. 5^ unc; rostri, |; alee, 2f ; cauda, 1|; tarsi, |. 

Certhidea (subgenus). 

Certhidea differt a genere Geospizd rostro graciliore et acutiore ; 
naribus basalibus et non tectis ; mandibulce superioris margine 
recto ; tarsis longioribus et gracilioribus. 
Certhidea olivacea. Cert, summo capite, corpore superiore, aUs 
cauddque olivaceo-brunneis ; gutture et corpore infra cinereis ; 
rostro pedibusque pallide brunneis. 
Long. tot. 4 unc. ; rostri, ^ ; alee, 2 ; cauda: l^ ; ta7-si, f . 
Of the groups here characterized, Geospiza, Camarhynchus, and 
Cactornis, belong to one type ; but with regard to Certhidea, Mr. Gould 
remarked that although lie confidently believed that it should also be 
referred to the same group with the three former, yet in its slighter 
form and wealier bill it has so much the appearance of a member of 
the Sylviadce, that he would by no means insist upon the above view 
being adopted until the matter shall have been more fully investigated. 
Mr. Gould deferred entering into any further details respecting 
the species under consideration until Mr. Darwin had furnished him 
with some information relating to their habits and manners. 

Mr. Gould then resumed the exhibition of a portion of his own 
collection of Birds from Australia, and characterized the following 
new species : 

Hemipodius melanogaster. 

Hem. capite, auriculis, guld abdomineque nigris ; lined super oculum 
oriente et ad nucham excurrente, plumis singulis maculd ad apicem 
albd ; nuck(B plumis nigris et castaiieis, maculis pluribus albis ; 
dorso superiore castaneo-fusco, plumis singulis maculd albd, li?ieis 
duabus nigris cum fascid unicd nigrd apicali ; scapulis, tectricibus 
primariis secundariisque rufo-brunneis, plumis singulis maculd 
albd nigra circumdatd ; remigibus primariis satwati brunneis ; 
femoribiis et tectricibus superioribus et inferioribus caudte brun- 
neis nigro fasciatis et irroratis ; rostro pallide brunneo ; pedibus 
carneis. 



8 

Long. tot. 8| unc. ; rostri, 1 ; alee, 4| ; cauda, If,- tarsi, 1^. 
Habitat in Nova Cambria Australi, vel Terra Van Diemen. 

Hemipodius melanotus. Hem. capite nigro, plumis apicibus brun- 
neis ; loro, lined supra-ocular i, buccisque, pallide flavo-brunneis ; 
plumis buccarum apicibus extremis nigris ; nuchd leete castaneo- 
ruf a, plumis singulis fascia latd nigrd centrali linedque cervindad 
latera externa ; dorso superiore uropygio et tectricibus caudcB su- 
perioribus nigris, singulis plumis brunneo minute variegatis, nee 
non maculis obscuri fulvis ; cauda tectricibus extern'^, et alarum 
tectricibus majoribus minoribusque siramineis, harum plumis sin- 
gulis maculd nigra centrali; rectricibus brunneis ; guld albes- 
centi ; collo antici pectoreque saturate stramineis ; lateribus colli 
et corporis pallidi stramineis, vittd oblongd transversd nigrd cen- 
trali ; abdomine tectricibus que inferioribus caudce Jlavo-albidis ; 
rostro pedibusque fuscis . 

Long. tot. 61 unc. ; rostri, ^ ; alee, 3^ ; cauda, | ; tarsi, |. 

Hab. In Terra Van Diemen. 

CoTURNix PECTOKALis. Cot. loro, uurtcuUs guldque fulvis ; summo 
capite nuchdque saturate brunneis, lineis duabus stramineis super 
oculum ; lined stramined h rostro ad nucham excurrente ; nuchd 
brunned, plumis singulis lanceolatd centrali stramined, et ad latera 
nigro guttatis ; dorso tectricibus que superioribus cauda fuscis, 
lineis angularibus nigris transversim notatis, strigdque lanceolatd 
centrali stramined ; alis fuscis lineis angularibus griseis et nigris 
transversim fasciatis; remigibus primariis cum maculd pectorali 
nigris ; lateribus pectoris brunneis ; abdomine albo, plumis singu- 
lis lined centrali nigrd ; lateribus corporis saturate brunneis, plu- 
mis singulis strigis tribus, quarum exteriores nigra sunt, inter- 
medid albd ; rostro nigrescenti ; pedibus fusco-carneis. 

Long. tot. 6f unc. ; rostri, i ; aim, 3| ; tarsi, ^. 

Habitat in Nova Cambria Australi. 

Mr. Gould also exhibited a new and interesting species of Parrot, 
presented to the Society by Mr. John Leadbeater, and which he 
characterized, on behalf of the donor, as Platycercus ignitus. 

Platyceecus IGNITUS, Leadb. 

Plat, capite summo auriculis, uropygio, pectore, corporeque sublux 
coccineis ; buccis albis ; plumis singulis dorsi ad medium nigris, 
marginibus coccineo etjlavo inter mixtis ; aid medid cceruled pri- 
mariis quintis ad basin albis, apicibus brunneis; rectricibus qua- 
tuor intermediis albis coccineo pallide tinctis ; rectricibus reliquis 
cceruleis ad basin albis, ad apicem albescentibus ; rostro livido ; 
pedibus saturatejuscis. 

Long. tot. 12 unc; alee, 6; caudce, 6|; tarsi, J. 

Hab. Australia. 



January 24, 1837. 
Rev. John Barlow, in the Chair. 

Mr. Gould exhibited the Raptorial Birds included in the collec- 
tion recently presented to the Society by Charles Darwin, Esq., and 
after some general observations upon the geographical distribution 
of the known species, proceeded to characterize the following as 
new to science : 

PoLYBORUS GALAPAGOENSis. Pol. intense fuscus ; primariis ni- 
gris; secondariarum pogoniis internis albo etfusco transversim 
striatis ; caudd cinerascenti-fuscd, transversim lineis angustis 
et frequentibus intense fuscis notatd ; rostro obscure corneo; 
pedibus olivaceo-Jiavis. 

Long. tot. 20 unc. ; rostri, 1^; ate, 141; caudcB, 9 ; tarsi, 3^. 

Foem. jun. Capite et corpore intense straniineis fuscoqtie variega- 
tis ; illo in pectore et abdomine prcevalente ; primariis fusco- 
nigris ; caudis rectriciim, pogoniis externis cinerascenti-fnscis, 
internis pallide-rosaceis ; utrisque lineis angustis et frequenti- 
bus fuscis transversim striatis, apicibus sordide albis ; rostro 
nigrescenti-fusco ; pedibus olivaceo-jiavis. 
Long. tot. 22 unc. ; rostri, 1| ; alee, 17; caudce, \0\; tarsi, 3^. 
Obs. Were I not assured by Mr. Darwin that the habits of this bird 
strictly coincide with those of the Caracara {Polyborus Brasiliensis), 
its mode of flight and cry being precisely the same, I should have 
been induced to regard it as rather belonging to the genus Buteo 
than to Polyborus ; but as I have satisfactorily ascertained by a 
close investigation, it forms a beautiful intervening link between 
these genera, as is evidenced by the scaling of the tarsi and the 
produced form of the beak; while its habits place it within the 
limits of the latter genus. 

It is on the authority of Mr. Darwin also that I rely for the as- 
surance of the two birds above described being the male and the 
female of the same species, so great is the difference between them 
both in size and colour. 

Hab. In insulis Galapagorum. 

Polyborus (Phalcobsenus) albogularis. Pol. ficscescenti-niger, 
marginibus plumarum inter scapulos fulvis ; primariis secon- 
dariisque albo ad apicem notatis ; guld pectore corporeque stdttus 
albis ; lateribus fusco sparsis ; rostro livido ; cerdflavd ; tarsis 
olivaceis. 
Long. tot. 20 unc; rostri, 1^; alee, 18^; caudce, 9; tarsi, 3. 
Obs. I have somedoubts as to whether this bird may not eventually 
prove to be a variety of Phalcobcenus montana, D'Orb. The prin- 
cipal difference between this bird and the one described and figured 



10 

by M. D'Orbigny is, that the throat and chest of the latter are 
brownish black, while the same parts in this bird are white. 
Hah. Santa Cruz. 

BuTEO VAEius. Sul. verticc corporeque supra intense fuscis, plu- 
misfulvo margiiiatis vel guttatis ; jirimariis secondariisque ci- 
?iereis, lineis fuscis frequentibus trunsversim striatis ; caudd ci~ 
nered, lineis angustis et frequentibus fuscis transvcrsim notatd; 
si7igulis plumis Jlavescenti albo ad apicem notatis ; giddfuligi- 
nosd ; ])ectore fulvo lined interruptd nigrescente circumdatd a 
guld tendente; abdomine imo lateribusque stramineo et rufescenti- 
fusco variegatis; femoribus crissoque stramineisliiieistransversa- 
libus anfractis rufescenti-fusco or?uitis ; rostro nigro ; cerd tar- 
sisque olivaceis. 

Long. tot. 2I5 ; alcE, 16§. 

Obs. The fine individual above described was the only example of 
the species contained in Mr. Darwin's collection ; and it is evidently 
in a state of change from youth to maturity. 

Hab. Santa Cruz. 

CiECUS MEGASPiLus. Circ. vertice corporeque supra intense fus- 
cis, lined stramined a naribus supra oculos ad occiput tendente ; 
hoc rufescentifusco, primariis intense fuscis ad basin cinereis, 
lineis nigris cancellatis ; tectricibus caudce albis ; rectricibus in- 
termediis cinereis externis cinereo-stramineis ; omnibus lineis 
latis fuscis transversim notatis ; lined ultima latisimd apice sor- 
dide stramineo ; guld et pcctore stranmieis, fusco sparsis ; cor- 
pore subtus stramineo ; plumis pectoris et laterum stria centrali 
fusco notatis ; rostro nigro ; cerd tarsisque jlavis. 

Long. tot. 21 unc. ; rostri, l^ ; ala, 17,- caudce, IQi; tarsi, 3-^. 

BuTEo vENTRALis. But. vcrticc corporcque intense et nitide-fus- 
cis, plumis dorsalibus purpurescentibus ; primariis nigris ; 
caudd fused lineis frequentibus obscurioribus, cancellatd ad 
apicem sordide alba ; guld abdomine tnedio crissoque stramineo 
albis ; lateribus pectoris corporisque fascidque abdominali nec- 
non femoribus flavescente-albis fusco notatis, notis in femoribus 
ntfescentibus ; tarsis per mediam partem antice plumosis, 
rostro nigro; cerd tarsisque flavis. 

Long. tot. 21^ unc. ; aim, 15^ ; rostri, 9\ ; tarsi, S^. 

/ Otus (Brachyotus) galapagoensis. Ot. fascia circa oculos fu- 

ligiiiosd ; strigd superciliari plumis nares tangentibus et circa 
angulum oris, guld et disci fascialis margins albis ; vertice cor- 
poreque supra intense stramineo fuscoque variegatis; primariis 
intense fuscis ad apicem, stramineo fasciatis ad basin ; corpore 
subtus stramineo notis irregularibus fasciisque fuscis ornato ; 
femoribus tarsisque jjluinosis rufescenti-stramineis ; rostro et 
unguibus Jiigris. 

Long. tot. 13^; rostri, 1 ; alcB, 11 ; caudce, 6; tarsi, 2. 

Obs. This species belongs to that section of the horned owls which 



11 

compxehends the short-eared owl of England, and numerous other 
nearly allied species which are distributed universally over the 
globe, from all of which it may be distinguished by its smaller size 
and darker colouring. I am led to regard the members of this sec- 
tion as possessing characters of sufficient value to justify their being 
separated into a distinct genus, for which I propose the name of 
Brachyotiis. 

Mr. Martin described a species of Fox brought by Mr. Darwin 
from the island of Chiloe, respecting which he made the following 
remarks : — 

The animal in question is probably identical with the Culpeu of 
Molina, especially as the account of its surprise at the presence of 
man, uncombined with any exertions to escape, as given by Mr. 
Darwin, agree with the observations of Molina. Still, however, the 
description of the Culpeu is too vague to render its identity with the 
present species a matter of certainty ; and as I regard it to be the 
best and safest plan in all doubtful cases to set the matter in such a 
light as to prevent if possible any confusion, I shall here descril)e 
and name the animal, for which 1 propose the specific title fulvipes. 

VuLPES FULviPES. Vulp. Tohustus, ortubus brevibus caudd tnedi- 
ocri ; corporis colore cano nigroque commixtis ; hoc in dorso 
prcBvalenie : capite sordide fulvescente, cano irroi-afo, rostro 
fusco, labiis snperioribus ad marginem sordide albis, mentofidi- 
ginoso, auribiis externe castaneis ; brachiis interne, tarsis digi- 
tisque fidvis ; genis, guld, corporeque subtus, soi'dide albis; 
caudd vellere breviore per tertiam partem indutd, apice Jioccoso 
et fuliginoso. 

it. in. lin. 

Longitudo corporis ad basin caudse 2 

caudae ad apicem velleris .... 9 

rostri ad oculos 1 4 

aurium 1 3 

tarserum ad plantam digitalem 2 4 

Altitude apud humeros 10 

Hah. Chiloe. 

The Vulpes fulvipes is remarkable for the stout form of the body 
and the shortness of the limbs : the tail is rather short, and covered 
with hair of moderate length, exce])t at the extrcmitj'', where it 
forms an abrupt and full tuft tipped with sooty black. The general 
fur is full, moderately deep, and rather harsh ; on the body the co- 
lour is hoary mixed with black, the latter being more decided down 
the top of the back ; the head inclines to fulvous, grizzled with 
hoary. The muzzle and skin are dusky, but the edges of the lips 
are white ; the ears are rather short and of a chestnut brown ; the 
outside of the fore limbs is dusky black freckled with fulvous inner 
side and toes pale fulvous brown ; a dark mark approaching black 
above the tarsal joint ; tarsi and toes fulvous brown. Under parts 
dirty white. Hair of two sorts, viz. those which constitute a soft 



12 

under vest of a dusky greyish brown, through which pass long haira 
of a dusky brown at the base with a black band, followed by a yel- 
lowish white band and tipped with black ; a mixture producing the 
grizzled character of the fur of the body. 

ITie SecretEiry read a communication from J. O. Westwood, Esq., 
describing several new species of Insects belonging to the family of 
the Sacred Beetles. 

After noticing the interest which is attached to the family of the 
Scarabmda, not only on account of their curious habits, whence they 
were raised to the rank of objects of worship by the Egyptians, but 
also from having led to the publication of the Hora Entomologica 
by Mr. MacLeay, in which an analysis of the Linnsean Scarabai was 
given ; the author gives an abstract of the classifications of this fa- 
mily respectively proposed by MacLeay, Latreille, (Regne An., 2nd 
edition), and Serville and Saint Fargeau (Encyclop. Method, vol. x.), 
with a notice of the genera more recently proposed by various authors 
referrible or allied thereto. From a review of these distributions in 
conjunction with the natural economy of the insects of which the fa- 
mily is composed, the author is disposed to consider the family as 
divisible into two natural groups, those with long hind legs and those 
which have their legs short and conical ; and also that the characters 
of the genus Scarabaus and subgenus Heliocantharus must either be 
modified so as to exclude the species which are destitute of a distinct 
spur at the extremity of the intermediate tibiae, or that the Ateuchus 
Adamastor {Enc. M^th.) and the insects subsequently described must 
be regarded as referrible to the genus Scarabaus, although possessing 
two spurs at the extremity of the intermediate tibia, agreeing in all 
other material respects with the true Scarabeei. 

The following is an abstract of the characters of the insects, the 
descriptions of which were accompanied by figures exhibiting the 
various essential organs in detail, and by observations upon the 
structural peculiarities of the two groups. 

TypUS ScELIAGES. 

CorjoMS latum, subdepressum. Co/jm^ subtrigonum clypeo trilobato, 
lobo intermedio vald^ emarginato. Antenna clava subglobosa, arti- 
culo 7™° raagno inferne producto, articulos duos terminales in sinu 
ejus includente, ultimo 8vo minori. Palpi maxillares breves sub- 
filiformes, labiales abbreviati 3-articulati, articulis magnitudine de- 
crescentibus. Thorax abdomine paullo latior. Tibia anticse meignae, 
pone medium intus curvatse. Tibia intermedise bicalcaratas. 

SCELIAGES loPAS. 

Ater nitidus IcBvis, clypei dentibiis intermediis duohus obtusis sub- 
elevatis, capite antice punctatissimo, thorace Icevissimo, elytris 
lyiinctis nonnullis minutissimis irregularihus striisque sex longi- 
tudinalibus simplicibus fere obliteratis. 

Long. Corp. 10 lin. Africa Austral. Mus. Hope et P. Walker. 



13 

T3rpus Anomiopsis. 

Pedes elongati, tibiee intermediae curvatse bicalcaratas, calcaribus 
mobilibus interno, elongate acuto, externo breviori spatuliformi, tarsi 
pedum anticorum obsoleti, quatuor posticorum depress! setosi, un- 
guibus nuUis ; palpi maxillares filiformibus, articulis tribus ultimis 
longitudine fere eequalibus ; labiales diiFormes, articulo 2do maximo 
transverso-ovato, ultimo minutissimo intern^ et obliqu^ inserto. 

AmOMIOPSIS DiOSCORIDES. 

Ater, nitidus punctatissimus ; elytris 6-punctato-striatis ; capitis 
thoracisque lateribus,femoribus anticis tarsisque quatuor postids 
longe rufo-hirtis. 

Long. corp. 13 lin. Mus. P. Walker et C, Darwin. 

Hub. Patagonii. 

Anomiopsis Stehquilinxjs. 

Ater, nitidus punctatissimus, convexus, capite cornu elevato verii- 
cali, thorace impressione centrali valde irregulari, elytris semi- 
circularibus striis sex simplicibus in singula, capite thorace tar- 
sisque breviter rufo-hirtis. 

Long. corp. 10 lin. Habitat. — ? Mus. P. Walker. 

Mr. Martin called the attention of the meeting to a specimen of 
the Dasypus hybridus, in the collection presented to the Society by 

C. Darwin, Esq. This animal, the tatou mulct of Azara, has been 
characterised in all systematic works, as closely related to Dasypus 
Peha, and as having large ears ; whereas the ears are much smaller 
than in D. Peba, and but little larger than those of D. minutus. In 
reference to this species, which he at first was unable satisfactorily 
to identify, he observed that the vague and unsatisfactory account 
given in systematic works would, he conceived, justify him in laying 
before the meeting a more complete and definite description of the 
animal than he had been able to meet with, the want of which he 
had himself experienced, which he thus ventured to supply. 

In Dasypus hybridus the contour of the body is short and stout, 
the limbs are robust, and the muzzle is shorter in proportion than in 

D. Peba. The admeasurements of the specimen in question are as 
follows : 

inch. lin. 

Length from the tip of the nose over the back 1 i o o 

to the root of the tail J 

from the top of the frontal plate to "1 q n 

the end of the nose j 

. from the anterior angle of eye to 1 , - 

end of nose j 

from the same to base of ear 1 5 

of ears 10 

Extent of shoulder plate, from back of neck 1 o in 

to its posterior edge J 



14 

inrll. lin. 

Haunch plate, from its anterior to its pos- "i o 10 
terior margin above the tail. ... J 

Length of tail 6 9 

Circumference of its basal ring, from which it "I An 

rapidly tapers to a slender point / 
Number of dorsal bands 7 . 

In a small specimen of D. Peba, measuring from nose to root of 
tail 1 foot 2|- inches, the ears measure li inch in length; and in a 
somewhat larger specimen (from nose to root of tail, 1 foot 3 inches) 
Ifth inch. 

In the smaller specimen of D. Peba the extent of the shoulder plate 
is 2| inches, — of the haunch plate 4 inches. 

The length of the head Z^ inches, and the distance from the an- 
terior angle of the eye to the end of the nose, 2|- inches. 

Tail imperfect, but much longer than in D. hybridus. 

Between D. hybridus and D. Peba, independently of the differences 
in the proportion of the ears and length of snout, the characters ex- 
hibited by the scutellce of the plates are very distinct. In D. hybridus 
the scutellce of the helmet are of moderate size, those in the centre 
of the upper part being elongated, and many sub-triangular, the rest 
occupying the space between the eyes and downwards are of an ir- 
regular figure, some nearly square, others pentagonal and hexagonal. 
In D. Peba the scutellce are not only much larger, but of a more de- 
finite figure, being mostly hexagonal, with sides of unequal length. 

In D. hybridus the scutellce of the shoulder plate consist of ele- 
vated oval tubercles in transverse rows, the intervals being filled with 
smaller, very irregular, and less elevated granuli. The same obser- 
vation applies to the haunch plate, in which the elevated oval scu- 
tellce are remarkably distant and large, while somewhat smaller and 
flatter scutellce form a rosette round each. In the D. Peba the larger 
scutellce of this plate are round, and are encircled by others of very 
small size. 

In D. hybridus the ears are delicately granulated, — in D. Peba 
coarsely. 

As respects the Das. minutus there can be no possibility of con- 
founding it with the D. hybridus. 

Mr. James Reid exhibited to the Meeting, and characterized as 
new, under the name of Obscurus, a dark-coloured monkey, from 
the Societj''s collection, belonging to the genus Semnopithecus. 
The locality of the particular specimen before the Meeting was 
unknown. 



15 



February 14th, 1837. 
William Brown Scott, Esq., in the Chair. 

A letter was read from M. Julien Desjardins, a corresponding 
member of the Zoological Society, dated from the Mauritius, 15th 
July, 1836. The letter was accompanied by two copies of a memoir 
on the late Charles Telfair, Esq., President and Founder of the 
Natural History Society of that island. The memoir was written 
by M. Desjardins. 

A letter dated Capetown, July 5th, 1836, from the Rev. James 
Adamson, a corresponding member, was read ; the letter acknow- 
ledged the receipt of the printed Proceedings and Transactions of 
the Society, with thanks from the South African Literary and Scien- 
tific Institution. 

A letter was also read from C. R. Read, Esq., a corresponding 
member, dated Singapore, September 2nd, 1836, announcing a pre- 
sent of 56 skins of birds, and the skin of an alligator of large size, 
which have been received. 

At the request of the Chairman, Mr. Waterhouse brought under 
the notice of the Meeting numerous species of the genus Mus, form- 
ing part of the collection presented to this Society by Charles Dar- 
win, Esq., a Corresponding Member. The specimens placed on the 
table had been collected at various parts of the Southern Coast of 
South America, viz. Coquimbo, Valparaiso, Port Desire, Maldonado, 
Bahia Blanca, &c. 

Most of these numerous species were considered by Mr. Water- 
house as hitherto undescribed, and drawings were exhibited by him 
illustrative of the modifications observable in their dentition. 

The specific characters of the species above referred to are as 
follows : 

Mus TUMiDus. M. brunneus, nigro lavatus, rostro ad apicem, 
labiis, menfo, guld, pectore, abdomineque albis, naso supra ni- 
grescente; mystacibus atris; capite magno ; auribus mediocribus 
rotundatis, pilis nigris et griseis intermixtis, vestitis ; corpore 
crasso ; cavdd capite corporeque breviore, pilis nigricantibus, 
subtits albesce7itibtis prope basin, vestitd ; artubus pedibusque 
grisescentibus ; vellere longo, molli ; pilis dorsi ochraceo annu- 
latis apicibus nigris ; pilis laterum apicibusfuscescenti-griseis; 
pilis omnibus ad basin plumbeis ; unguibus longis. 

unc. lin. 

Longitude ab apice rostri ad caudae basin. ... 69 

caudce 5 4 

ab apice rostri ad marginem oculi 9 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 1 8 

tarsi digitorumque 1 6 

auris 7 

Hah. Maldonado. 
No, L. and LI. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



16 

Mus. NASUTUS. M.suprd obscure Jlavescenti-fuscus. ad lateraful- 
vescens; stibtus obscure fulvo tinctus : pedibus pilis obscure fus- 
cis tectis ; unguibus longis ; auribus mediocribus ; caudd cor- 
pora brevio7'e, supra fused, subtus sordide alba : rhinario pro- 
ducto : vellere longo et molli. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri usque ad caudse basin 5 2 

caudte 2 S 

ab apice rostri ad marginem oculi. . 7| 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 1 3 

tarsi digitorumque 1 0^ 

auris 5 

Hah. Maldonado. 

Mus OBSCURUS. M. supra fusco-nigrescens, subtus flavescens ; 
pedibus obscure fuscis ; unguibus longiu^culis ; auribus medio- 
cribus; caudd corpora breviore, supra nigrescente, subtus sordide 
alba i vellere mediocri, molli. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri usque ad caudse basin 5 3 

Cauda 2 7 

■■ ab apice rostri ad marginem oculi . 6 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 1 2^ 

'■ tarsi digitorumque 1 1^ 

auris 4 

Hab. MjQdonado. 

Mus LONGiPiLis. M. supra obscure griseus,Jlavo hvatus; subtus 
griseus; pedibus fuscis, unguibus longiusctdis, auribus mediocri- 
bus ; caudd corpore breviore, supra nigrescente, subtus fasces- 
cente ; rhinario sub-producto : vellere longissimo, molli. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri usque ad caudse basin 5 4 

caudcB 3 1 

ab apice rostri ad marginem oculi. . 6^ 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 1 2 

tarsi digitorumque 1 0^ 

auris 6| 

Hab. Coquimbo. 

Mus OLIVACEUS. M. corpore supra subolivaceo, subtus cincies- 
cente ; auribus mediocribus, rotundatis, pilis parvidis fiisces- 
centibus obsitis; caudd corpore breviore, pilosd, at squamas osten- 
dente, supra fused subtus albescente ; pedibus pilis fuscescentibus 
tectis. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri usque ad caudse basin 5 1 

caudce 2 8 

ab apice rostri ad marginem oculi. 6 

• ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... I 2 

tarsi digitorumque 11 

auris 5 

Latitudo auris 5i 



17 

Hujus speciei piii corporis omnes longi sunt, laxi, moUesque, pluiu- 
beo colore, sed in dorso ad apicem flavescente ; abdomine, albes- 
centes ; pili longiores dorsales apicem versus iiigricantes, cineras- 
centes desinunt : mystaces pilos tenues ostendunt cinereo colore, sed 
ad basin nigrescentes. 

Hab. Valparaiso. 



Mus MiCROPUS. M. supra cinerascenti-fuscus fiavo lavatus ; 
subtus obscure Jiavo tinctus ; pedibus pilis sordlde albis tectis, 
antipedibus parvulis ; auribus mediocribus ; caudd, quoad lon- 
gitudinein, corpus fere cequunte, supra fused, subtus sordlde alba. 

line. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri usque ad caudsc basin 6 

caudce * 3 8 

ab apice rostri ad marginem oculi. . 7^ 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 1 4 

tarsi digitorumque 1 0| 

auris 6 

Hab. Santa Cruz. 

Mus BHACHiOTis. M. suprd obscure fuscus, subtus obscurd grisco 
tinctus ; pedibus griseofusds ; auribus parvulis ; caudd, quoad 
longitudinem, corpus fere cEquxtnte: vellere tango et molli. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri usque ad caudas basin 4 9 

caudcc 2 8 

■ ab apice rostri ad marginem oculi, . 6^: 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 1 2 

tarsi digitorumque 11 

auris 3 

Hab. in insula parvuhi apud Midsbip Bay, Chonos Archipelago. 

Mus XANTHORHiNUS. M. suprd griseus, subtiis albus, rhinario 
Jiavo ; auribus parvulis, tutus pilis jiavis obsitis ; mystacibus 

longis, canis, ad basin nigrescentibus : caudd corpore breviorc, ^\ 

snprd fused, ad laiera flavescente, subtus sordide alba : pedihus k \<i, -^-^ 
anticis tarsisque Jiavis, digitis albis : vellere longo, mollL j.- *^ ^^.^ i^ 

unc. lin. x..^ ■-' y<.>"- _^>L^ 

Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudas basin . . 4 "l iy"^ ' J' ^J> ''^. 

Cauda 2 i V^-^-^-"^ ^^^ 

' ' ab apice rostri ad marginem oculi. . 5# S^ \'r^ iIW»-7^*'"^ 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 1 0| , _ / '^'^^ 

tarsi digitorumque 9 \ • ' ' ^/ ^-' 




auris 3J 

Statura mure musculo paul6 major. , , (f 'it Cli l^*- 

Hab. Santa Cruz. ^ V--^ ^^^-^^ S^^''^ *^ ^ i^j-n-.i-u.iJ.-^- 

Mus CANESCENS. M. suprd canescens, subtus aihus pallide Jiavo 

lavatus ; oculis Jiavido cinctis ; auribus parvulis, pilis pallide 

Jiavis etplumbeis obsitis; mystacibus mediocribus, canis, ad basin 

nigricantibus ,• caudd vix corpore breviore, suprd fusco-nigrd, 



18 

suhtus sordide alba; pedibus canescentibus ; vellere mediocri, 
molli, supra jnlis pallide et sordide Jlavis, tionnullis cinerascenti- 
bus intermixtis, 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudse basin. ... 34 

caud(E 2 10 

ab apice rostri ad marginem oculi. . 5| 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 011;^ 

tarsi digitorumque 9 

auris 3| 

Statura muri musculo appropinquat. 
Hab. Port Desire. 

Mus ARENicoLA. M. suprdfuscus, subtus cinerascenti-albtts, pal- 
lida Jlavo tinctus; auribus mediocribus rolundatis, pilis Jtavis 
fuscisque obsitis ; caudd quod ad longitudinem pertinet corpus 
(Bquante, pilis subvestitd, squamisque apparentibus, supra fused, 
infra albescente; pedibus obscure albis. Vellere longo, molli ; 
pilis ad bases plumbeis, illis capitis, dorsi, laterumque apicem 
versus sordide ^avo etfusco-nigrescentevariegatis; mento, gtdd, 
pectore, abdomineque, pilis ad apicem Jlavo-albidis ; mystacihus 
plenis, brevibus tenerrimis ad basin fuscescentibus, ad apicem 
grisescenti-albis. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri usque ad caudae basin 4 3 

Cauda 2 9 

ab apice rostri ad marginem oculi. . 5f 

■ ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 1 

tarsi digitorumque 10 

auris 4^ 

Hab. Maldonado. 

Mus BiMAcuLATUS. M. Vellere pallide ochraceo, pilis nigrican- 
tibus adsperso, his ad latera rarioribus; rostri lateribus, notd 
magna pone aurem utramque, corporeque subtiis Jiiveis : mys- 
tacibus albis, ad basin nigrescentibus ; auribus majusculis, pilis 
flavis atque albis intermixtis obsitis : caudd, quoad longitudinem, 
corpus fere ccquante, earned, pilis albis brevissimis obsitd ; artu- 
bus albis ; pedibus pilis albis sparsim tectis ; tar sis ad calcem 
pilis argenteo-candidis obsitis. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudae basin. ... 3 1 

Cauda 1 11 

ab apice rostri ad marginem oculi . 4^ 

ab apice rostri ad auris basin .... 8J 

tarsi digitorumque 8 

auris 4i 

Haec species mure musculo minor ; auribus paulultim grandiori,\ 

bus ratione ad totam magnitudinem habits ; pili guise, pectoris ab- 
dominisque albi sunt usque ad radices. 
Hab. Maldonado. 



19 

Mus ELEGANS. M. siipra Jiavus, vellere pilis fuscescentibus ad- 
sperso, his ad latera et prope oculos, rariorihus : pilis pone 
aurem utramque, labiis, carpore subtiis, pedibusque niveis : au- 
ribus magnis,intiis pilis fiavis^externe, ad partem anterioremfus- 
cis obsitis : mystacibus nigrescentibus, ad apicem albescentibus ; 
caudd capite corporeque paulo longiore, pilis albis, supra fusces- 
centibus, obsitd : tarsis longis, ad calcem pilis albis tectis. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudae basin. ... 3 7 

caudce 3 9 

ab apice rostri ad marginem oculi . 6 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 1 

tarsi digitorumque 10 

auns 6 

Hsec species statura muri musculo appropinquat. Vellus in gula 
usque ad radicem album, in abdomine pallide cinereum ad basin. 
Hab. Bahia Blanca. 

Mus GRACiLiPES. M. suprd fuscus Jkivo-lavatus ; hoc colore apud 
latera et in artubus latiore; pilis pone aurem utramque, labiis, cor- 
poreque subtiis, albis: pedibus parvulis, gracilibus, carneis, supra 
et ad calcem pilis albis tectis : caudd gracili, earned, pilis albis in- 
strtcctd: auribus majuscidis, pilis Jlavescentibus obsitis: vellere 
tnediocri et 7)iolli, pilis omnibus ad basin plumbeis : mystacibus 
nigrescentibus ad apicem albescentibus; normullis omnino albis. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudae basin .... 210 

Cauda 1 7 

ab apice rostri ad marginem oculi . 4^ 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 8^ 

• tarsi digitorumque 6^ 

auris 4^ 

Hab. Bahia Blanca. 

Mus FLAVESCENS. M. suprd colore cinnamomeo, lateribus capitis, 
corporisque, ceque ac pectore, auratis ; guld abdomineque jla- 
vescenti-albis : pedibus albis: auribus mediociibus rotundatis, 
pilis Jlavis obsitis ; illis ad marginem superiorem extri?iseciis 
intense fuscis ; caudd corpore capiteque longiore, gracili, suprd 
fused, subtiis sordide albd. 

unc. liu. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri usque ad caudae basin 3 9 

Cauda 4 1^ 

ab apice rostri ad marginem oculi . 5^ 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 1 

tarsi digitorumque 1 04 

auris 44 

Hab. Maldonado. 

Mus BREViRosTRis. M. supra fuscus fulvo lavatus ; ad latera 
flavescens, subtiis sordide ochraceus; auribus magnis, pilis indi- 



20 

stincte obsitis, illis internis auratis; camhl capitem corpusque 
fere ccquantcinlis puree tectd; sujird, obscure fused, subtiis pal- 
lide fused; pedibus fxiscescentibus, digitis albicantibus ; mystaci- 
busfiisco-nigris: vellere brevi, molli; cajnte parvulo, brevi. 

line. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostxi ad caudse basin 3 2 

caudts 2 9 

ab apice rostri ad marginem oculi . 3^ 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 7 

tarsi digitorumque 9 

auris 4f 

Hsec si^ecies muri musculo appropinquat ; difFert attamen capite 
minore, (ratione ad magnitudinem habita,) rostro breviore, tarsisque 
longioribus. 

Hub. Maldonado. 

Mus Maurus. M. pilis s^dirigidis, supra purpurascenti-nigris, 
suhtks fnsco-plumbeis ; capite fuseo-nigro, rostro fuseo; auiibus 
parvulis sordide albis, pilis minutissimis pallidii fuscis obsitis : 
catidd corpus fere aquante, nigrd, pilis sparse vestitd: pedibus 
fuscis ; mysta.cibus fusco-nigris, ad apicem grisescentibus. 

line. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice I'ostri ad caudse basin ..11 3 

• caudcB 7 6 

• ab apice rostri ad marginem oculi . 1 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 2 2 

tarsi digitorumque 1 8 

auris '. 61 

Ha:c species colore muri ratto appropinquat, at purpurascenti- 

f usco tincta. Quoad staturam murem decumanum pergrandem sequat ; 
Vellus quoad texturam fer^ est ut in mure decumano ; et ad basin 
plumbeum ; pilis albis in dorso lateribusque intersparsis. 
Hal). Maldonado. 

" Though in the foregoing description I have retained the ge- 
neric title Mus, I have here to state that the above species natu- 
rally divide themselves into several subordinate groups, the characters 
of which are sufficiently evident, not only between themselves, but 
also between each group and that to which the term Mus ought, I 
conceive, to be restricted, and of which our common mouse {Mus 
musculus) may be regarded as the type. To these groups I shall here 
assign subgeneric titles, and at the same time point out their chief 
distinguishing characters without entering into any minute details 
respecting them, as I shall shortly have an opportunity of illustrating 
my views by means of drawings both of the teeth and of the animals, 
without which it is impossible to convey a clear idea of the subject." 

Subgenus 1. Scapteromys*. 
Molars with enamel deeply indented in the crown. In the front 
molar of the lower jaw the enamel is indented twice on the outer 

* Scapteromys, from 'S,Ka.xTr,(>, a digger, and Mt/;. 



/ 



21 

margin and three times on the inner ; in the second molar the enamel 
is indented once on the outer margin and twice on the inner ; and 
in the last molar once on the outer, and twice on the inner. Fur 
long and soft. Tail moderate, well clothed with hair. Claws long, 
but slightly curved and formed for burrowing. Fore-feet mode- 
rately large. Thumb furnished with a distinct claw. Ears moderate, 
well clothed with hairs. 

Species Mus {Scapteromys) tumidus. 

Subgenus 2. Oxymycterus*. 

Molars with the folds of enamel penetrating deeply into the body 
of the tooth. Front molar of the lower jaw with three indentations on 
the inner side and two on the outer ; second molar with two on the 
outer side and the same number on the inner ; the last molar with 
one indentation of the enamel on each side. Fur long and soft. 
Claws long, but slightly cui'ved, and formed for burrowing. A di- 
stinct claw on the thumb. Tail short, moderately furnished with 
hair. Nose much elongated and pointed. 

Species Mus {Oxymycterus) nasutus. 

Subgenus 3. ABROTHRixf. 
Folds of enamel penetrating deeply into the sides of the molars. 
The front molar of the lower jaw has three folds of enamel on the 
inner side and two on the outer ; the second molar has two on the 
inner side and one on the outer ; and the last molar has one on each 
side. Fur long and soft. Tail short, well furnished with hair. 
Thumb with a short rounded nail. Ears well furnished with hair. 

Type Mus {Abrothrix) longipilis. 

Species 2 Mus {Ab.) ohscurus. 

3 olivaceus. 

4 . — micropus. 

5 brachyotis. 

6 ~ xanthorhinus. 

7 canesce7is. 

8 arenicola. 

In general appearance these animals resemble ArvicolcB. 

Subgenus 4. CalomysJ. 
Fur moderate, soft. Tarsus almost entirely clothed beneath with 
hair. Front molar ^vith three indentations of enamel on the inner 
side and two on the outer ; second molar with two on the inner 
and two on the outer ; and the last molar with one on each side. 
Type Mus (Calomys) bimaculatus. 
Species 2 3Ius {Cal.) elegans. 

3 • gracilipes. 

Mus maurus and M. brevirostris I regard as belonging to the re- 
stricted genus Mus. In Mus Jtavescens the dentition diilcrs slightly 
' from that of the ordinary mice. 

* Oxymycterus, from O^nf, sliar{5, and M^xtijj, nose. 
t Abrothrix, from ' A,6joc, soft ov delicate, and 0f /f , hair. 
X Calomys, from KaAoj, beautiful, and Mv?. 



22 

Mr. Gould exhibited, in continuation, the Fissirostral Birds of 
Mr. Darwin's collection, recently presented to the Society, and 
characterized from among them the following new species : 

Caprimulgus bifasciatus. Cap. nigro, fusco, et fulvescente 
ornatus ; caudd albo bifasciatd, fascia terminali lata: primd 
angustd ; primariis nigrescentibus fascia angustd alba admedi- 
tim : alis spuriis macula alba notatis ; gutture lunula albd ; 
secondariis tectricibusque alarum macula fulvescente ad apicem ; 
crisso pallide rufescente ; rostro pedibusque fuscis. 

Long. tot. unc, 9| ; ala, 6^ ; caudce, 5 ; tarsi, |. 

Caprimulgus parvulus. Cap. intense fuscus, guttis minutis 
cinereis ornatus ; vittd rufd cervicem cingente ; gutture scapu- 
laribusque ad marginem, secondariis ad apicem stramineis ; 
pectore et abdomine lineis fuscis Iransversis ; primariis nigres- 
centibus, tribus fasciis incequalibus pallide rufescentibus ; catidd 
fasciis pallide fulvescentibus et fuscis omatd. 

Long. tot. unc, T^; alee, 5; caud<E, 4 ; tarsi, ^. 

HiRUNDO FRONTALIS. Hir. vcrticc plumis auricularibus dorso 
et lunuld pectorali nitide cceruleo viridescentibus, notd albd super 
nares, guld corporeque siibtus albicantibu^, crisso fiiveo, alis cau- 
ddque fuscis viridi tinctis, rostro nigro, pedibus intense fuscis. 

Long, tot 4J unc. alee, 4^; cauda, 2; tarsi, ^. 

Hab. Montevideo. 

HiRUNDO coNCOLOR. Hir. nitide ccerulescenti niger. 
Long. tot. 5f unc. alee, 5 ; caudee, 2| ; tarsi, ^. 
Hab. in insulis Galapagorum. 

Halcyon ervthrorhynchus. Halc.vertice plumis auricularibus, 
et nuchdfuscescenti-cinereis, gtdd pectore et abdomine medio albis, 
lateribus abdomine imo crissoque castaneis, alis humerisque nigris 
secondariis ad marginem dorso medio tectricibusque caudce metal- 
lice viridibus, cceruleo tinctis, caudd ceeruled superne, subtus fus- 
ed, rostro pedibusque rubris. 

Long. tot. 7| unc. ; rost., 2; alee, 3|; caudee, 2^; tarsi, ^. 

Hab. in insult St. lago. 



23 



February 28th, 1837. 
The Rev. John Barlow, in the Chair. 

Tlie following notice by T. C. Eyton, Esq. of some osteological pe- 
culiarities in different skeletons of the genus Sus was read. 

" Having during the last year prepared the skeleton of a male Pig 
of the pure Chinese breed, brought over by Lord Northampton, I 
was surprised to find that a very great difference existed in the 
number of the vertebrae from that given in the "Lemons d'Anatomie 
Comparee," vol. i. Ed. 1835. pag. 182, under the head either of San- 
glier or Cochon Domestique. A short time afterwards, through the 
kindness of Sir Rowland Hill, Bart., M.P., I prepared the skeleton 
of a female Pig from Africa ; this also differed, as also does the En- 
glish long-legged sort as it is commonly called. 

" The following table will show the differences in the number of 
the vertebrae in each skeleton with those given in the work above 
quoted. 





English 


African 


Chinese 


Lefc 


ns 




Male. 


Female. 


Male. 


d'Anat. 
SangUer. 


Comp. 
Coch.dom. 


Cerv. . . . 


7 


7 


7 . 


7 


7 


Dors. . . . 


. .. 15 


. 13 


. 15 . 


. 14 


14 


Lumb. . . . 


6 


6 


4 . 


5 


5 


Sac 


5 


5 


4 . 


4 


4 


Caud. . . . 


. . . 21 


. 13 


. 19 . 


. 20 


23 


Total . . . 


. .. 55 

^ -A. _i- 


." 44 
^1 J 1 


! 49 

^_T _ 


'. 50 

i_ _ _ • • 


53 



It is possible that some of the caudal vertebrae may be missing. 

" The Chinese Pig was imported into this country for the purpose 
of improving our native sorts, with which it breeds freely, and the 
offspring are again fruitful. I this winter saw a fine litter of Pigs 
by Sir Rowland Hill's African Boar, imported with the female I de- 
scribed, the mother of which was a common Pig ; time will show 
whether they will again be fruitful. 

" From what has been stated the result appears to me to be that 
either the above three Pigs must be considered as distinct species, and 
which, should the offspring of the two latter again produce young, 
would do away with the theory of Hunter, that the young of two di- 
stinct species are not fruitful, or we cannot consider osteological 
character a criterion of species. 

" I have been induced to offer the above not with any desire of 
species- making, but of adding something towards the number of re- 
corded facts by which the question what is a species must be an- 
swered." 



24 

A letter was read from Thomas Keir Short, Esq., dated Launces- 
ton, Van Diemen's Land, August 10th, 1836, containing some re- 
marks upon the Apteryx, two living specimens of which had been 
seen by the writer. The general correctness of the description pub- 
lished by Mr. Yarrell of this bird is confirmed by the observations 
of Mr. Short, with the exception of its progressive powers, which 
are stated to be remarkably great. The natives employ two methods 
of capturing it ; one by hunting it down with very swift dogs, the 
other by imitating its call at night, and when by this means the bird 
is decoyed within a short distance, it is suddenly exposed to a strongs 
light, which so confuses it that it is then readily taken. The usual 
position is standing, with the head drawn back between the shoul- 
ders, and the biU pointing to the ground. The food is stated to be 
principally worms and insects, and these birds are strictly nocturnal 
in their habits, feeding only during the night. Mr. Short remarks, 
that he has not been able to learn the place in which the Apteryx 
builds its nest, or the number of eggs which it lays. In conclusion, 
he promises to use his utmost endeavours to procure specimens for 
the Society. 

Mr. Gould resumed the exhibition of his collection of Australian 
Birds, as also several species, from the same country, forming por- 
tions of the collections of the United Service Museum, and of King's 
College, London. Among his own birds Mr. Gould characterized 
two new species of Meliphagidce, constituting a subdivision of that 
family, including MeUphaga tenuirostris of authors. For this new 
group he proposed the generic title of Acanthorhynchus, and for the 
two new species the names of A. superciliosus and A. dubius. 

Acanthorhynchus. (Gen. char.) Rostrum elongatum gracile et 
acutum ; ad latera compressum ; tomiis incurvatis ; culmine acuto 
et elevato. 

Nares basales elongatse et operculo tectae. 

Lingua ut in Gen. MeUphaga. 

Al(E mediocres et sub-rotundatse, remigibus primis et quintis fere 
requalibus ; tertiis et quartis intense sequaUbus et longissimis. 

Cauda mediocris, et paulultim furcata. 

Tarsi elongati, fortes ; haUuce digito medio longiore et robustiore ; 
digito externo medium superante. 

Ungiies curvati. 

Typus, Certhia tenuirostris, auct. 

Acanthorhynchus superciliosus. Ac. summo capita, corpore 
superiore, alts, caudaque rectricibus sex intermediis cifierascenti- 
fuscis, rectricibus reliquis nigris albo ample terminatis ; loro 
plumisque auricularibus nigrescenti-fuscis ; gutiure summo, 
genis linedque superciliari albis ; gutture coUoque nitide et pal- 
lide caslaneis ; illius colore vitfd alba infra drcumduto, cui vitta 
nigra accedit ; abdomine crissoque pallide cinerascenti-fuscis ; 
rostro pedibusque nigris. 



25 

Long, tot 5^ unc. ; rostri, 1^; ala, 2| ; caudce, 2^ ; tarsi, |. 
Hab. in terra Van Diemcn. 

AcANTHORHYNCHUs DUBius. Ac. su7nmo copite intense ci?ie' 
rascenti-viridi ; loro, pluniis auricularibus, lunula in utroque 
pectoris latere, rectricibusque caudce sex intermediis nigrescenti- 
fuscis, rectricibus reliquis nigris ad apice?n albis; nucha obscure 
rufd ; secundariis, tectricibus alee maj'oribus, et uropygio einereis; 
guld pectoreque cinerescenti-albis. Hid rufo tinctd ; abdomine cris- 
soque nitide at pallid e castaneis ; rostro pedibusqne nigris. 
Long. tot. 51 unc; rostri, 1 ; ala, 2^; caudee, 2\\ tarsi, |. 
Obs. Although I have given the name of dubius to this species on 
account of its close resemblance to Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris, I 
have but little doubt that it will ultimately prove to be distinct. 
Hab. in terra Van Diemen. 

The following species, also in Mr. Gould's collection, were named 
and characterized : 

Pardalotus affinis. Pard.frojite nigro ; vertice nigro, singidis 
plumis lined centrali albd ; lined superciliari flavd ad basin ros- 
tri oriente, cum lined albd conjunctd occiput versus tendente ; 
nucha dorsoque sordide olivaceo-fuscis ; uropygio tectricibusque 
caudo' Jlavide olivaceo-fuscis ; alis nigris, primariis notd albd 
apicali or?iatis, plumd tertid albescente ad marginem externum ; 
secundariis albo rufoque marginatis ; aid spurid ad api^em 
flavd; caudce rectricibus nigrescenti-fuscis transversim albo ad 
apicein notatis; auriculis genisque cinerescentibus ; gidd flavd; 
pectore abdomineque mediis pallide flavis, albo intermixtis ; la- 
teribus flavide olivaceo-fuscis; rostro nigro; pedibus fuscis. 
Long. tot. 31 unc. ; rostri, f ; ate, 2f ; caudfc, \\ ; tarsi, }f . 
Ob^. This species diiFers from Pardalotus striatus in having a 
larger bill, a longer wing, and a longer tarsus, and in the absence 
of the white margination of the five primaries ; the tips of the spu- 
rious wing in the present species is yellow, while in Pardalotus 
striatus the same part is scarlet. I am somewhat disposed to be- 
lieve that the bird figured by Dr. Latham may be referable to this 
species, and not to the following. 
Hab. In terra Van Diemen. 

Nanodes elegans. Mas. Nan. vittd frontali purpurea, supra, 
lined metallice cceruled margiimtd ad auriculas tendente ; loro 
splendide flavo ; capite, genis, dorso, tectricibusque caudce oli- 
vaceo-viridibus aureo lavatis ; hmneris ccendeis, primariis ni- 
gris, primis quatuor ad marginem viridcscentibus ; secundariis 
aldque spurid nigris ; guld pecfpreque viridescenti-jiavis, hoc 
colore in flavum, abdomine crissoquc transeunte; abdomine 
centrali pallide aurantiaco ; rectricibus caudce duabus inter- 
mediis viridescetiti-cceruleis, reliquis ad basin ccerulcis, ample 
flavo terminatis ; rostro jndibuscpie intense fuscis. 



26 

Foem. vel Mas Junior vittd frontali caret, et colorem habet indi- 

stinctiorem. 
Long. tot. 9 unc. ; alee, 4| ; canda, 5\ ; tarsi, \. 
Hah. In terra Van Diemen "i 

Platycercus flaveolus. Plat, fronte cocdneo ; huccis pallide 
cceruleis ; summo capite, nucha, et dorso, uropygio, tectricibus 
caudcB superioribus, corporeque inferne pallide Jlavidis, plumis 
dorsi parteque inferiori tectricum alee majorum centris nigris 
externe Jlavescentibus ; alis mediis cyaneis ; aid spuria pri- 
mariisque externe ad basin saturate violaceis ; reliquis prima- 
rium saturate brunneis ; rectricibus duabus intennediis caudce 
ad basin viridescentibus, ad apicem cceruleis, reliquis rectricum 
ad basin exteriorem saturate cceruleis, apicibus pallidioribus, 
plumis interne fere per totam longitudinem brunneis, apicibus 
extremis albis ; rostra livido ; pedibus fuscis. 

Long. tot. 1-3J unc. ; alee, 7 ; caudcB, 7^ ; tarsi, ^. 

Hah. in Nov^ Cambria Australi. 

HiMANTOPUs LEUCOCEPHALus. Him. ulbus J tmchd, dorso, alis- 
que nigris, nitore viridi ; rostro nigro ; pedibus riifis. 

Long. tot. 15 unc; rostri, 2\; alee, 85; caudce, 3; tarsi ad 
primum articulum 4, spatii nudi super eum 2\. 

Obs. This is a well-known species, but has hitherto been con- 
founded with the Himantopus melanopterus, under which title it 
has been described by various authors. 

Hab. Australia et insulis Java, Sumatra. 

Mr. Gould also characterized two new species of the genus Sterna, 
from the collection in King's CoUege, and a species of Cormorant in 
the United Service Museum, and three species of the genus Or- 
pheus, from the Galapagos, in the collection of Mr. Darwin. 

Sterna poliocerca. Stern.fronte cinerascenti-albo i?i nigrum ad 
occiput mergente ; gutture, collo antice et postice, corporeque 
subtits albis ; corpore supra, alis, cauddque cinerascetitibus ; 
rostro fiavo ; pedibus nigris. 

Long. tot. 17^ unc. ; rostri, 2| ; alcB, 12| ; caudae, 7 ; tarsi, 1. 

Hab. in terrel Van Diemen. 

Sterna macrotarsa. Stern, vertice et nuchd nigris ; corpore su- 
pra primariisque argenteo-cinerascentibu^ ; partibus reliquis 
corporis albis ; rostro pedibusque nigris. 

Long. tot. 15 unc; rostri, 2^; alee, 12; caudce, 5\ ; tarsi, 1|. 

Hab. in terra Van Diemen. 

Phalacrocorax brevirostris. Phal. rostro jiavo culmine ad 
basinque nigrescenti-fuscis ; gutture plumis auricularibus genis- 
que albis. Nuchd pectore corporeque subtus cum caudd nitide 



27 

nigris; dorsi alarumque plumis intense cinereis, nigra marginU' 
tis, pedibus nigris. 
Long. tot. 23unc. ; rostri, 2| ; ala, 9^; cauda, 7^; tarsi, 1^. 

Orpheus trifasciatus. Orph. vertice, nucha, et dorso nigres- 
centibus; uropygio rufopallide lavato; alis nigrescentibus tectri- 
cibus not a albescente terminali, fascias tres transversas facienti- 
bus rectricibus caudce duabus intermediis nigrescentibus, reliquis 
ad apicem pallidioribus ; plumis auricularibus strigd superci- 
liari, guld, et corpore svhtus albis, lateribus notis guttisque 
fuscis ornatis ; rostro pedibusqtce nigris. 

Long. tot. lOf unc. ; rostri, If ; alee. 5 ; cauda, 5^ ; tarsi, 1|. 

Orphkus melanotis. Orph. vertice, nuc/id, dorsoque pallidl fus- 
cis ; plumis capitis et dorsi ad medium colore saturatiore ; alis 
intense fuscis singulis, plumis ad marginem pallidioribus, seconda- 
riis. tectricibusque majoribus notd albd terminali, fascias duas 
transversas facientibus ; cauda rectricibus nigrescenti-fuscis ad 
apicem albis, loro, plumisque auricularibus nigrescenti-fuscis ; 
laterum plumis notd fused centrali, abdomine albo ; rostro pedi- 
busque nigris. 

Long. tot. 9i unc. ; rostri, 1^ ; alee, 4^ ; caud<e, 4^ ; tarsi. If. 

Orpheus parvulus. Orph. vertice, nucha cauddque intense fuscis, 
hujus rectricibus ad apicem albo notatis; alis fuscis secondariis 
tectricibusque notd albd apicali fascias duas transversas facien- 
tibus ; loro, plumisque auricularibus nigrescentibus, guld, colli 
lateribus pectore, et abdomine albescentibus ; plumis laterum notis 
fuscis per medium longitudinaliter excurrentibus. 

Long. tot. 8^ unc. ; rostri, 1 ; alee, 3|; caiidcB, 3f ; tarsi, \\. 

Mr. Waterhouse resumed the exhibition of the small Rodents, 
belonging to the collection presented by Mr, Darwin to the Society. 
Among them were three species allied to the genus Mus, but offering 
some slight modification, not only in the external form, but in the 
structure of the teeth. They have the fur soft and silky ; the head 
large, and the fore legs very small and delicate ; the tarsus mode- 
rately long and bare beneath ; in the number and proportion of the 
toes they agree with the true rats ; the tail is moderately long, and 
more thickly clothed with hair than in the typical rats. The ears 
are large, and clothed with hair. Like the true rats, they have 
twelve rooted molars ; the folds of enamel, however, penetrate 
more deeply into the body of each tooth, and enter in such a way 
that the crowns of the teeth are divided into transverse and some- 
what lozenge-shaped lobes, or in some instances into lobes of a 
triangular form. In the front molar of the upper jaw the enamel 
enters the body of the tooth twice, both on the outer and inner 
sides ; and in the second and posterior molars, both of the upper 
and under jaws, the enamel penetrates but once externally and in- 



28 

ternally in each. In the front molar of the lower jaw the enamel 
enters the body of the tooth three times internally, and twice ex- 
ternally. 

As the above-mentioned characters, in Mr. Waterhouse's opinion, 
evidently indicated an aberrant form of the Muridae, he suggested 
the propriety of constituting a subgenus under the name of Fhyllo- 
tis* for the reception of the species. 

They were characterized as follows :— 

Mus (Phyllotis) Darwinii, 31. siiprd pilis cinnamomeis et ni- 
grescentihus inter mixtis ; ante oculos cinerascentibus ; genis, 
lateribus corporis, et caudd piope basin, fulvo-cinnamonieis ; 
partibus hiferioribus pedibusque albis ; cturibus pcrmagnis,fere 
nudis ; caudd caput corpusqm fere ceqitante, supra fusco-nigri- 
cante, subtits albd. 

unc. lin. 
Longitndo ab apice rostri usque ad cauda; basin 6 

caudce 4 9 

ab apice rostri ad marginem oculi . 8^ 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris . . , . 1 a\ 

tarsi digitorumque I 1^ 

auris 11| 

Auris latitudo llj 

Hab. Coquimbo. 

This little animal is remarkable for its large leaf-like ears. 

Mus (Phyllotis) xanthopygus. M. supra pallide brunncus 
jlavo-lavatus, ad latera flavescens, subtus albus ; capite gris- 
cescente ; natibus Jiavis ; pedibus albis ; auribus majusculis 
pilis albis et Jiavis intermixtis obsitis ; caudd longitudineni cor- 
poris fere cequante, supra nigricante ; subtiis alhd ; rellcre 
longo et molli ; pilis corporis omnibus ad basin plumbeis ; 
mystacibus perlongis albescentihus, ad basin nigris. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudse basin . . 5 3 

caudce' 3 10 

ab apice rostri ad marginem oculi . 6| 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 1 3 

tarsi digitorumque 1 1 

auris 7 

Auris latitudo 6^ 

Hab. Santa Cruz. 



'2 



Mus (Phyllotis) griseo-flavus. M. supra griseus jlavo-lava- 
tus, ad latera jlavus, subtus albus ; pedibus albis ; auribus 
magnis et fere nudis ; caudd caput corpusque fere (cqiuinte, 
supra fusco-nigricante, subtiis albd ; vellere longo, molli ; pilis 
ad buses plumbeis. 

* Phi/llolis, from $t/XXo», a leaf, and Oi/j, coro;, an ear. 



29 

utic. liii. 
Lonjjitudo ab apice rostri usque ad caudai basin 6 8 

cuiidie 5 6 

ab apice rostri ad marginera oculi . 8 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 1 4§ 

tarsi digitorumque 1 2^ 

auris 8^ 

Latitude auris 8^ 

Hub. Rio Negro. 

This species may be readily distinguished from M. xanthopygus 
by the greater proportionate length of its tail. 

Two species of small Rodents were next characterized as consti- 
tuting examples of a new genus, for which Mr. Waterhouse proposed 
the name of 

Reithrodon.* 

" Denies primores f ; inferioribus acutis, gracilibus, et antic&lagvi- 
bus ; superioribus gracilibus, antice longitudinalit^r sulcatis. 
Molares utrinque f radicati ; primo maximo, ultimo minimo : primo 
superiore plicas vitreas duas extern^ et intern^ alternatim ex- 
hibente ; secundo, et tertio, plicas duas extern^, interne unam : 
primo inferiore plicas vitreas tres extern^, duas interne ; se- 
cundo, plicas duas extern^, unam intemfe ; tertio unam extern^ 
et intern^, exhibentibus. 
Artus insequales : antipedes 4-dactyli, cum pollice exiguo unguiculato : 

pedes post ici 5-dactyli, digitis externis et intemis brevissimis. 
Ungues parvuli et debiles. Tarsi subtiis pilosi. 
Cauda mediocris, pilis brevibus adpressis instructa. 
Caput magnum, froUte convexo : oculis magnis : auribus mediocribus, 
" In the present genus, the incisors, compared with those of the 
true rats, are rather smaller in proportion, and those of the upper 
jaw also differ in' having a longitudinal groove, a character which 
exists in Euryotis (Brants), Gerbillus, Otomys (Smith), Dendromys, 
and some other genera, but not combined with molars similar in 
structure to those above described, nor yet with similar external 
characters. In other respects the incisors resemble those of the 
genus Mus; that is to say, those of the lower jaw are long, slender, 
and pointed, and those of the upper are deep from front to back, and 
somewhat flattened at the sides and in front. The molars gradually 
decrease in size from the front to the last posterior tooth. The 
folds of enamel penetrate deeply into the crowns of these teeth, so 
that those from one side are in contact with those of the other ; these 
folds of enamel are each nearly opposed to the salient angles of the 
opposite side. 

" In the two species of this genus with which I am acquainted the 
fur is long, very soft, and consists of hairs of two lengths. The 

* PeiSpos, a channel ; 080:1, a tooth. 



30 

arched form of the head and the large eyes produce in these ani- 
mals a slight resemblance to young rabbits ; their affinity, however, 
is with the Muridce." 

Reithrodon typicus. Reithr. vellere supra pilisjlavescenti-fuscis 
et niffrescentibus i?itermixtis composito ; regione circa oculos, genis 
lateribusque corporis auratis, pilis pallide fmcis int^rmixtis ; 
partibus inferioribus auratis ; rhinario ad latera Jiavescenti- 
albo ; auribus magnis, intus pilis Jlavis, extiis flavis et fuscis, 
indutis ; caudd supra pallide fused, subtits sordide alba ; pedi- 
bus albis. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri usque ad caudse basin 6 

• ab apice rostri ad marginem oculi . 8^ 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 1 4^ 

tarsi digitorumque 1 2J 

auris S% 

Latitude auris B\ 

Hab. Maldonado. 

Reithrodon cuniculoides. Reithr. supra griseus, flavo-lavatus, 
pilis nigris intennixtis ; abdoniine guldque pallide Jlavis ; nati- 
biis albis; pedibus albis; auribus mediocribus, intus pilis flavis, 
extiis pilis pallide Jlavis, obsitis, maculd nigrescente ad mar- 
ginem aiiteriorem positd ; pone aures, notd magna albescenli- 
jlavd J caudd corpore breviore, supra pallide fused, subtiis alba. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri usque ad caudae basin 6 5 

caudae 3 3^ 

' ab apice rostri ad marginem oculi . 9^ 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 1 4 

tarsi digitorumque 1 4^ 

■ auris 7 

Hab. Santa Cruz. 

In conclusion, two other new Rodents were characterized under 
the generic name of 

Abrocoma.* 

Dentes primores f acuti, eradicati, anticfe laeves : molares utrinque 
\ subsequales, illis maxillae superioris in areas duas transver- 
sales ob pllcas vitreas acutfe indentatas divisis ; plicis utriusque 
lateris vix sequfe profundis ; illis mandibulse inferioris in tres 
partes divisis, plicis vitreis bis intemfe, semel extern^ indenta- 
tis, area prima sagittse cuspidem fingente, caeteris acut^ trian- 
gularibus. 

Artus subsequales. 

Antipedes 4-dactyli, extemo brevissimo, intermediis longissimis et 
fer^ aequalibus. 

* ' A/ipos, soft; KojU)i, hair. 



31 

Pedes postici 5-dactyli; digito interno brevissimo. Ungues hxt\ei 
et debiles, illo digiti secundi lato et lamellari ; omnibus setis 
rigidis obtectis. 
Caput mediocre, auribus magnis, membranaceis ; oculis mediocribus, 
Cauda breviuscula. 
Vellus perlongum, et moUe. 

" The genus Abrocoma is evidently allied on the one hand to Oc- 
todon, Ctenomys, and Paphagomys, and it appears to me almost as 
evidently allied on the other hand, to the Chinchillidce. ITie denti- 
tion, however, differs considerably from either of the above-men- 
tioned genera, or, from either of those of the family Chinckillida, and in 
fact indicates a new generic form *. From Ctenomys and Paphagomys 
the present genus is readily distinguished, by the comparatively large 
size of the ears, the small delicate claws, and smaller size of the- inci- 
sors; and from Octodon by the uniform length of the hairs on the 
tail. 

" In the structure of the feet the genus Abrocoma approaches very 
nearly to Octodon, not only in the form, but in having the soles both 
of tlie fore and hind feet (which are devoid of hair) covered with mi- 
nute round fleshy tubercles. In Octodon, however, the toes have on 
their under side transverse incisions as observed in the Muridce, a 
character, however, not found in Abrocoma ; here the under side of 
the toes is, lilce the sole of the foot, covered with tubercles. 

" The extreme softness of the fur of the animals about to be de- 
scribed, suggested for them the generic name of Abrocoma. The 
fur consists of hairs of two lengths, and the longer hairs are so ex- 
tremely slender that they might almost be compared to the web of 
the spider. The specific names applied are those of the distinguished 
naturalists who first made us acquainted with the two genera Octo- 
don and Paphagomys, these being very nearly allied to Abrocoma." 

Abrocoma Bennettii. A. corpore supra griseo, ad latera pal- 
lidiore et pallide cervhw lavato, subtus albescenti-cervino ; yuld 
albescenti-grised ; pedibus sordide albis : auribus amplis, ud 
marginem posticum rectis, fere nudis, attamen extiis ad bases 
vellere, sicut in corpore, obsitis : caudd corpore breviore, ad ba- 
sin crassiuscidd, pilis brevibus incumbentibus vestitd. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri usque ad caudse basin 9 9 

Cauda 5 

ab apice rostri ad marginem oculi . 11^ 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... Ill 

tarsi digitorumque 1 4 

— auris 10 

Latitudo auris 1 0^ 

Hab. Chili. 

* " I may here mention that the folds of enamel in the dentition of the 
lower jaw very much resemble those in the teeth of the genus Arvicola." 



32 

Abrocoma Cuvieri. Ab. supra grisea, leviter ochraceo lavata ; 
ahdomine guldque albescenti-griseis ; pedihus sordide albis; au- 
ribus amplis, ad marginem posticum distincte emarginatis, fere 
nudis attamen extiis ad bases vellere, sicict in corpore, obsitis : 
Cauda corpore muUo breviore, et nigrescente. 

unc. Hn. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri usque ad caudse basin 6 6 

T"^ I'i'-l . Cauda 2 10 

v 1 M ( s t ab apice rostri ad marginem oculi . 6|: 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 1 4 

tarsi digitorumque 1 1 

auris 7 

Latitude auris 7^ 

Hab. Valparaiso. 



33 



March 14th, 1837. 
Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair. 

A paper was read, " On the habits of the Vultur aura," by Mr. W. 
Sells, with notes of dissections of the heads of two specimens, by 
Mr. R. Owen. 

ITie writer states that this bird is found in great abundance in the 
Island of Jamaica, where it is known by the name oiJohn Crow ; and 
so valuable are its services in the removal of carrion and animal filth, 
that the legislature have imposed a fine of £5 upon any one destroy- 
ing it within a stated distance of the principal towns. Its ordi- 
nary food is carrion, but when hard pressed with hunger it will seize 
upon young fowls, rats, and snakes. After noticing the highly offen- 
sive odour emitted from the eggs of this bird when broken, Mr. Sells 
relates the following instances which have come under his own per- 
sonal observation, for the purpose of proving, that the Vultur aura 
possesses the sense of smell in a very acute degree. 

" It has been questioned whether the vulture discovers its food by 
means of the organ of smell or that of sight. I apprehend that its 
powers of vision are very considerable, and of most important use to 
the bird in that point of view ; but that it is principally from highly 
organized olfactories that it so speedily receives intelligence of where 
the savory morsel is to be found will plainly appear by the following 
facts. In hot climates the burial of the dead commonly takes place 
in about twenty-four hours after death, and that necessarily, so ra- 
pidly does decomposition take place. On one occasion I had to make 
a post-mortem examination of a body within twenty hours after 
death, in a mill-house, completely concealed, and while so engaged 
the roof of the mill-house was thickly studded with these birds. 
Another instance was that of an old patient and much-valued friend 
who died at midnight : the family had to send for necessaries for the 
funeral to Spanish Town, distant thirty miles, so that the interment 
could not take place until noon of the second day, or thirty-six hours 
after his decease, long before which time, and a most painful sight 
it was, the ridge of the shingled roof of his house, a large mansion 
of but one floor, had a number of these melancholy-looking heralds 
of death perched thereon, beside many more which had settled in 
trees in its immediate vicinity. In these cases the birds must have 
been directed by smell alone as sight was totally out of the question. 

" In opposition to the above opinion, it has been stated by Mr. Au- 
dubon that vultures and other birds of prey possess the sense of smell 
in a very inferior degree to carnivorous quadrupeds, and that so far 
from guiding them to their prey from a distance, it affords them no 
indication of its presence, even when close at hand. In confirmation 
of this opinion he relates that he stufied the skin of a deer full of hay 

No. LI. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



34 

and placed it in a field ; in a few minutes a vulture alighted near it 
and directly proceeded to attack it, but finding no eatable food he at 
length quitted it. And he further relates that a dead dog was con- 
cealed in a narrow ravine twenty feet below the surface of the earth 
around it and filled with briers and high canes ; that many vultures 
were seen sailing in all directions over the spot but none discovered 
it. I may remark upon the above experiments that in the first 
case the stag was doubtless seen by the birds, but it does not follow 
that they might not also have smelt the hide, although inodorous to 
the human nose ; in the second case, the birds had undoubtedly 
been attracted by smell, however embarrassed they might have been 
by the concealment of the object which caused it. I have in many 
hundred instances seen the vulture feeding upon small objects under 
rocks, bushes, and in other situations where it was utterly impos- 
sible that the bird could have discovered it but through the sense of 
smell ; and we are to recollect that the habit of the vulture is that 
of soaring aloft in the air, and not that of foraging upon the ground." 
Mr. Sells's communication was accompanied by the following let- 
ter from Mr. Owen, addressed to the Secretary, W. Yarrell, Esq. 

" Dear Sir, — I received the heads of the John Croir, which I sup- 
pose to be the Vultur aura or Turkey Buzzard, and have dissected 
the olfactory nerves in both ; as also in a Turkey which seemed to 
me to be a good subject for comparison, being of the same size, and 
one in which the olfactory sense may be supposed to be as low as in 
the Vulture, on the supposition that this bird is as independent of 
assistance from smell in finding his food as the experiments of Audu- 
bon appear to show. There is, however, a striking difference be- 
tween the Turkey Vulture and the Turkey in this part of their organi- 
zation. The olfactory nerves in the Vulture arise by two oval ganglions 
at the anterior apices of the hemispheres from which they are con- 
tinued 1^ line in transverse diameter, and 2 lines in vertical diameter, 
and are distributed over well-developed superior and middle spongy 
bones, the latter being twice the dimensions of the former. The 
nose is also supplied by a large division of the supraorbital branch 
of the 5th pair, which ascends from the orbit, passes into the nose 
crossing obliquely over the outer side of the olfactory nerve, extend- 
ing between the superior spongy bone and the membrane covering 
the middle spongy bone, then descending, and after supplying the 
inferior and anterior spongy bone escaping from the nasal cavity to 
supply the parts covering the upper mandible. This olfactory branch 
of the 5th pair is about :|:th the size of the true olfactory nerve. 

" In the Turkey the olfactory branch of the 5th nerve is about the 
same size as in the Vulture, and is superior in size to the true olfac- 
tory nerve, which is only about J-th the size of that in the Vulture. 
The olfactory nerve does not form a ganglion at its commencement, 
but is continued as a small round chord from the anterior apex of 
each hemisphere, and is ramified on a small middle spongy bone, 
there being no extension of the pituitary membrane over a superior 
turbinated bone as in the Vulture. Indeed the difi^erence in the 
development of the nasal cavity is weU marked in the different forms 



of the head in these two species. In the Vulture there is a space 
between the upper parts of the orbits in which the olfactory gan- 
ghons and nerves are situated, and the nasal cavity anterior to these 
is of a much greater breadth and also longer, as well as exhibiting 
internally a greater extent of pituitary surface, than in the Turkey. 
In this bird the olfactory nerves are compressed within a narrow in- 
terorbital space, which would not admit of the lodgement of gan- 
glions ; the olfactory nerves after passing through this space then di- 
verge to the nasal cavity. 

" In the Goose the olfactory nerves are developed to the same size 
as in the Vulture, and expand upon superior spongy bones of similar 
form, but placed wider apart, and these supply the middle spongy 
bones which are longer but not so broad as in the Turkey. The 
olfactory branch of the 5th pair is double the size of that in the 
Vulture or Turkey ; it gives, however, not a greater proportion of 
filament to the nose than in those birds, but is mainly expended upon 
the membrane covering the upper mandible. 

" The above notes show that the Vulture has a well-developed 
organ of smell, but whether he finds his prey by that sense alone, 
or in what degree it assists, anatomy is not so well calculated to ex- 
plain as experiment. 

" I will bring my preparations showing the above at next meeting, 
and am truly yours, 

" Royal College of Surgeons, March 7th." " R. OwEN." 

Mr. Gould brought before the notice of the meeting, from the col- 
lection of Mr. Darwin, a new species of Rhea from Patagonia, and 
after offering some observations upon the distribution of the Sti-u- 
thionidoE, and upon the gi-eat interest attending this addition to that 
family, he remarked that the new species is distinguished from Rhea 
Americana of authors, in being one-fifth less in size, in having the 
bill shorter than the head, and the tarsi reticulated in firont in- 
stead of scutellated, and in being plumed below the knee for several 
inches. It has also a more densely plumed wing, the feathers of 
which are broader, and all terminated by a band of white. 

Mr. Gould, in conclusion, adverted to the important accessions to 
science resulting from the exertions of Mr. Darwin, and to his libe- 
rality in presenting the Society with his valuable Zoological Collec- 
tion ; to commemorate which he proposed to designate this interest- 
ing species by the name of Rhea Darwinii. 

Mr. Darwin then read some notes upon the Rhea Americana, and 
upon the newly described species, but principally referring to the 
former. 

This bird abounds over the plains of Northern Patagonia and the 
United Provinces of La Plata ; and though fleet in its paces and shy 
in its nature, it yet falls an easy prey to the hunters, who confound 
it by approaching on horseback in a semicircle. When pursued it 
generally prefers running against the wind, expanding its wings to 
the full extent. It is not generally known that the Rhea is in the 
habit of swimming, but on two occasions Mr. Darwin witnessed their 



36 

crossing the Santa Cruz river, where it* course was about 400 yards 
wide and the stream rapid. They make but slow progress, their necks 
are extended slightly forwards, but little of the body appears above 
water. At Bahia Blanca, in the months of October and September, 
an extraordinary number of eggs are found all over the country. 
The eggs either lie scattered about, or are collected together in a 
shallow excavation or nest ; in the former case they are never hatched, 
and are termed by the Spaniards Huachos. The Gauchos unani- 
mously affirm that the male bird alone hatches the eggs, and for 
some time afterwards accompanies the young. Mr. Darwin does 
not doubt the accuracy of this fact, and states that the cock bird 
sits so closely that he has almost ridden over one in the nest. Mr. 
Darwin has also been positively informed that several females lay in 
one nest, and although the fact at first appears strange, he considers 
the cause sufficiently obvious, for as the number of eggs varies from 
20 to 50, and, according to Azara, even 70 or 80, if each hen were 
obliged to hatch her own before the last was laid, the first probably 
would have been addled ; but if each laid a few eggs at successive 
periods in different nests, and several hens, as is stated to be the 
case, combine together, then the eggs in one collection would be 
nearly of the same age. Mr. Burchell mentions that in Africa two 
ostriches are believed to lay in one nest. 

Mr. Darwin then proceeds to notice the other species of Rhea, 
which he first heard described by the Gauchos, at River Negro, in 
Northern Patagonia, as a very rare bird, under the name of Avestruz 
Petise. The eggs were smaller than those of the common Rhea, of 
more elongated form, and with a tinge of pale blue. This species is 
tolerably abundant about a degree and a half south of the Rio Negro, 
and the specimen presented to the Society was shot by Mr. Martens 
at Port Desire in Patagonia, (in latitude 48). It does not expand 
its wings when running at full speed, and Mr. Darwin learned from 
a Patagonian Indian that the nest contains fifteen eggs, which are 
deposited by more than one female. It is stated in conclusion that 
the Rhea Americana inhabits the country of La Plata as far as a little 
south of the Rio Negro, in lat. 41°, and that the Petise takes its place 
in Southern Patagonia. 

Mr. Chambers then brought before the notice of the Society a 
simple process for taking impressions from feathers, which is effected 
by placing the feathers between two sheets of paper, the lower one 
being previously well damped, and the upper covered with printers' 
ink; both are then passed through the rolling press of a copper plate 
printer, and on removing the upper sheet perfect figures of the fea- 
thers will be left, which may be coloured when dry, and will then 
have the resemblance of feathers placed on paper. 



37 



March 28th. 1837. 

Dr. Bostock, in the Chair. 

Mr. Chambers read a paper upon the habits and geographical dis- 
tribution of Humming Birds, and exhibited the nest and eggs of the 
only species {Trochilus colubris,) which visits the United States, and 
which is there very commonly bred in confinement. Mr. Chambers 
adverted to the probability of success if attempts were made to do- 
mesticate these birds in this country. A lady residing at Boston 
informed him that in that city they are readily reared in cages, and 
she expressed great surprise on hearing that only one instance had 
occurred of their being domesticated in England, as the climate so 
nearly corresponds. 

The first part of a paper was then read by F. Debell Bennett, 
Esq., corresponding member, on " The Natural History of the Sper- 
maceti Whale." 

Mr. Yarrell then brought before the notice of the meeting " A 
Synopsis of the Fishes of Madeira," by the Rev. R. T. Lowe, Cor- 
responding Member of the Society. This synopsis includes all the 
Fishes hitherto found at Madeira, with observations upon many of 
the species, and the character of such genera and species as are 
new. The Author has also drawn up a table, showing the com- 
parative number and distribution of the British, Mediterranean, and 
Maderan Fishes. It appears from this, that notwithstanding the 
uniformity of its shores, both in structure and materials, occasioning 
a corresponding uniformity in food and shelter, that the number of 
marine species found at Madeira equals two thirds the amount be- 
longing to the British seas. 

With the exception of the genus Anguilla, the fresh- water species 
are entirely absent, the physical structure of the island preventing the 
formation of lakes and pools, and reducing its streams to the cha- 
racter of rapid rivulets or mountain torrents. A result indicated by 
the table just referred to, and which Mr. Lowe particularly notices, 
is, that Madeira possesses as many species in common with Britain 
as it has with the Mediterranean, and also that there is a variation 
in the ratio between the marine Acanthopterygians and Malaco- 
pterygians proportionate to the latitude. In Britain the marine Jca/j- 
thopterygians are to the marine Malacopterygians as one and a quarter 
to one ; in the Mediterranean, as two and three fifths to one ; while 
at Madeira the ratio increases to three and a half to one. 

The Author's remaining observations principally relate to the 
particular periods of the year, and to the comparative abundance in 
which certain species are met with.* 

* The paper will appear in the Society's Transactions. 



38 

A Notice by Thomas Wharton Jones, Esq., was then read, " On 
the mode of closure of the gill-apertures in the tadpoles of Batrachia." 

Mr. Jones observes, that when the right gill of the tadpole disap- 
pears, it is not, as is usually supposed, by the closure of the fissure 
through which it protrudes, but by the extension of the opercular fold 
on the right side towards that of the left, forming but a single fissure, 
common to the two branchial cavities, through which the left gill 
still protrudes. He also remarks that conditions analogous to those 
which occur during several stages of this process exist in the branchial 
fissures of the anguilliform genera, Sphagebranchus, 3fonoj)terus, and 
Si/nbranchus. 



39 



April nth, 1837. 

The Rev. John Barlow, in the Chair. 

The reading of Mr. F. De Bell Bennett's paper " On the Natural 
History of the Spermaceti Whale," was resumed. 

Mr. "Bennett first notices the gregarious habits of the sperm Whales, 
which are usually found in parties consisting of half-gi'own males, or 
of females attended by their young, and guarded by one or more 
males of the largest size. If a solitary Whale be ever observed, it 
almost invariably proves to be an aged male, probably driven from the 
societjr of its companions. 

From the author's observations he is inclined to consider that the 
speed of an alarmed Cachalot does not ex.ceed from eight to ten miles 
an hour, although when harpooned its temporary velocity may be 
estimated at from twelve to fifteen miles per hour. 

When thus flying from pursuit, the spermaceti Whale moves vrith 
a regular and majestic although rapid pace, and with a gently leap- 
ing gait ; the anterior and upper portions of the colossal head raised 
above the water, and a portion of the back being also often exhi- 
bited above the surface of the sea. When flying in parties they 
often move in lines like a troop of horse, exerting their pecu- 
liar leaping action, descending, rising, and often even spouting in 
unison. 

When descending, the spermaceti Whale assumes a vertical po- 
sition, raising the caudal fin or flukes perpendicularly in the air ; an 
action that is performed leisurely, and one that distinguishes this 
from most other species of cetaceans. This manoeuvre is not, how- 
ever, invariably performed, since, when leisurely feeding, or carelessly 
avoiding a boat, the Cachalot will descend very gradually, lowering 
itself, or as it is technically termed, ' settling down.' 

The following are Mr. Bennett's observations upon the spouting 
of the Cachalot : — 

" From the position of the larynx, as well as the mouth being con- 
stantly beneath the water in the natural posture of the body, the 
only medium for respiration is through the nostril or spiracular canal, 
and from the external aperture of this organ a constant succession of 
jets of vapour is cast whilst the Cachalot continues on the surface of 
the water ; each spovt succeedmg the other, after an interval of ten 
or fifteen seconds, and with a regularity highly characteristic of this 
kind of Whale. The respiratory jet, or spout, is thrown in a direction 
obliquely upward and forward, in the fonn of a dense white mist or 
cloud composed of many minute and scattered drops of condensed 
vapour. It is sent forth by one continued eifort, seldom rises higher 
than six or eight feet, remains suspended in the air but a short time, 
and is accompanied by a prolonged rushing sound, resembling that 

No. LII. — Proceedin-gs of the Zoological Society. 



40 

of a moderate surf on a smooth beach, the anterior portion of the 
head being raised higher above the surface of the sea at each ex- 
plosive effort. The spout is neither abruptly terminated nor suc- 
ceeded by any audible sound of suction or ' drawback' (produced by 
succeeding inspiration), as is the case with the spouting of some 
other of the less valued cetaceans, as fin-backs, &c. The sound, in- 
deed, attending the spouting of the Cachalot is so peculiar that 
the pi'actised whaler can detect the close vicinity of this Whale as 
well by sound as by sight, and in the darkness of night as by the light 
of day. Although a secondary use for the spiracle may be found 
in clearing the mouth of water received with the food, it is yet tole- 
rably evident that the ordinary spouting of Whales is the simple act 
of breathing, and the moisture ejected the ordinary halitus of ex- 
piration more or less condensed in the atmosphere. This appears 
proved by the regular and constant renewal of the spout in corre- 
spondence with the rhyme of respiration, It being neither intermitted 
nor varied in aspect when Whales are alarmed and swimming rapidly 
through the sea, and their closed mouths admitting no water, and by 
its being equally well timed and unchanged when the spiracle is 
raised high above the calm and level sea, as when liable to be washed 
by turbulent waves. It is also reasonable to suppose that the neces- 
sity for casting forth sea water by this channel would exist to a 
greater degree, during their visits to the ocean's depths where they 
seize and generally devour their prey, and where it would be impos- 
sible for the spiracular canal to contain all the fluid thus received 
until the return to the air. Nor, indeed, could such delay be neces- 
sary, since the operation for its expulsion through the spiracle could 
be as completely performed, if required, under water. The nature 
of the spout, moreover, is rather that of a light mist, and can in no 
way be compared to a volume of water. It appears to me that the 
clearest idea and most correct view we can entertain of the nature of 
the Whale's spout, may be derived from the cloud of vapour produced 
by the expiration of terrestrial animals under a low temperature, as 
during the frosty weather of this climate ; the sole diff"erence existing 
in the vast bullc and capacity of the lungs in cetaceans causing the 
halitus of expiration to be evident under all temperatures, whilst in 
the smaller mammalia it is only to be noticed when the thermometer 
maintains a low grade. 

" It is not unusual during a close encounter with the Cachalot for 
the Whale to spout into the boats amongst the crew, when those 
who experienced its contact described it to me as foetid in odour and 
producing an acrid effect." 

From the facility with which the Whale is approached by boats, 
pro\4ded they are not brought within the line of vision, Mr. Bennett 
infers that this animal possesses the sense of hearing in a very imperfect 
manner, a deficiency, however, which appears to be in some measure 
compensated for by the perfection in which it possesses the sense of 
touch, through the medium of a smooth skin, abundantly supplied 
with nervous papilhe. It even appears as though the Cachalots had 
the means of conveying impressions one to another through the water 



41 

at considerable distances, for it is a fact well known to the southern 
whalers, that upon a Cachalot being struck from a boat, others that 
are miles distant will almost instantaneously display by their actions 
an apparent consciousness of wliat has occurred, and either take them- 
selves off or come down to the aid of their injured companion. This 
intelligence Mr. Bennett supposes can only be communicated by a 
concussion of the water. Speaking of the general temper and dispo- 
sition of this species, he remarks, " like most terrestrial animals that 
are gregarious and herd together in great numbers, spermaceti Whales 
are naturally timid, and prone to fly from the remotest aspect of dan- 
ger, and although many instances occur amongst them of a mis- 
chievous and combative temper, attacking and destroying boats and 
men with their flukes and jaws, (as I shall have occasion elsewhere to 
notice,) such is rather to be deemed appertaining to the individual 
than the common character, and on a par with similar traits of temper 
and excited by similar causes, as we find occasionally prevail amongst 
horses, oxen, and other Herbivora, between the cetacea and which 
a closer parallel of comparison may be drawn, both as regards mental 
character and anatomical structure, than upon a superficial view of 
the two tribes of animals would appear possible. A shoal of Por- 
poises mingling with and jumping amongst them is sufficient to alarm 
and put to flight a party of Cachalots, and when on a well-beaten 
cruising ground, where the Whales are usually exceedingly watchful 
and wary, the whaler is well on his guard not to excite or confirm 
their suspicion until he has secured his prizes. The signs exhibited 
by the sperm Whale of a suspicion of danger are, lying motionless in 
the manner of listening, occasionally ceasing to spout, sweeping their 
flukes slowly from side to side, and turning upon the side to bring 
the axis of vision upon any object above them." 

" When pursued and attacked a shoal of these Whales may be con- 
sidered to exhibit two degrees of alarm, viz., that of a less degree, 
which puts them to the top of their speed to escape, and which fre- 
quently baffles pursuit ; and a more powerful and overwhelming im- 
pression of fear, arising either from the close approach of their ene- 
mies or from one of their number beinginjured or destroyed, when they 
often lie huddled together motionless and trembling, or make such 
confused and irresolute eff"orts to escape as afford the attacking boats 
every chance of success. It commonly occurs when female Whales 
are harpooned that they mutually assist each other, and remain around 
their injured companions for a long time ; whilst the males, under the 
same circumstances, commonly make a speedy retreat, and leave their 
afflicted comrades to their fate. When suddenly surprised by a 
boat, the Whale, although uninjured, is seen to tremble, and void its 
excrement, which is semi-fluid, foetid, and resembles coffee grounds 
spread on the water." 

After detailing some circumstances connected with the gestation 
of the sperm Whale and its mode of copulation, the author remarks, 
" There is much reason to suppose the Cachalots are very prolific ; 
sucking calves appear to be noticed at all seasons of the year. We 



42 

observed them during the voyage in the months of January, February, 
May, June, July, August, September and December." 

It appears that the sperm Whale is not like the Balcena mystketus, 
constantly found with Barnacles and other parasites adhering to its 
skin, a circumstance accounted for by Mr. Bennett from the former 
species inhabiting deep water, while the latter frequents soundings, 
and is also much more sluggish in its movements. One species of 
Barnacle, the Otion Cuvieri, is sometimes found attached in a single 
cluster to the lips or lower jaw of the 'Cachalot, and a few small 
Onisci occasionally adhere to the skin ; in its blubber also numerous 
cysts of a species of Cysticercus are met with. 

Mr. Bennett, in the latter part of his memoir, notices the obsti- 
nacy and determination which these Whales often display when at- 
tacked or wounded, and also enumerates some of the different spe- 
cies of animals which are thought to indicate their approach, and he 
concludes with a reference to their occurrence in the British seas, 
and some observations upon their geographical distribution. 

Mr. Gould then called the attention of the meeting to a new and 
beautiful species of Ortyx, a native of California, from the collection 
of the late David Douglas, and characterized it under the name of 
0. plum If era. 

Ortyx Plumifera. 

Ort. capite, nucha., pectoreque intense cinereis; plumis duabus gra- 
cilibus et subpendentibus e vertice nigris ; guld intense casfaned 
ad latera lined cdbd, infra oculos notd nigra ; loro sordide albo ; 
corpore superiors olivaceo-fusco ; rectricibus caudce fuscis nigro 
irroratis ; alee j)rimariis brunneis, pogoniis externis, pallidiori- 
bus ; abdominis lateribus intense castaneis ; supra lined alba 
marginatis ; infra fasciis nigris atque albis ornatis ; abdomine 
medio crissoque casta7ieis ; rostro nigro ; pedibus pallide-brun- 
nescentibus. 

Long. tot. 9| une. ; rostH, | ; alcB, 5\ ; caudce, 3^; tarsi, 1|. 

Hub. California. 
Fcem. vel mas junior a mare adulto differt, corpore minore, coloribus 
obscurioribus, plumisque capitis brevioribus. 

He remarked that this genus was first brought before the Society 
eight or nine years ago by Mr. Vigors, at which time only five spe- 
cies were known, but since that period the number had been doubled ; 
and from the remarkable development of the feathers forming the 
crest in the species then exhibited Mr. Gould anticipates the dis- 
covery of others, which shall connect Ortyx plumifera with those 
species in which this character is less prominently shown. In sup- 
port of this opinion Mr. Gould directed attention to the genera 
Larus, Trogoti and Caprimulgus, which possess certain characters 
largely developed ; but the degree of development increases gradually 
from the species in which it is least apparent to those in which it 
attains its greatest extent. 



43 

Mr. Gould then exhibited a new species of the genus Podar- 
gus, from Java, which he proposes to name P. stellatus. 

PoDARGUs Stellatus. 

Podarg. corporis plumis, alis, cauddque crehre guttulis, notisque irre- 
gulariter interruptis, his pallide brunneis, illisfuscis, ornatis, colli 
plumis lined angustd nigrd fasciatis ad apicem latis, et albescenti- 
bus luntdam facientibus ; post oculos plumis pilosis elongatis ori- 
entihus, et postice directis tectricibus alarum ad apicem margi' 
nis interioris notd albescente, nigra postice cinctd, ornatis scapu- 
laribus inferioribus palUdiorihus ; pectoris plumis nonnullis fiaves- 
centi albo guttatis ; rostro pedibusque pallide fuscis. 

Long. tot. S unc. ; rostri, 1,}; a/a?, 4 ; tarsi, |. 

Hab. Java. 

Some observations on the Physalia, by George Bennett, Esq., 
F.L.S., Superintendant of the Australian Museum at Sydney, and 
Corresponding Member of the Zoological Society, were then read. 

Some specimens of Physalia pelagica having been captured by 
Mr. Bennett while on his voyage to Sydney, he had an opportunity 
of observing the action of the numerous filamentary bodies attached 
to the air-bladder of this animal. 

The longest of these appendages are used by the Physalia for the 
capture of its prey, and are capable of being coiled up within half 
an inch of the air bladder, and then darted out with astonishing 
rapidity to the distance of 1 2 or 1 8 feet, twining round and paraly- 
zing by means of an acid secretion any small fish within that di- 
stance. The food thus seized by the tentacula is rapidly conveyed to 
the short appendages or tubes, which are furnished with mouths for 
its reception. These tubes appear to constitute the stomach of the 
animal, for upon a careful dissection nothing like a common recept- 
acle for food could be observed, nor could Mr. Bennett detect any 
communications between them and the air-bladder, to the inferior 
portion of which they are attached by means of a dense muscular 
band. After an examination of an immense number of specimens, 
Mr. Bennett was unable to discover the orifice usually stated to 
exist at the pointed end of the bladder, nor could he ever succeed 
in expelling any portion of the contained air without a puncture 
being previously made. This organ consists of two coats, the outer 
of which is dense and muscular, readily separating from the inner, 
which resembles a cellular membrane. 

The partial escape of air from the bladder did not at all affect the 
buoyancy, or appear in any way to incommode the Physalia ; and 
even when it had completely collapsed, the animal still floated on 
the surface ; upon removing the bladder entirely, the mass of ten- 
tacula sank to the bottom of the vessel, and though their vitality re- 
mained, all power of action was entirely destroyed. 



44 

A letter was then read, addressed to Mr. Gould, from M. Nat- 
terrer, describing a new species of Pteroglossus, from Para in Brazil, 
which the writer proposes to name P. Gouldii, in commemoration of 
the valuable contributions which ornithology has derived from the 
labours of Mr. Gould. 

Pteroglossus Gouldii. 

Ptero. summo capite, nucha, gutture, pectore, ahdomineque nigris ; 
plumis auricular ibtts auruntiaco-jiavis ad apice)n siramineis ; 
fascia semilunari nuchali Jlavd ; dorso, alis, cauddque olivaceo- 
fuscis ; hujus rectricibus sex intermediis apice castaneo ; lateri- 
bus auraiitiaco-jlavis ; femoribus castaneis, crisso coccineo, cute 
circa oculos viridi ; rostri mandibuld superiore nigra, apicem 
versus livide corned, apice albo,fascidque angustd alba ad basin ; 
mandibuld inferiore alba fascia nigrd, apiceque livide corneo, 
pedibus plunibeis, 
Famina differt partibus, quce in mare nigrce, in Hid castaneis, et 
lateribus plumisque auricularibus pallidioribus. 
Long. tot. 1 1 unc. ; rostri, 2J ; ales, 5 ; cauda;, 4| ; tarsi, 1 f . 



45 

April 25th, 1837. 
Thomas Bell, Esq. in the Chair. 

A letter was read addressed to N. A. Vigors, Esq., M.P., from 
Mr. Henry Denny of Leeds, stating that a fine male specimen of the 
Snowy Owl had been recently captured at Selby in Yorkshire. 

Mr. Gray then exhibited the horn of a Deer supposed to come 
from India, which he considered as characteristic of a new species 
peculiar for the elongate acute form of the basal branch, which ap- 
pears to have been depressed, and directed obliquely across the fore- 
head of the animal. This horn, which had not attained its full period 
of growth, agreed with that of the Rein Deer, in being palmate, and 
in having the basal frontlet depressed, in which latter character it is 
allied to an Indian species called by Mr. Gray Cervus Smithii, 
known by a drawing belonging to the collection of General Hard wick 
in the British Museum. 

Mr. Gray then adverted to some observations which he had made 
on a former occasion during a discussion upon the nature of the re- 
lation existing between the Argonaut shell and the Cephalopod 
which inhabits it. On that occasion, one argument made use of by 
him in favour of the parasitic nature of this animal, was, that the 
nucleus of the Argonaut shell is larger than could be contained 
within the eggs which often accompany the Ocythcie. He is now 
disposed to attach less importance to this circumstance, having re- 
cently observed that the eggs of some moUusca, as the Buccinum 
undatuni, prior to the period of hatching, are eight or ten times as 
large in diameter as when first deposited. 

A paper was then read by Thomas Bell, Esq., entitled " Observa- 
tions on the genus Galictis, with a description of a new species." 
Mr. Bell in 1826 laid before the Zoological Club of the Linnean 
Society some remarks upon a living female Grison which had been 
several years in his possession, and he then proposed to consider the 
species as constituting a new generic type, to which he gave the 
name of Galictis, but without assigning its distinctive generic cha- 
racters. Since that period the examination of a specimen in the 
collection of the Zoological Society, exhibiting a distinct specific dif- 
ference from the former, but agreeing with it in the more essential 
particulars, has confirmed the j^ropriety of establishing this genus ; 
and in the present communication the author points out the charac- 
ters and affinities of Galictis, and gives a description of the new 
species under the name of G. Allamandi, M. Allamand having figured 
a specimen in the fourth edition of Bufltbn's Natural History, which 
may perhaps be identical with this second species. In constituting 
this new genus of Mustelida, Mr. Bell has been guided solely by the 
semiplantigrade form of the foot, for in no other important charac- 
ter does it deviate from the typical genus of that family. A know- 



46 

edge of this character led Thunberg to place it among the Ursidce 
under the name of Ursus Brasiliensis, to which group it slightly ap- 
proximates, and in which it may probably be represented by the 
genus Ratellus. By Desmarest it is arranged in the genus Gulo, and 
the name Gulo vittatus given to it by that author has been adopted 
by the Cuviers, and all other subsequent writers, with the exception 
of Dr. Traill, who in the third volume of the Memoirs of the Werner- 
ian Society restores it to its proper family, the Mustelide, but under 
the erroneous name of Lutra vittata, for it has no nearer affinity to 
the Otters than any other genus of that family. By Schreber it 
was placed among the Viverrte, under the name of Viverra vittata, 
and the name has been retained by Gmelin and others. 

The characters of Galictis, and the description of the two species 
which at present constitute this genus, are as follows. 

Fam. MusTELiDiE. 
Genus Galictis, Bell. 

Chah. Gen. Denies molares spurii ■^^^ 

Rostrum breve. 

PalmcE atque plant<B nudse subplantigradse. 
Ungues breviusculi. curvi, acuti. 
Corpus elongatum, depressum. 

Sp. 1. Galictis vittata. 

G. vertice, collo, dor so, atque caudd Jiavescenti-griseis ; rostra gula 
etpeciorefuscescenti-nigris; fascia a fronte usque ad Jmmeros 
vescenti-albidd ; pilis longis taxis. 
Viverra vittata, Schkeber, Langth., p. 447, t. cxxiv. Gmel., 

Syst. Nat. Linn., I. p. 89. 
Ursus Brasiliensis, Thunb., Mem. Acad. Petersb., VI. p. 401, 

t. xiii. 
Lutra vittata, Traill, Mem. Wern. Soc, III. p. 437, t. xix. 
Gulo vittatus, Desmar., Mammal., p. 175, sp. 268. Isid. Geoffr. 
in Diet. Class., VII. p. 384. Fred. Cuv. in Diet, des Sc. 
Nat., XIX. p. 79. 
Galictis vittata, Bell, Zool. Journ., II. p. 552. 
Petit furet, D'Azara, Essai sur I'Hist. Nat. de Parag. (Trad. 

Fran9.), I. p. 190. 
Fouine de la Guyane, Buffon, Suppl., III. p. 161, t. xxiii. 
Grison, Shaw, Gen. Zool., I. p. 392. Cuv., Reg. An., I. p. 146. 

Fred. Cuv., Mara., I. 
Habitat in Guyana, Paraguay, Brazilia. 

" The general form, attitudes, and movements of this animal resem- 
ble those of the common Polecat. The head is depressed ; the 
muzzle moderately acute, but not attenuated, projecting beyond 
the lower jaw ; the eyes are moderately large, the iris dark brown 
or nearly black; the ears short, broad, and rounded; the teetli 
are almost exactly similar to those of true Mustela, particularly 
M. putorius ; the body is elongated and much depressed, covered with 



4.7 

rather long, loose hair, the under hair soft and short ; the tail more 
than half the length of the head and body ; the hair of the tail very 
lono- and lax : the legs are rather short ; the toes five on each foot, 
with short, strong, curved, rather acute claws ; the upper part of the 
toes hairy ; the soles of the feet naked ; the fore feet with a thick 
pad under each toe ; the palm furnished with a broad tubercle con- 
sisting of three elevated portions, with a slight one internally, and a 
round simple one at the wrist, behind the little or outer toe ; the 
hinder foot likewise furnished with a thick pad beneath each toe, and 
a broad trifid tubercle beneath the metatarsus ; there is also a long 
tubercle beneath the heel, at the outer side : the whole of these parts, 
that is to say the soles of all the feet, are covered with a soft naked 
skin, and are evidently placed on the ground in progression. 

" The colours are very remarkable and the markings distinct and 
decided. The whole of the upper part of the head, the neck, the 
back, the flanks, and the tail, are a yellowish or light brownish grey, 
produced by the mixture of a dirty yellowish white with brownish 
black, the hairs being brownish black for about two thirds of their 
length, the tip dirty yellowish white ; the muzzle, the cheeks, the 
throat, the under part of the neck, the belly, the anterior legs, and 
the hinder feet, are black with a brownish tinge, lighter towards 
the back part, and on the belly interspersed with a few whitish hairs ; 
the grey of the upper, and the black of the under parts, are separated 
by a rather broad fascia extending on each side from the centre of 
the forehead above the eye backwards as far as the shoulder, in- 
cluding the ears ; this fascia is of a buiF or yellowish white colour. 

" There is a large round follicle situated on each side the anus, co- 
vered with a muscle, and opening by a round duct within the anal 
orifice, secreting an unctuous matter, less foetid than that of the 
Polecat, but not possessing the rather agreeable odour of the Martin 
or the powerful perfume of the Viverra. The stomach is very simple, 
the pyloric extremity long, cyUndrical, and curved; there is no 
cacmn. 

Galictis Allamandi. 

G. vertice, collo, dorso, atque caudd nigricanti-griseis ; pariibus infe- 
rioribus nigris ; fascid a fronte usque ad collum utrinque albd ; 
corpore pilis brevibus adpressis. 

Habitat. 

" This species, although evidently distinct from the former, exhibits 
the same general character of colour and marking, with some remark- 
able differences however, which, though not easily expressed in a 
specific phrase, are tangible and important. The whole of those 
parts which in the former species are yellowish are here perfectly 
white ; and those which are blackish brown in the former are in this 
pure black. The base of the hairs on the back therefore is black, 
and the tips quite white, forming a pure blackish grey, or black with 
white points and lines ; whilst all the under parts of the throat and 
front of the belly are black. The fascia extending from the forehead 
back te the sides of the neck is also white. This fascia does not 



4S 

extend in the specimen described so far back as in the former spe- 
cies. The hairs of the whole body are very short in comparison, 
and much stiiFer and more closely set. The animal is considerably 
larger, as far as can be ascertained, and the tail, for a stuffed speci- 
men, shorter in proportion." 

Specimens of both species were upon the table, and Mr. Bell ex- 
hibited drawings, showing the plantigrade character of the foot, and 
some of the internal organs. 

Mr. Gould exhibited a small collection of rare European birds 
which had just been received by him from M. Temminck of Leyden. 
Among them were examples of Grus leucogeranus, Strix ascala- 
phus, Limosa Terek, Pyrrhula rosea, Emberiza Lesbia, LarusAudouinii, 
and a rare species of Harrier which had been killed on the banks of 
the Rhine ; this, Mr. Gould observed, was the Circus pallidus lately 
characterized by Col. Sykes in his Catalogue of the Birds observed 
by him in the Dukhun, and published in the second part of the 
Proceedings (1832.). 



49 



May 10th, 1837. 
William S. Macleay, Esq. in the Chair. 

The group of groundfinches, characterised, at a previous meeting, 
by Mr. Gould, under the generic appellations of Geospiza, Cama- 
rhynchus, Certhidea, and Cactornis, were upon the table ; and Mr. 
Darwin being present, remarked that these birds were exclusively 
confined to the Gallapagos Islands ; but their general resemblance in 
character, and the circumstance of their indiscriminately associating 
in large flocks, rendered it almost impossible to study the habits of 
particular species. In common with nearly all the birds of these 
islands, they were so tame that the use of the fowling-piece in 
procuring specimens was quite unnecessary. They appeared to sub- 
sist on seeds, deposited on the ground in great abundance by a rich 
annual crop of herbage. 

The remainder of the evening was occupied with the examination 
of an extensive series of drawings, taken from various subjects in 
zoology, during the progress of the late exploring expedition into 
central Africa; and which will form the materials for a separate 
Work, now preparing for publication by Dr. Andrew Smith. 

A considerable proportion of the illustrations were those of new 
and highly interesting species ; and Dr. Smith stated that it was his 
intention, on a future evening, to bring a part of his collection before 
the Society, that the Members might have the opportunity of ex- 
amining the original specimens, from which the drawings had been 
taken. 



No. LIII. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



50 



May 23d, 1837. 
W. S. Macleay, Esq. in the Chair. 

A letter was read addressed to the Secretary, by Dr. Weissenboru 
of Weimar, Saxony, expressing the very high opinion he entertained 
of the value of the scientific publications of the Zoological Society, 
and the pleasure which it would give him to promote the interests 
of the Society, if it lay in his power. The letter was accompanied 
by a very interesting preparation of the head and cheek-pouches of 
the black variety of the German Marr^ot {Mus Cricetus, Linn.). 

A second letter was then read from Dr. Weissenbom, addressed 
to the Assistant Zoological Secretary, containing some new informa- 
tion upon the economy of the Marmot. Dr. Weissenbom states that 
when this animal hybernates, the entrance to its burrow is closed by 
earth, which is moulded into pellets of the size of a pea or bean, so 
that the external air is not entirely excluded. Upon putting a number 
of these animals in a place of confinement, although supplied with 
abundance of food, they fought with and devoured one another, until 
only a few of the strongest were left. 

This letter was accompanied with a donation of a stuffed specimen 
of the usual colour. 

The first part of a paper on " Marine Noctilucae," by F. De Bell 
Bennett, Esq., Corresponding Member of the Society, was then read. 

A communication was then read from Dr. Ruppell, entitled, " A 
Notice of the Phytotoma tridactyla of Abyssinia." Dr. Ruppell 
states that during his travels in Abyssinia, he endeavoured, but un- 
successfully as he then supposed, to discover the bird described by 
Bruce, and known to naturalists as the Phytotoma tridactyla ; since 
then, while engaged in the publication of the birds from that part of 
Africa, he found that the Phytotoma tridactyla was a species be- 
longing to the genus Pogonias, and which had been referred by 
Lord Stanley to the genus Bucco, under the name of Bucco Saltii. 
This Dr. Ruppell proposes to change to Pogonias Brucei, in honour 
of Bruce, who was the first describer. 

Dr. Ruppell sent along with this communication two copies of a 
plate from his Abyssinian Fauna, containing figures of the above 
bird, and stated that he had previously deposited stuffed specimens 
in the British Museum and the Collection of the Zoological Society. 



51 



June 13th, 1837. 
Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair. 

The reading of Mr. Frederic Debell Bennett's paper upon Ma- 
rine Noctilucce was resumed. 

Mr. Bennett's notes upon the phsenomena connected with the lu- 
minous appearances so often exhibited by the ocean, made during a 
voyage round the globe, agree in their essential details, and lead to 
the same general inferences, as the observations of his brother, Mr. 
George Bennett, published in the Society's Proceedings for Ja- 
nuary 1837; the experiments in all instances, as recorded in the 
present memoir, tending to show that where the condition of marine 
phosphorescence obtains, organized bodies, secreting phosphoric light, 
will be found in greater or less abundance distributed throughout 
the ocean ; these bodies being sometimes so minute as not to be de- 
tected by the naked eye, whilst at other times the luminosity api)ears 
to originate in the presence of vast numbers of Pyrosomata and 
MednscB, which latter, when removed from the water, retain, while 
vitality lasts, their luminous properties, and are capable of commu- 
nicating the phosphoric matter to objects with which they may be 
brought in contact. An interesting fact noticed by the author is 
that the Cleodora cuspidata, which is found floating in great numbers 
on the surface of the sea in various parts of the Pacific Ocean, ex- 
hibits a speck of delicate blue light, shining through the apex of its 
extremely thin shell. 

In the following passage Mr. Bennett refers to a paper communi- 
cated by him on a previous occasion, and published in the Society's 
Proceedings. 

"On the night of the 1 1th of last October, when in lat. 4° S., long. 
18° W.,I again witnessed the beautiful spectacle afforded by the pre- 
sence in the sea of vast numbers of the Pyrosoma Atlanticum. Upon 
this occasion their number must have been very great, since the ship, 
proceeding at a rapid rate, continued during the entire night to pass 
through distinct, but extensive fields of those molluscs, floating, and 
glowing as they floated, on all sides of her course, and capable of be- 
ing captured by net to almost any amount. Not far from the same spot 
I first noticed these luminous molluscs, during a voyage to India ; and 
an account of their eflFects in illuminating the ocean, accompanied by 
some obtained specimens, I communicated in a paper to this Society, 
published in No. 6 of the Proceedings. To that account I have to 
add, from more recent observations, that since the Pyrosoma is en- 
veloped by a firm membranous tunic, and the luminous power resides 
in small brown particles abundantly imbedded in the parenchyma- 
tous structure of the body, no luminous matter is communicated from 
its surface to any fluid or solid in contact with it. But if the Py- 
No.LIV. — Proceedings of tue Zoological Society. 



52 

rosoma be cut open and immersed in water, the brown particles that 
escape diffuse themselves through the fluid, and shine as numerous 
scintillations, independent of the perfect structure. It is also wor- 
thy of remark that general friction or contact is not essential to elicit 
the perfect light of Pyrosoma, since touching one small portion of 
the body is sufficient to produce a brilliant glow throughout the 
whole. When first removed from its native element, the broader 
extremity of this aggregate of molluscs presented a wide and circular 
orifice, forming nearly a continuous surface with the central tube 
constituting the interior of the body ; but when kept in a vessel of 
sea- water, or much handled, this orifice was closed by the contraction 
of a smooth, dense membrane at its margin, and which either obli- 
terated the aperture, or left but a minute central orifice ; water at the 
same time being contained in the barrel or tube of the body. Ex- 
cept in the action of this sphincter-like membrane, no motive power 
was perceptible in the Pyrosoma. 

" Fresh water appears to act as a powerful and permanent stimulus 
on marine Nocfilucte. Those who have intervals of repose from their 
phosphorescence immediately emit their light when brought in con- 
tact with fresh water, and this fact was very strikingly exhibited in 
the Pyrosomata. When placed in a vessel of sea-water and permitted 
to remain quiet, these molluscs afforded no light, and when touched, 
gleamed forth only as long as the irritating cause remained, and then 
gradually returned to their original state. When, however, the same 
creatures were placed in a vessel of fresh water, they never ceased 
glowing with their brightest refulgence until life was extinct, which 
was not until after the lapse of several hours. When also the same 
molluscs were mutilated, or so near death as to refuse to emit light 
upon irritation in sea- water, immersing them in fresh water produced 
at least a temporary revival of their brightest gleam ; indeed I have 
always felt assured that the contact of fresh water in a darkened 
room would ever elicit the luminous power of a marine creature, 
were the latter of aluminous nature." 

At the request of the Chairman the following notes, relating 
chiefly to the natural history of Ireland, were read by W. Thompson. 
Esq., V.P., Nat. Hist. Society of Belfast. 

Of the species so marked *, specimens were exhibited. 

Mammalia. 

* Vespertilio Nattereri, Kuhl. Reddish-grey Bat. I am induced 
to exhibit a specimen of this bat, which I obtained in July 1835 
among the ruins of Harlech Castle, North Wales, it being hitherto 
only known as British from individuals procured in the east and 
south-east of England. 

* Mus Hiberniais. Irish Rat. On questioning a person some years 
ago respecting a black rat which he had seen in the north of Ireland, 
my curiosity was excited by the statement that it had a white breast. 
In autumn last a similar description was given me of one that had 



53 

been caught some time before in ToUymore Park, county of Down. 
Mr. R. Ball, of Dublin, informs me that black rats, with the breast 
white, have been reported to him as once common about Youghal, 
county of Cork, though they are now very rare or perhaps extinct. 
But until April last, when a specimen was sent from Rathfriland, 
county of Down, to the Belfast Museum, I had not an opportunity 
either of seeing or examining the animal. This individual differs 
from the M. Rattus as described by authors, and also from speci- 
mens preserved in the British Museum, and in the collection of this 
Society, in the relative proportion of the tail to that of the head and 
body ; in having shorter ears, and in their being better clothed with 
hair, as is the tail likewise ; and in the fur of the body being of a 
softer texture. The difference in colour between the M. Rattus and 
the present specimen is, that the latter exhibits a somewhat trian- 
gular spot of pure white extending about nine lines below the breast, 
the fore feet being of the same colour. 

The following is a comparison of this specimen with the M. Rattus 
as given by Mr. Jenyns. The same dimensions, with the very trivial 
difference of the ears being half a line less, appear in Mr. Bell's 
" British Quadrupeds." 

M. Hibernicus. M. Rattus. 

in. line. in. line. 

Length of the head and body 7 6 ., 7 4 

head 110 .. 110 

ears 9 .. 11^ 

tail 5 6 .. 711 

from the base of the ear to the 



} 



snout J 

from the tarsal joint to the end 1 , „ 
of the toes J 

Tliese differences incline me to consider this animal distinct from 
M. Rattus, and being unable to find any species described with which 
it accords, I propose to name it provisionally M. Hibernicus. Should 
future investigation prove it to be a variety only of M. Rattus, it can 
be so considered under the present appellation. 

* Lepus Cuniculus, Linn. Rabbit. Persons who take rabbits in 
the north of Ireland distinguish two kinds, the one they call the 
burrow, the other the bush rabbit. The meaning of the former term 
is obvious, but of the latter it may be stated that the animal is so 
designated, in consequence of having a " form" like the hare, and 
which is generally placed in bushes or underwood. The circumstance 
is noticed at present in connection with a specimen of each kind 
which I have the pleasure of presenfing to the Society. 

CervusAlces, Linn. Elk. A horn of the true elk, C.AIces, was some 
time since presented to the Natural History Society of Belfast, as that 
of the fossil Irish species, C. Hihernus. On inquiry from the donor 
I learned that it had been given him by a relative residing in Tyrone, 
and in whose possession it had for a long time been on account of 
the value attached to it as a relic dug out of a peat-bog on his own 
property in that county. Further particulars cannot now be ob- 



54 

taincd, as the gentleman is since deceased, but I have thought it 
proper to lay the statement as I received it before this Society, with 
the additional remark that the horn is quite perfect and appears re- 
cent ; but again, might not this be attributed to the well-known 
preservative property of the soil in which it is said to have been 
found ? The number of snags upon the horn, and its dimensions show 
that it belonged to a very old animal : its breadth, measured in a 
straight line across the centre, without the curve being reckoned, is 
lio inches ; its height, similarly estimated in a straight line from the 
base, 26^ inches. 

As the elk inhabited a wide range of latitude on the continent of 
Europe it does not appear singular to me that it should have been a 
native of Ireland, especially when the Cervus Hiberniis, a species of 
greater magnitude, was indigenous to the country. In the Annalcs 
des Sciences NattireUes for 1835, t. iv. (new series), portions of the 
horn of the Cervus Alces are figured and described by M. Christol, 
from sjieciraens found in a fossil state at Pez6nas. 

Birds, new to Ireland. 

Strix Scops, Temm. Scops-eared Owl. I have been informed 
by Ilobert Ball, Esq., of Dublin, that an owl of this species was shot 
in the month of July a few years ago by the gamekeeper at Lough- 
crew, county of Meath, the seat of J. W. L. Napier, Esq., in whose 
possession it now is. The specimen was kindly sent to Dublin for 
the examination of Mr. Ball, who states in a letter to me that it 
i:)roved identical with a Strix Scops that I have seen in his collection. 

Colymhus arcticus, Linn. Black-throated Diver. In the collec- 
tion of Dr. J. D. Marshall, of Belfast, there is a specimen of this 
bird, which was shot during winter in Lame Lough, county of An- 
trim. It is in the plumage of the first year. 

* Pi'oceUariaPvffinus.hmn. Cinereous Shearwater. Of this species 
one individual only has yet been recorded with certainty as British. 
I have now to notice a second specimen, respecting which Mr. Ro- 
bert Davis, Jun., of Clonmel, has favoured me with the following 
particulars. " It AA'as taken in August 1835, by a boy who saw it 
scrambling towards a hole at the base of a cliff near Dungarvan, 
county of Waterford. They are called hagdowns by the fishermen, 
who say that they breed there and live in holes in the rocks, but are 
at all times very scarce. The specimen was sent to me alive, and 
apparently in good health, but it would not eat any thing, and died 
after having been in my possession for about ten days or a fortnight. 
It had an extremely rank, fishy, or oily smell at all times, but I never 
saw any appearance of oil being discharged from its mouth or nos- 
trils. It seemed unable to walk, but scrambled along with its breast 
about an inch from the ground. Although its wings were perfect 
and uninjured, it made no attempt to fly, but if let fall from a height 
drojiped heavily to the ground. It showed an inclination to climb, 
having several times mounted up the handle of a long spade that 



OJ 



rested against the wall of the yard in which it was kept. It did not 
ramble about, nor care much for water, but when put in a large tub 
very dexterously pulled itself up by the hooked bill, until the claws 
got on the edge. When handled, it bit severely." 

The specimen now belongs to Mr. W. D. King, of Sudburjs to 
whom I am indebted for the opportunity of examining it, and also of 
exhibiting it here. It accords well with Temminck's description of 
the adult bird. 

Fishes. 

The first to be described in this class is a new genus of the family 
T(cnioidee, for which I propose the name of Echiodon. It is founded 
upon a specimen obtained on the coast of the county of Antrim, by 
Dr. J. L. Drummond, in June 1836. 

Echiodon. 

Head oval; body much elongated, compressed, narrow, lanceolate; 
snout moderately long ; mouth cleft obliquely, both jaws terminated 
by large cylindrical teeth ; no ventral fins, nor scales instead ; fin- 
rays all soft ; dorsal and anal fins continued throughout almost 
the entire length ; branchiostegous membrane with seven rays. 

Considered relatively to the other Tanioidea; it agrees with Tri' 
chiurus and Stylephorus, in wanting ventral fins, but not in any 
other generic character ; from the head posteriorly it approaches 
most nearly to Cepola, but in the form of the head and in dentition 
differs remarkably from all the other genera. 

* Echiodon Driimmondii. Length 1 1 inches, depth 6 lines, breadth 
3 lines, head one-ninth of the whole length, eye occupying the en- 
tire upper half of head, teeth numerous and small, except two, which 
are large and fang-like at each side the extremity of the upper jaw, 
and one long cylindrical tooth terminating the lower jaw on each 
side ; upper jaw the longer ; dorsal, anal, and caudal fins united ; 
body without scales (?) ; lateral line inconspicuous; vent \\ inch 
from point of lower jaw ; vertebrae 98. 

D. 180? A. ISO? P. 16? C. 12? 

* CrenUahrus microstoma. Couch MS. Small-mouthed Wrasse. 
In June 1836, Dr. Drummond found a Crenilabrus, on the beach at 
Cairnlough, county of Antrim, which he liberally handed over to me, 
and appearing to be a new species, I at once drew up a detailed 
description of it. I now find that the same Wrasse has been met 
with in Cornwall by Mr. Couch, who likewise considered it as new 
and sent two specimens to Mr. Yarrell, under the appropriate name 
of Cren. microstoma, a term, though unpublished, which I consider 
it but fair to adopt, as Mr. Couch had the priority in obtaining the 
species. 

My specimen is about 3 inches long and moderately deep in pro- 
portion, its depth being to its length as 1 to 3-^. Its most prominent 
characters are, — mouth small, jaws equal, teeth few in number and 



56 

without serratures, a single row in the lower, and two rows in the 
upper jaw ; scales very large, those of the body concealing the base 
of the dorsal and anal fins, but none apparent on the fins ; anal fins 
with six spinous rays, ventral scale half the length of ventral fin ; 
pre-opercle strongly denticulated. 

D. 19 + 6; A. 6 + 7; P. 13 ; V. 1+5; C. (which is injured) 14 ? 

* Crenilabrus multidentatus . Ball's Wrasse. Three specimens of a 
Crenilabrus , taken at Youghal in the summer of 1835, have been 
sent me for examination by Mr. Ball. As in the instance of the last 
noticed, I cannot by careful research find any species described with 
which they agree, I, though with hesitation, bring them forward as 
new, under the name of Cren. multidentatus. The specimen from 
which the description has been drawn up is 2\ inches in length. Its 
chief characters are, — form elongated, mouth large and powerfully 
armed, upper jaw the longer, pre-opercle slightly denticulated, scales 
of moderate size, ventral scale one-fourth the length of ventral fin ; 
a blackish spot behind the eye, another at the base of the last ray of 
the dorsal fin, and a third at the lowermost portion of the tail, bran- 
chiostegous membrane five rays. 

D. 19 + 10; A. 3+8 ; P. 14 ; V. 1 + 5 ; C. 13, well developed. 

* Abramis Buggenhagii. Large-scaled Bream. Cyprinus Buggen- 
hagii, Bloch. Part 3, tab. 95. On inspecting the produce of a fishing- 
rod at the river Lagan, near Belfast, on the 6th of May, 1836, I de- 
tected a bream difli^ering from the common species, and secured it for 
examination. It agreed so fully with Bloch's description of the Cy- 
prinus Buggenhagii as to satisfy me of its identity, the only difference 
consisting in the number of rays in the pectoral fin, 12 being enume- 
rated by him, and 18 appearing in the specimen; several of them, 
however, being very short, may have escaped Bloch's notice. 

The description drawn up from my specimen the day it was pro- 
cured, is as follows : Length, 5| inches ; depth, 1^ inch; head one 
fourth of the entire length ; diameter of the eye equal to one fourth 
of the length of the head ; scales on the lateral line about 45, about 
9 rows between it and the dorsal ridge and 5 rows below it ; under 
point of the caudal fin longer than the upper. Colour of the sides 
silvery, tinged with blue towards the back ; irides very pale yellow; 
the dorsal, pectoral, ventral, and anal fins nearly transparent, or very 
slightly tinged with dusky, chiefly towards their extremities ; cau- 
dal fin pale yellow. 

D. 11 ; P. 18 ; V. 1 +9 ; A. 20 (first extremely short) ; C. 18. 

This species, which is new to Britain, is stated by Bloch to be 
found in Swedish Pomerania, in the river Pene, and in the lakes 
communicating with it *. 

* On my showing this specimen to Mr. Yarrell, he immediately produced 
from his own collection another example of this species of much larger size, 
measuring fourteen inches in length, which had been presented to liim by a 



57 

New to Ireland. 

* Trigla Cuculus, Bl. Red Gurnard. Of this fish two small spe- 
cimens, taken at Youghal in the summer of 1835, have been sub- 
mitted to my examination by Mr. Ball. In both, the second ray of 
the first D. fin is the longest. 

Mugil Chelo, Cuv. Thick-lipped Grey Mullet. Tlie common 
" mullet" of the north of Ireland is of this species, as are likewise 
the only two specimens that I have seen from the southern coast. 

Gobius gracilis, Jenyns. Slender Goby. From the coasts of 
Down and Louth I have obtained two specimens of tliis fish. The 
difference in colour between them and Gob. minutus attracted me at 
first sight ; but I did not examine further, until my attention was 
directed to them by Mr. Jenyns' description of Gob. gracilis, with 
which they in all respects agree. 

* Cremlabrus rupestris, Selby. Jago's Goldsinny. In Septem- 
ber, 1835, I procured two individuals of this species at Bangor, 
Down, where they were taken along with Cren. tinea and Cren. cor- 
nubicus. 

Salmo eriox, Linn. Bull Trout. The first specimens of this 
trout which occurred to me were three, about 20 inches in length, 
that were taken with Sal, trutta, in the sea at Donaghadee. 

* Gadus callarias, Linn. Dorse. Amongst fishes kindly forwarded 
for my inspection by Mr. Ball are specimens of the Gad. callarias, 
caught at Youghal in the autumn of 1834. On subsequently look- 
ing over some captures from Larne, county Antrim, presented with- 
out regard to species to the Belfast Museum, I also found one of 
these fishes. 

* Gadus minutus, Linn. Poor. From three localities in Dovni 
and Antrim 1 have the Gad. minutus, and in the collection of Mr. 
Ball have recently seen two specimens from the coast of Cork. 

* Motella glauca, Jenyns. Mackrel Midge. I include here, 
though unable to see any specific difference between it and Mot. 
mustela. The only Irish specimens I have seen sufficiently minute 
to be considered Mot. glauca, were brought by Mr. Ball from the 
South Islands of Arran. 

Phycis furcaius, Flem. Common Fork-beard. To C. G. M. Skin- 
ner, Esq., of Glynn-park, I am indebted for a very fine male speci- 
men of this fish, 25 inches in length, which was caught near Car- 
friend, who caught it in the waters of Dagenham Breach, in Essex, from 
which place others have since been taken. This bream is at once distin- 
guished from both the other species of British bream, by the much greater 
thickness of its body. 



58 

rickfergus in February, 1836. The chief characters of this species, 
given in the ' Regne Animal,' and adopted in the 'Manual of the British 
Vertebrata,' are, " Sa premiere dorsale plus relevee, et son premier 
rayon tres ^longe, les ventrales deux fois plus longue que la tete," 
2nd edit., p. 335. In the first character only as here given my spe- 
cimen agrees, the third ray of its first dorsal fin being considerably 
the longest, and the ventrals being only one fifth longer than the 
head. 

* Platessa pola, Cuv. Pole. In Belfast market on the 26th of 
April last, I procured six individuals of this species. They were 
from 12 to nearly 15 inches in length, and were taken in a trawl- 
net near Ardglass, in the county of Down. On the 5th of May I 
obtained a seventh specimen from the same place. 

* Solea lingula, Rond. Red-backed Sole. In August, 1S36, three 
small specimens of this fish were captured by Mr. Hyndman and 
myself, when dredging off Dundrum, county of Down. 

Anguilla latirostris, Yarr. Broad-nosed eel. Inhabits loughs 
Neagh and Erne, the river Shannon, &c. 

Ammodytes tobianus, Bl. Wide-mouthed Sand-eel. I have from 
several localities on the Down coast, and from one on that of 
Antrim. 

Syngnathus typhle, Linn. Syng. cequoreus, Linn. Syng. ophidian, 
Bloch. The first native specimens of these three species that I have 
seen were taken on the coast of Cork in 1835, and forwarded for my 
inspection by Mr. Ball ; subsequently I have had all three from the 
coast of Antrim. 

Hippocampus brevirostris, Cuv.? Sea-horse. In July, 1821, a 
recent specimen of Hippocampus, presumed to be this species, was 
found on the beach at Red-bay, county of Antrim, by William Ogilby, 
Esq., F.L.S, 

Petromyzon planeri, Cuv. Fringed-lipped Lamprey. Specimens 
procured in the vicinity of Naas, county Kildare, have been presented 
me by Mr. Ball. 

Miscellaneous notes. 

Gasterosteus bracliycentrus, Cuv. Short-spined Stickleback. In 
Minster-pool, Lichfield, I captured an immense specimen of this fish 
in July. 1836. 

* Labrus lineatus,Don, Lab. maculatus, Bloch.. Lab. psittacus, Hisso} 
On September 26, 1835, 1 obtained at Bangor, Down, two specimens 
of a Wrasse, which agreed pretty well with the L. lineatus of Dono- 
van, a species but little understood. They seemed also identical 
with the L. psittacus of Risso, used as a synonym of the L. lineatus 



59 

in the works of Mr. Yarrell and Mr. Jenyns ; by the latter author 
it is marked with doubt. At the same time I could not consider 
these specimens else than the young of L. m«,culatus, an opinion 
which subsequent examination has tended to confirm, as in the 
same individual I have seen the lineated marking of L. lineatus and 
the spots of L. maculatus. The specimens alluded to as corresponding 
with Donovan's L. lineatus are small, as he describes the species to 
be ; those conspicuously spotted over were large, and the indivi- 
duals presenting partially both appearances were of an intermediate 
size ; hence it would appear that the L. lineatus generally* is the 
young fish, and the L. maculatus the adult. It must be added that 
specimens of equal size, taken at the same time and place, vary 
much in colour and in the relative depth of the body. The head 
too is more elongated in the young than in the mature fish. 

In concluding his description of the Labri, Pennant observes, 
" Besides these species we recollect seeing taken at the Giant's 
Causeway, in Ireland, a most beautiful kind, of a vivid green spotted 
with scarlet ; and others at Bandooran, in the county of Sligo, of a 
pale green." He adds, " We were at that time inattentive to this 
branch of natural history, and can only say they were of a species 
we have never since seen." I have no hesitation in saying that the 
beautiful kind of a vivid green, spotted with scarlet, was the ordi- 
nary L. maculatus, and as little in stating my belief that the pale 
green kind was also the same species. On examining the produce 
of one rod after a day's fishing, I have seen specimens varying from 
the palest green to the very darkest tint of this colour. 

As the three names under which this fish appears, viz., L. linea- 
tus, L. psittacus (when it is uniformly green), and L. maculatus, ap- 
ply to the individual rather than to the species, and thus tend to 
confusion, it seems to me desirable that there should be an appella- 
tion under which all the varieties could be brought, and as such I 
would suggest Labrus variabilis. 



"D' 



* Crenildbrus tinea, Risso. Cren. cornubicus, Risso. Cren. gib- 
bus, Flem. In the autumn of 1835 an attentive examination of spe- 
cimens of the C. tinea and C. cornubicus, of all sizes, and in a recent 
state, satisfied me of their identity. The depth of C. tinea in pro- 
portion to its length being found to vary considerably, though not 
to the extent described in the Gibbus Wrasse of Pennant, together 
with the general accordance of other characters, disposed me at the 
same time to believe that the C. gibbus is but an accidental variety 
of it. 

* Leuciscus Lancastriensis , Yarr. Graining. Several very small 
individuals of this species occurred to me in the river Leam, near 
Leamington, in July, 1836. 

* Cobitis tcenia, Linn. Spined Loche. In July, 1836, when 

* I have seen some specimens of the largest size entirely green, and display iiig 
the lineation in a darker shade of this colour. 



60 

using my net for fresh-water MoUusca, in a drain near Guy's Cliff 
Warwick, a specimen of this minute fish was captured. 

* Platessa flesus, Flem. Flounder. The specimen exhibited is 
from Strangford lough, Down, and presents a malformation of the 
head, precisely similar to that of the brill (JPleuronectes rJiombus,) 
figured in Mr. Yarrell's British Fishes, vol. ii., p. 242. 

Pleuronectes hirtus. Mull. Muller's Top-Knot. If not inconsist- 
ent with the brevity characteristic of the " Zoological Proceedings," 
I would remark that the fish which I exhibited at the meeting of 
this Society, on June 9, 1835, under the name of '^ Pleuronectes punc- 
tatus, Penn." is identical with the " P. hirtus. Mull." of Mr. Jenyns's 
' Manual of the British Vertebrata' and the " Rhombus hirtus" of 
Mr. Yarrell's ' British Fishes,' a circumstance which reference to 
the synonyma of this species might indeed indicate, but I am induced 
to notice the subject on account of the specific name " punctatus" 
being applied in both works to a nearly allied species. 

My specimen, critically examined when recent, exhibited the fol- 
lowing characters, which are unnoticed in the description of P. hirtus, 
given in the above-mentioned works. 

P. fin, which is quite perfect, on the upper side 91 lines long, and 
containing 6 rays, on the under side 65 lines long, and having 12 
rays. Lateral liae on the under side less strongly marked than on 
the upper, and considerably less curved towards its origin. A bright 
silver spot, two lines in diameter, at the base of the P. fin on the 
upper side ; irides silvery, clouded with brown : they are described 
as sea-green by Hanmer, (Penn. Brit. Zool., vol. iii. p. 323, ed. 1812.) 
It is in allusion to this individual, which I had the pleasure of show- 
ing Mr. Yarrell, when in London in June, 1835, that he remarks, 
" I have a record of one [Rhombus hirtus] that was caught on the 
coast of the county of Down in Ireland." Brit. Fish. vol. ii, p. 245. 

Syngnuthus lumbriciformis, Jenyns ? Yarrell. As it has recently 
been discovered that two species of Syngnathi have hitherto been 
confounded under the name of S. Ophidion, it should be stated, that 
those which I brought under the notice of this Society on June 9, 
1835, as taken in Strangford lough, are identical with the S. lumbri- 
ciformis, as described by Mr. Yarrell, (Brit. Fish., vol. ii. p. 340.) It 
may be added that from Mr. Ball I have since received nine speci- 
mens which were taken by him in June, 1835, at the South Islands 
of Arran, off Clare, and from Captain Fayrer, R.N., several, likewise 
caught in the same month at Donaghadee. 

The dorsal fin and vent in all these specimens, including one from 
Belfast bay, 19 in number, which are from under 3 to 6 inches long, 
about one-third of the entire length from the snout, and the head 
occupying about one-twelfth of the whole length. In these charac- 
ters they correspond with Mr. Yarrell's description. Mr. Jenyna 
describes the " dorsal and vent at about the middle of the entire 
length," and the head " scarcely one-seventeenth" of it. Some of 
them exhibit ova " in hemispheric depressions, on the external sur- 



61 

face of the abdomen, anterior to the vent," as mentioned in the 
' Manual of the British Vertebrata,' p. 489. 

I cannot conclude without acknowledging the benefit I have re- 
ceived, not onlj'^ on this, but on all previous occasions, when visiting 
London, from Mr. YarreU's liberality, in affording me the unlimited 
use both of lus library and of his extensive collection of British 
fishes. 

* Trigla pacilopfera, Cuv. and Val. Little Gurnard. 

Amongst a number of fishes submitted to my examination by 
Mr. Ball, is a Gurnard, apparently of this species, which was taken 
at Youghal, I believe, along with sjjrats, (Cliipea SpraUus,) early in 
the summer of 183.5. Inform, it agrees in eveiy character by which 
the T. pcsciloptcra is said to be distinguished, (Cuv. and Val. Hist, 
de Pots., t. iv. p. 447.) Judging from its present appearance, I have 
little doubt that when recent it would in colour also have corresponded. 
Its length is 2 inches, D. 10, (last extremely short) — 15. P. 10 — 3, 
free. V. + 5. A. 15. C. 15. 

Second dorsal ray longest ; 25 dorsal spines ; caudal fin a little 
forked ; lateral line spinous. Thence to D. fin, and to about an 
equal distance below the line, rough with spinous scales ; (tliis is 
not mentioned by Cuv. and Val.) lower portion of sides smooth. 

With the T. aspera, Viviana, as described in the last-quoted 
work, t. iv. p. 77, and which in length is stated like the Tri. pceci- 
loptera to be about 4 inches, the present specimen agrees in many 
respects, but chiefly differs in the profile being less vertical, in the 
anterior lobes of the snout, and in the negative character of wanting 
" une echancrure transversale et profonde," behind the posterior or- 
bital spine ; nor with the highest power of a lens can any of the an- 
terior dorsal spines be distinguished as " dentel^e," nor the first and 
second rays of the D. fin as serrated, both of which characters are 
attributed to T. aspera*. 

In the course of this examination specimens of T. cuculus, Bl., T. 
linenta, T. hirundo, T. pini, Bl., and T. Gitrnardus were before me, 
T. lyra was not available, but the remarkable development of the an- 
terior lobes of the snout in tliis species would have rendered its com- 
parison with the specimen under consideration unnecessary. 

The T. pmciloptera has previously been obtained only at Dieppe, 
where it was discovered by M. Valenciennes. 

* Gohius Britannicus. British Black Goby. 

When at Galway-bay, on the western coast of Ireland, accom- 
panied by Mr. Ball, in June 1834, I captured a species of Goby, 
whose thicker and more clumsy form at once led me to consider it 
different from a G. niger talien at Youghal, with which I had been 

• Since the above was written I have had an opportunity of comparing 
the Trigla here treated of with two specimens of T. aspera, — one 3^, the 
other 4^ inches long, which are part of a collection of fishes, sent last year 
from Corfu, to the Belfast Natural History Society, by Robert Templeton, 
Esq., Roy. Art. This comparison served strongly to confirm every thing 
above stated. The T. aspera is admirably described by Cuv. and Val. 



favoured by that gentleman. On a recent examination it proved 
identical with the G. niger of Cuvier and Valenciennes, whilst the 
latter corresponded with the G. niger of Montagu (Yarrell's Brit. 
Fish., vol. i. p. 252.) and Jenyns. This species is considered by Cuv. 
and Val., but without recourse being had to a comparison of speci- 
mens, to be the same as theirs ; but the two individuals under con- 
sideration, unquestionably distinct, agree so well with the detailed 
descriptions of those just quoted under the same name, as to leave 
not a doubt upon my mind as to the propriety of separating them. 
Amongst other differential characters, they present the following : 

G. niger, Mont. G. niger, Cuv. and Val. 

(from Youghal.) (from Gahvay.) 

Jaws, the lower one the longer. Jaws equal. 
Teeth, several irregular rows in Teeth, outer row very much the 

both jaws, those of the outer largest, and curving inwards. 

row not very much larger than 

the others, and, like them, 

straight and truncated at the 

summit. 
Sulcus, extending from the head Sulcus, wanting. 

to D. fin. 
Papilla* so numerous on the Papilla: less numerous by half. 

head as to give it the appear- 
ance of being delicately carved 

all over. 
D. 6—14. P. 18. V. } each. A. D. 6—16. P. 20—21. V. 5. A. 

12. C. 15, and some short. 13. C. 14. 

Though of British authors, the G. niger of Montagu and Jenyns 
only is quoted with certainty ; the species described as such by 
Pennant and Yarrell appears to be the same, the exceptions being 
that two rows only of teeth are attributed to it by the former, and 
17 rays are described by the latter as contained in its 2nd D. fin. 
The G. niger of Donovan and Fleming is the G. Ruthensparii (G. bi- 
punctatus, Yarr.) of Euphrasen. 

Bloch's G. niger does not agree with either species here treated of; 
as like Pennant's, it is stated to have but two rows of teeth . It differs, 
more especially from that of British authors as now restricted, in the 
jaws being of equal length, the teeth pointed, and having 16 rays in 
the 2nd D. fin; and from that of Cuv. and Val. in the shortness of 
the P. fin, a character represented both in his figure and description. 
The G, niger of Risso having the jaws equal, and the teeth curved, 
approximates it to that of Cuv. and Val., but the number of fin-rays 
differs considerably. 

The species taken at Galway, which is new to the British cata- 
logue, occurs also in the Mediterranean, the collection of fishes from 
Corfu, alluded to in the note to Trigla pceciloptera, as being in the 

* With respect to these resembling the G. geniporus, as described by Cuv. 
and Val., t. xii. p. 32, but very different in other characters. 



63 

Belfast Museum, containing an individual in all respects, but that of 
size, quite identical. 

Although the G. niger of Montagu and Jenyns accords better with 
the description of Linnaeus — consisting only of the number of fin-rays 
—than the species for which Cuv. and Val. have adopted his name, 
yet, as several other European Gobies equally well agree with the brief 
characters in the ' Systema Naturce,' and it being necessary to give 
one of the two which have been confounded together a new name, 
it appears to me that the species described as G. niger in the ' His- 
toire Naturelle des Poissons' of the last-named authors,-—the greatest 
and most comprehensive work yet attempted on the subject — should 
retain the term there given it, and that it is to the Gobitis niger oi 
British authors that the new appellation should be applied. With 
this view I propose the name of Gobius Britannicus, not to indicate 
its existence only on the British shores, but in the hope that it may 
perhaps better than any other term mark it as the species of British 
authors. 

As M. Valenciennes has observed that " M. Yarrell a public une 
charmante figure de nutre gobie," (t. xii. p. 18.) it must be added 
that this figure is more illustrative of my G. Britannicus than what 
I have considered the G. niger of Cuv. and Val. ; in hypercriticism 
all it indeed wants to be a perfect representation of that fish is — the 
lower jaw a little longer, and the teeth smaller, less regular and 
truncated. 

Mr. Owen then laid before the Meeting the following observations 
upon the structure of the shell in the Water-clam, {Spondylus varius. 
Brod.) ? 

Having been led to reflect, while considering the uses of the 
camerated part of the shell of the Nautilus, upon the degree or ex- 
tent to which that s'tructure might depend upon the mode of growth 
of the animal and its shell, and how far it was a necessary physical 
consequence of the increase and change of position of the animal, in- 
dependently of any special purpose served by the forsaken parts or 
chambers of the shell, I have paid attention to all the cases that 
have come under my observation of the formation of chambers in 
shells, by the secretion, on the part of the animal, of a nacreous layer, 
forming a new basis of support to the soft parts, and cutting off the 
deserted portion of the shell from the chamber of occupation. 

It is well known that this process is not the only mode adopted 
to suit the shell to the changing form and bulk or other exigencies 
of its occupant. In the genus Magilus the part of the shell from which 
the body gradually recedes is filled up by a continuous compact se- 
cretion of calcareous matter, and a solid massive elongated shell is 
thus produced, which would be a great incumbrance to a locomo- 
tive mollusc, but is of no inconvenience to an univalve destined by 
nature to live buried in a mass of lithophytous coral. 

In Helix dccollata, again, the deserted part of the shell, after 
being partitioned oflf by the nacreous layer secreted by the posterior 
part of the mantle, is broken away by some yet unexplained process, 
and consequently no chambers nor any solid apex of the shell remains. 



64 

The retention of the deserted chambers and the interception of 
certain spaces of the shell by calcareous septa, though not unknown 
in the gastropodous univalves, is more common in bivalves. 

An oyster kept without food will frequently expend its last ener- 
gies in secreting a new nacreous layer, at a distance fi-om the old 
internal surface of the concave valve, corresponding to the diminu- 
tion of bulk which it has experienced during its fast, and thus adapt 
its inflexible out-ward case to its shrunken body. 

In the calcareous tube exuded from the elongated mantle of the 
Septarice, Lam., the closed extremity of the tube is divided into 
chambers by a succession of layers at a distance of half an inch 
from each other, having a regular concavity towards the open ex- 
tremity of the shell. These concave septa are composed entirely of 
the nacreous constituent of the shell ; in one example which I have 
examined, they were six in number ; they are thin, smooth, and 
closely resemble the partitions in the Nautilus and Spirula save in 
the absence of the siphonic perforation. 

Among Bivalves the Ostrece not unfrequently present shallow and 
irregular chambers in the substance of the shell : the Etherice again 
have vesicular cavities interposed between the testaceous laminse ; but 
the most constant and remarkable example of the camerated struc- 
ture of the shell is presented by a large Spondylusox Water-clam, so 
called from the fluid which (until lost by slow evaporation) occupies 
the chambers, and which is visible in the last-formed chamber 
through the thin semitransparent exposed septum. 

In order to examine this camerated structure, and more esjjecially 
to see how it was modified by the presence and progressive change 
of place of the adductor muscle, I had a fine specimen sawn through 
vertically and lengthwise. In the specimen now on the table, which 
measures eight inches in length, the substance of the concave valve, 
which is two inches one-third in thickness, at the thickest part in- 
cludes fourteen chambers, separated from each other by very regu- 
larly formed and stout partitions, composed, as in other chambered 
shells, of the nacreous portion or constituent of the shell. The septa 
are slightly undulating in their course, but present a general con- 
cavity towards the outlet of the shell. Not any of these parti- 
tions are, however, continued freely across the shell, but each be- 
comes continuous at the muscular impression, which is near the 
middle of the shell with the contiguous septa. In general, also, 
the septa commence singly from the cardinal or upper wall of the 
valve, and divide into two when about one-fourth of the way towards 
the opposite or lower wall ; the thickness of the undivided part of 
the septum being equal to, or greater than that of the two divisions 
or layers into which it splits. 

We can readily understand why the septa must necessarily become 
united together at the point of insertion of the adductor. The muscle 
never quits its attachment to the valves ; •while the lobe of the mantle, 
except in its circumference, and where it is attached to the adductor 
muscle, must detach itself from the surface of the valve which is about 
to be partitioned oiF, when it secretes upon the interposed fluid the new 



septum or basis of support. It is obvious, therefore, from the condi- 
tions under which the partitions are successively secreted, that they 
must adhere not only to the circumference of the valve, but to the pre- 
ceding and succeeding septum at the part occupied by the adductor 
muscle, and for an extent corresponding to its circumference. The 
progressive change in^the position of this muscle by the absorption 
of the posterior fibres, and the addition of others anteriorly, changes 
in a corresponding degi'ee the relative position of these subcentral 
confluent parts of the septa, and a beautiful undulated disposition of 
the whole chambered part results. If the adductor muscle were a 
tube instead of a solid mass, the central confluent part of the septa 
would of course be perforated, and a siphon would result, the calca- 
reous walls of which, from the proximity of the chambers, would no 
doubt be continuous, as in many fossil Polyihalamous shells. 

A disposition to form chambers is manifested, but in a much less 
degree, in the smaller flattened or superior valve of the Water Spon- 
dylus. In the specimen here described there are three chambers, 
with narrower intervals, and much thicker partitions than in the 
lower valve. These partitions are confluent opposite the muscular 
impression, as in the lower valve, and each partition expands from 
this attachment in an infundibular manner, which reminds one of 
the emboitement of the calcareous parts of the siphon in the Spirula. 

The secreting power of the lower lobe of the mantle in the Spon- 
dylus is greater than in the upper ; and the layers of nacre which 
are successively deposited on the cardinal margin push forward in a 
corresponding degree the upper valve, leaving a heel or umbo be- 
hind the hinge of the lower valve, which, from the inactivity of the 
secreting surface of the upper lobe of the mantle, is not opposed by 
a corresponding umbo in the upper valve. 

The laminae, which are deposited in a continuous series of super- 
imposed layers at the hinge of the lower valve, are not continued in a 
like state of superposition throughout ; they soon separate from each 
other, and do not again unite except at the space corresponding to 
the adductor muscle, and at the circumference of the valve. 

The interspaces of these successive layers of the growing Spon- 
dylus cannot, firom the absence of a medium of intercommunication, 
serve any purpose hydrostatically with reference to locomotion : it 
is a singular fact, indeed, that the Spondylus, in which the chambered 
structure is constant, and the Ostrea, and other bivalves, in w'hich it 
is occasional, are cemented to extraneous bodies by the outer surface 
of the shell, generally by the concave valve. So that the septa must 
be regarded as mere dermal exuvia; still left adhering to the animal, 
to which, as a motionless bivalve, they are no incumbrance. It is 
highly probable that all the chambers are originally filled with fluid, 
as more or less is found in the outer ones of the specimens brought 
to this country. 

In the Testaceous Cephalopods a new structure is added, viz., the 
siphon, whereby the exuvial layers of the old shell and the deserted 
chambers are converted into a hydrostatic instrument, subservient to 
the locomotion of the animal. The operation of the siphon and 



66 

chambers has been ably explained by Dr. Buckland in the NautiluSr 
where the calcareous inflexible tube protecting the membranous si- 
phon is not continuous. The working of the siphon is, however, less 
intelligible in those species in which the outer calcareous tube is con- 
tinued from chamber to chamber, as in the Spirulte, Orthoceratites, 
&c., and it is with respect to camerated shells of this kind that I 
would ask how far the reasoning suggested by the chambers in the 
water Spondylus may be applicable in their case ; and whether a 
final intention can be clearly traced beyond the diminution of specific 
gravity occasioned by a large proportion of the shell being converted 
into receptacles of gas ; if indeed we have sufficient evidence to as- 
sume that they do not contain a denser fluid, like the Spondylus. 

Mr. Owen placed upon the table, as illustrative of his observations, 
sections of both valves of a large specimen of the Water-clam, and 
also stated that Dr. Bostock had kindly undertaken to submit the 
fluid contained in the chambers of the shell to a chemical analysis. 

Dr. Bostock being present laid before the Meeting the following 
remarks upon the fluid in question, 

Mr. Owen having \i\xt into my hands, for examination, a fluid 
which was obtained from the cavities in the valves of the Spondylus 
varius, I obtained from it the foUowilig results. 

It was turbid, had an acid saline taste, and a rank disagreeable 
odour. After standing for twenty-four hours, it deposited a whitisli 
curdy sediment, and became clear and transparent. The clear fluid, 
amounting to 54""., was poured from the sediment, and was subjected 
to various tests. It was neither acid nor alkaline ; itproduced a very 
copious precipitate with the nitrate of silver, indicating the pre- 
sence of a large proportion of muriatic acid ; the muriate of barytes 
indicated a slight trace of sulphuric acid, while the appropriate tests 
of lime, magnesia, and iodine produced no eff"ect. A portion of the 
fluid was evaporated by a gentle heat, when a quantity of crystals 
of the muriate of soda was obtained, amounting in weight to very 
nearly twenty per cent of the fluid. After the removal of the crystals, 
a little brown matter was left in the capsule, but in too minute a 
quantity to enable me to ascertain its nature and properties, except 
that it was not soluble in alcohol ; we may, however, presume that 
it gave the fluid its peculiar flavour and odour. 

It appears therefore that the fluid in question consisted almost en- 
tirely of a solution of pure muriate of soda, diflPering therefore, in its 
chemical constitution, from sea-water. 

The sediment mentioned above I returned to Mr. Owen ; it ap- 
peared to consist of small globular or rather pyriform bodies, pro- 
bably of an organic origin. 



67 



June 27th, 1837. 

Thomas Bell, Esq., in the Chair. 

A Letter was read addressed to Mr. Gould, from Mr. Thomas AUis 
of York, in which the writer remarks that the sclerotic ring of the 
great Podargus does not present the slightest appearance of distinct 
plates, being simply a bony ring ; the first instance in which Mr. Allis 
had observed this peculiarity. 

A Letter was also read from His Excellency Hamilton Hamilton, 
Esq., Her Majesty's Minister at Rio, announcing the present of a 
Chilian Eagle for the Society's Gardens. 

Mr. Gray exhibited a specimen of a Paradoxurus which had been 
presented to the Museum of the Society by the President, the Earl 
of Derby, and for which he proposed the specific name of Derhianus. 

Paradoxurus Derbianus. Parad. pallide fuscescenti-albus,ros- 
tri lateribus, strigd superciliari, notd in medio fronte et in utroque 
latere capitis super aures nigris, necnon strigd ad utrumqtie 
lotus colli in humeros obductd, vittis tribus, quatuor, vet quin- 
que transversis in dorso (ad latera angustioribus), annuloque 
ad basin caudce, cum hujus dimidio posiico. Artubus cineres- 
centi-fuscis. 

Hub. in Peninsula Malay ana. 

Mr. Gray also brought before the notice of the Meeting some 
Mammalia, which he had lately purchased for the British Museum 
from a collection made bjf^ the late Colonel Cobb in India, among 
which was an adult specimen of the Once of BuiFon (Hist. Nat.), on 
which Schreber formed his Felis uncia, which has been regarded by 
Cuvier, Temminck, and most succeeding authors as a leopard, but 
which is a distinct species, easily known by the thickness of its 
fur, the paleness of its colour, the irregular form of the spots, and 
especially by the great length and thickness of the tail. Mr. Gray 
observed that a more detailed description of this animal was unne- 
cessary, as it agreed in all particulars with the young specimen de- 
scribed by BuiFon. 

Two new species of Sciuroptera, which agree with the Ame- 
rican species in colour, but differed from one another in the size, 
make, and form of the soles of the feet, were described as follows : — 

Sciuroptera fimbriata. Sciur. vellere longo molli cine- 
rescente, nigro variegato ; pilis supeme plumbeis, complanatis, 
pallide fuscis, ad apicem nigris ; facie albidd, regione circum- 
oculari nigra, mystacibus longissimis, nigris ,• mento corporeque 

No. LIV. and LV. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



jiw It, i83J 



68 

subtus albis, caudd lata, paululiim decrescente,fulvd, pilis ba- 
salibus ad apicem nigris. Pedibus anticis latis, pollice minuto ; 
pedibus posticis penicilld lata ad marginem externum indutis ; 
plantis tiiberculo oblongo parvo ad medium marginis extemi, 
tuberculo antico, et tuberculis duobus incequalibus interne ad par- 
tem posticam. 
Hah. in India. 

SciUROPTERA TuRNBULLi. Sciur. vellere brevi, molli, nigres- 
cente, pilis annulum albidum subterminalem exhibentibus ; bttccis, 
mento, corporeque subtus albis; regione circum-oculari, etmysta- 
cibus nigiis ; caudd angustd, decrescente, nigrescenti-fuscd, sub- 
tus pallidiore ; pedibus anticis parvulis, pollicibus minutis; pe- 
dibus posticis externe vixfimbriatis, plantis angustis sine tuber- 
culis centralibus ad marginem externum, tuberculo attamen an- 
teriori, necnon duobus incequalibus posticis ad marginem in- 
ternum. 

Long. 11| unc. ; caudae, 8 unc. 

Hab. in India. 

A new species of Fox, nearly allied to Vulpes Bengalensis, but evi- 
dently larger, Mr. Gray designated as Vulpes xanthura. In describing 
this species, he remarked, that it had a large gland, covered with 
rigid brown hair, on the upper part of the base of its tail, very di- 
stinctly marked ; and that on looking at the tail of the several other 
species of this genus, as V. Bengalensis, V. vulgaris, V.fulva, and 
some others, a similar gland was easily recognisable, though it ap- 
peared to have been hitherto overlooked. 

Mr. Ogilby afterwards characterised a new species of Gibbon {Hy- 
lobates), which had been presented to the Society many years ago, 
by the late General Hardwicke, and hitherto considered as the female 
of the Hoolock. A specimen of the latter species had been presented 
to the Society at the same time, and from the same locality ; but 
their specific identity was sufficiently disproved, not only by the fact 
of both specimens being of the same sex, and from our being perfectly 
acquainted with both sexes of the Hoolock, but likewise by the marked 
difference of colour and external structure exhibited by the two ani- 
mals. The greater height of the forehead and prominence of the nose 
in the new species were pointed out as alone sufficient to distinguish 
it from all the other Gibbons ; whilst its ashy-brown colour and large 
black whiskers rendered it almost impossible to confound it with 
the Hoolock, which has fur of a shining black, and a pure white 
band across the forehead. Mr. Ogilby observed, that we have had 
two distinct instances of real Apes from the continental parts of India; 
and referred to various passages of Pliny, in which the Roman natu- 
ralist professed to describe different races of human beings from the 
remote provinces of India, whom he relates to have teeth like dogs, 
to live among trees, and to converse by frightful screams. These 
distorted accounts Mr. Ogilby conceives to have been founded upon 



69 

the vague tales brought back by the few Greek and Roman travellers 
who at that time penetrated beyond the Ganges, and proposed 
therefore to call the new Gibbon by the name of Hylohates ChoYo- 
mandus, the name of one of the supposed tribes of men described by 
Pliny. The same gentleman afterwards exhibited and described the 
skin of a new species of Colobus, or four-fingered monkey from Africa; 
for which he proposed the specific name of Colobus leucomeros, on 
account of the white colour of the thighs, the rest of the animal being 
a deep shining black. 

Dr. Smith exhibited some small Quadrupeds, forming part of the 
collection obtained during his recent expedition into South Africa. 
They consisted of some new or rare species belonging to the genera 
Macroscelides, Chrysochloris, Pteromys, and Otomys. Dr. Smith en- 
tered into some interesting details respecting their habits, which will 
be published in his forthcoming work on African Zoology. 



70 



July 11th, 1837. 
William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

A letter was read from Mr. Hugh Cuming, Corresponding Mem- 
ber, dated Manilla, December 24th, 1836, addressed to the late Se- 
cretary, E. T. Bennett, Esq. 

Mr. Cuming states in this letter that he is actively engaged in 
his favourite pursuit, that of collecting objects in various deport- 
ments of natural history, and he speaks very highly of the assistance 
aflForded him by the public authorities at Manilla in prosecuting his 
researches. This letter vras accompanied by a large box of skins of 
birds and quadrupeds, part of vi^hich vfere a donation to the Society. 

A letter vv^as read from Keith Edvi^ard Abbott, Esq., Correspond- 
ing Member, dated Erzeroum, May 12, 1837, stating that he had 
dispatched a box of bird-skins for the Society. 

Mr. Martin then laid before the meeting the following observa- 
tions on the Proboscis Monkey, or ' Guenon d. long nez.' (Simia Na- 
sttlis.) 

The genus Nasalis, of which the " Guenon a long nez" of BufFon, 
(suppl. vii.,) or Proboscis Monkey of Shaw is the type, was founded 
by Geoffrey St. Hilaire in his ' Tableau des Quadrumanes,' published 
in the ' Annales du Museum d'Histoire NatureUe' for 1812. In this 
outline of the Simiadee, the genera Semnopithecus and Cercopithecus 
are blended together under the latter title ; but from this group are 
excluded two monkeys, the Douc, constituting the type of the genua 
Pygathrix {Lasiopygu, 111.) and the "guenon ^ long nez". With 
respect to the genus Pygathrix or Lasiopyga, founded upon the al- 
leged want of callosities, most naturalists I believe, (aware of the 
error committed both by Geoffroy and lUiger, in describing from an 
imperfect skin,) have regarded it as merging into the genus Semno- 
pithecus, at least provisionally, until the internal anatomy of its as- 
sumed representative be known. 

The characters of the genus Nasalis, formed for the reception of 
the " Guenon d, long nez," (Simia Nasica, Schreb. Cercopithecus lar- 
vatus, Wurmb,) are laid down as follows : 

"Muzzle short, forehead projecting, but little elevated ; facial an- 
gle 50° ; nose prominent, and extremely elongated ; ears small and 
round ; body stout ; cheek-pouches, anterior hands, with four long 
fingers, and a short thumb, ending where the index finger begins ; 
posterior hands very large, with fingers stout, especially the thumb ; 
callosities large ; tail longer than the body." 

At a subsequent period, however, in his ' Cours de I'Histoire Na- 
tureUe,' published 1828, Geoffroy, adopting the genus Semnopithecus, 
established by Fred. Cuvier, places the " Guenon a long nez," within 



71 

its limits, doubtfully it is true, and with the acknowledgment that 
his genus Nasalis has not been generally adopted, but at the same 
time with a bias in its favour ; for observing that the manners of these 
monkeys are those of the Semnopitheci, he adds, — " Cependant, il 
ne nous paxait encore d6montr6 que le singe nasique soit une veri- 
table semnopitheque, et il est fort possible que lorsque I'esp^ce sera 
moins imparfaitement connue, on soit oblige de retablir le genre 
Nasalis, dans lequel on I'isolait autrefois, mais que n'est pas 6t6 ad- 
mis par la plupart des auteurs modemes." 

Setting aside the singular conformation of the nose, so remarkable 
in the Simla Nasalis, its external characters are not different from 
those of the Semnopitheci in general, and it is to be observed that 
in a second species, lately added by Mr. Vigors and Dr. Horsfield, 
under the title of Nasalis recurvus, the proportions of this part of 
the face are much diminished, and its form also modified. Tliis 
species (which though doubted by some as being distinct, is, we be- 
lieve, truly so) takes an intermediate station between the Simia 
Nasalis, and the ordinary Semnopitheci with flat noses, thereby 
showing that the transition in this particular character is not abrupt; 
even were it so, an isolated point of this nature does not form a 
philosophical basis upon which to ground a generic distinction. 

So far I have alluded to external characters only ; it remains for 
me to give some account of the anatomical characters of this singular 
monkey, of which, as far as I can learn, modem naturalists do not 
appear to be aware. 

It would seem that M. Otto*, who described the sacculated form 
of the stomach in one of the monkeys of the genus Semnopithecus, 
is not the first observer of this peculiarity, for I find that Wurmb, 
in the Memoirs of the Society of Batavia, notices this point in the 
anatomy of an individual of the Simia Nasalis. After giving some 
interesting details respecting the habits and manners of the species, 
he proceeds as foUows : — " The brain resembles that of man ; the 
lungs are of a snow-white colour ; the heart is covered with fat, and 
this is the only part in which fat is found. The stomach is extraor- 
dinarily large, and of an irregular form ; and there is beneath the 
skin a sac which extends from the lower jaw to the clavicles." Aude- 
bert (with whose work ' Histoire des Singes,' Geoffroy St. Hilaire 
was well acquainted,) refers to this account of "Wurmb ; yet Geoffroy 
does not, as far as I can find, advert to these points, unless indeed 
his statement of the presence of cheek-pouches be founded on the ob- 
servation of a sac extending from the lower jaw to the clavicles ; 
and if so, he has made a singular mistake, for the sac in question is 
laryngeal, and the words as they stand cannot be supposed to mean 
any thing else ; I know of no moniey whose cheek-pouches extend be- 
neath the skin to the clavicles ; but the laryngeal sacs in the Orang 
and Gibbons, and eJso in the Semnopitheci themselves are remarkable 
for development. It is evident, however, from the silence of M. 
Geoffroy St. Hilaire respecting the laryngeal sacculus in the Proboscis 

* See his paper in the " Nova Acta Academiae Coesarese," vol. xii. 



72 

Monkey that he was not aware of the real character of the structure 
to which Wurmb had alluded. With respect to the structure of 
the stomach, neither Wurmb nor M. Otto drew any general infer- 
ences from it ; they described it as it presented itself in single species, 
and regarded it in an isolated point of view ; it is, if I mistake not, 
to Mr. Owen that we owe its reception as an anatomical character, 
extant throughout the Semnopitheci. (See his paper on the subject, 
in the Proceedings for 1833, and in the Transactions of the Zoolo- 
gical Society.) 

This is perhaps scarcely the place in which to introduce any spe- 
culations, but I cannot help observing that the same structure may 
be expected in the genus Colohus, which in form is a mere repetition 
of the genus Semnopithecus, except that the thumb of the forehands, 
which in the latter begins to assume a rudimentary character, is in 
the former reduced to its lowest stage of development. In both 
genera the teeth precisely agree, and present early that worn surface 
which is the consequence of a continued grinding rodent-like action, 
upon the leaves and herbaceous matter which constitute the chief 
diet of the animals. 

The statement of Wurmb respecting the stomach and laryngeal ap- 
paratus of the Proboscis Monkey I have lately been enabled to con- 
firm. 

Among the specimens in store brought within the last few months 
from the Gardens to the Museum occurred an example of the Pro- 
boscis Monkey, in brine, but in a state of decomposition which in- 
duced me to lose no time in making such an examination as its con- 
dition would admit, being indeed extremely anxious to ascertain 
the relationship of this curious monkey to the other groups of 
Indian Simiada, groups to which I have been lately directing my 
attention. 

The specimen in question was a female, measuring iromth& vertex 
to the ischiatic callosities one foot nine inches. 

The body was meagre and slender, and the limbs long and slim ; 
the contour of the animal being very unlike that displayed in the 
mounted specimen in the Museum of the Society, which gives the 
idea of great robustness. 

The abdominal cavity had at some former period been opened 
and the liver removed, in doing which the stomach had been cut, 
but not so much as to spoil it entirely. In every essential point 
this viscus is the same as in all the Semnopitheci hitherto examined. 
It consists of a large cardiac pouch with a strong muscular band, 
nmning as it were around it so as to divide it into two compart- 
ments, an upper and lower, slightly corrugated into sacculi ; the car- 
diac apex of the upper pouch projects as a distinct sacculus of an oval 
form, and is not bifid. From this upper pouch runs a long and 
gradually narrowing pyloric portion, corrugated into sacculi by means 
of three muscular bands, of which one is continued from the band 
dividing the cardiac pouch into two compartments. The elongated 
pyloric portion sweeps around the lower cardiac pouch. 

The (esophagus enters the first compartment about four inches 



73 

from its terminal apex, giving off a radiation of longitudinal muscular 
fibres over the central portion of the first compartment. The second 
or lower compartment is the largest and deepest, and is embraced by- 
longitudinal muscular fibres from the oesophagus to the division-band, 
but unlike the same compartment in the stomach of the Semnopithecus 
Entellus, it is very slightly sacculated ; indeed it can scarcely be said 
to be so at all. The admeasurements are as follow : 

feet, inches. 

1 st compartment, round the greater curve 1 6 

2nd compartment, measured in the same manner 1 8^ 
From the entrance of the oesophagus, round the 

2nd compartment to the division-band 1 1 

The same measurement, round the 1st compart- 
ment 8^ 

Length oi pyloric portion 2 1 

Circumference at base 9^ 

Circumference just above pyloric orifice 5^ 

Length of small intestines 18 

Length of large intestines 6 2 

The average diameter of the small intestines, lying flat, was | of 
an inch ; the ileum, however, was rather more, but not quite an 
inch. 

The ccEcum is of a pyramidal figure, 5 inches in length, pointed, 
and somewhat sacculated by three slight muscular bands. Circum- 
ference at the base, 5^ inches. 

The large intestines are puckered into sacculi by two longitudinal 
bands ; they commence large, becoming gradually smaller, the 
bands in the meantime gradually disappearing. Advancing towards 
the rectum the intestine again enlarges, and here, to the extent of 
2^ feet from the anus, all trace of bands is lost. 

The circumference of the large intestines at their commencement 
is 31 inches. 

The lungs consisted of two lobes on each side, the fissure dividing 
the lobes on the right side being the most complete. 

The laryngeal sac was of enormous size, and single. It extended 
over the whole of the throat, and advanced below the clavicles, com- 
municating by means of a single but large opening with the larynx. 
This opening is on the left side, between the larynx and the os hyoides. 
and is capable of being closed by means of a muscle arising from the 
anterior apex of the os hyoides, and running down the central aspect 
of the trachea to the sternum. The contraction of this muscle draws 
the OS hyoides down, so as to press upon the edge of the thyroid 
cartilage. 

There were no cheek-pouches nor any traces of them. 

The teeth were much worn, but the fifth tubercle of the last 
molar tooth of the lower jaw was very distinct. 

Mr. Gould afterwards called the attention of the Meeting to the 
common British Wagtail, and stated his firm conviction of its bein 



» 



74 

distinct from the Motacilla alba of Linnaeus. He proposed for it the 
name of M. Yarrellii, and observed, that it might be easily distin- 
guished from the continental one, with which it had hitherto been 
confounded, by an attention to the following characters. 

The pied wagtail of England {M. Yarrellii) is somewhat more ro- 
bust in form, and in its full summer dress has the whole of the head, 
chest, and back of a full, deep, jet black ; while in M. alba, at the 
same period, the throat and head alone are of this colour, the back 
and the rest of the upper surface being of a light ash-grey. In winter 
the two species more nearly assimilate in their colouring ; and this 
circumstance has doubtless been the cause of their being hitherto 
considered identical ; the black back of M. Yarrellii being grey at 
this season, although never so light as in M. alba. An additional 
evidence of their being distinct (but which has doubtless contributed 
to the confusion), is, that the female of M. Yarrellii never has the 
back black, as in the male ; this part, even in summer, being dsirk 
grey ; in which respect it closely resembles the other species. 



75 



July 25th, 1837. 

E. S. Hardisty, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mr. Waterhouse directed the attention of the Meeting to several 
small Quadrupeds which he considered undescribed, and which he 
proceeded to characterize as follows : 

Phascogale flavipes. Phase. fuscescentijlava, pilis nigris in- 
termixtis; corporesubtiispedlbusquejiavis; guld albidd ; caudd, 
corpus quoad longiludinem excellente, nigrescenti, subtus Jlavd, 
pilis minutis et adpressis vestitd. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudse basin. ... 4 8 

Cauda 3 5 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 1 

tarsi digitorumque 9|- 

auris 6 

Hah. North of Hunter's River, New South Wales. 

The fur of this animal is moderately long, not very soft, and con- 
sists of hairs of two lengths. On the back the shorter hairs are of a 
palish ochre colour at the apex, and the longer hairs are black : on 
the sides of the body and limbs the ochreous hue prevails, the black 
hairs being less numerous : the under parts of the body are of a yel- 
low colour, inclining to white on the throat and mesial line of the 
belly ; all the hairs are of a deep gray at the base both on the under 
and upper parts of the body. The general hue of the head is gray, 
a tint produced by the mixture of black and white hairs ; the eyelids 
are black : the hairs immediately above and below the eye are of a 
yellow-white colour, as are also those of the upper lip and lower 
part of the cheeks. The moustaches are moderately long ; the hairs 
are black at the base and grayish at the apex. The ears are of mo- 
derate size, and have the hinder portion emarginated ; they are fur- 
nished externally with minute hairs, those on the inner side being 
chiefly of a yellow colour. The feet are of an uniform deep ochre 
colour. The tail is about equal in length to the body and half the 
head, and is furnished with small and closely adpressed hairs, between 
which rings of scales are visible ; on the apical portion of the tail the 
hairs are longer, slightly exceeding one eighth of an inch in length ; 
the hairs on the under side of the tail are of a deep buff colour, and 
those of the upper side are black and yellow, excepting at the apex, 
where all the hairs are black. 

The teeth in this species agree in number with those of Phascogale 
penicillata, and in fact scarcely differ in any respect, making allow- 
ance for the difference in the size of the animals. The two front in- 
cisors of both upper and lower jaws are perhaps smaller in propor- 
tion, and the third false molar in the lower jaw is decidedly smaller 
in proportion, being scarcely visible unless the gum be removed. 



76 

The last molar of the upper jaw is of the same narrow form, and placed 
obliquely as in P.penicillata. 

Not having a skull of P. penicillata, I am guided in my observations 
by M. Temminck's figure in the ' Monographies de Mammalogie.'* 
Upon comparing the skulls of P.flavipes with the same figure, the 
resemblance is great ; in the smaller animal, however, the skull is 
somewhat narrower in proportion (especially the fore part) ; the na- 
sal bones are not so broad at their base. 

Phascogale MURiNA. Pliusc. ciuerea leviter jiavo lavata ; cor- 
pore subtus pedibusque albis; caudd, corpus quoad hngitudi- 
nem excellenfe, pilis albis valde minutis et adpressis vestitd. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudse basin .... 3 

caudce 2 7 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris 8^ 

■ tarsi digitorumque 7f 

auris A\ 

Hab. North of Hunter's River, New South Wales. 

This species may be readily distinguished from the former by its 
much smaller size, being in fact rather less than the common mouse 
{Mus musculus), or less than half the bulk of P.flavipes. The fur is 
rather short and soft; its general hue is gray with a faint yellowish 
tint, the longer hairs on the upper parts of the body being gray at 
the apex, and the shorter hairs tipped with pale yellow or cream 
colour ; the feet and vmder parts are white, as are likevdse the sides 
of the face beneath the eye. All the hairs of the body are of a deep 
slate colour at the base. The tail is covered ^vith very minute closely 
adpressed silveiy white hairs. The dentition is evidently that of an 
adult animal : the canines and anterior incisors of both upper and 
lower jaws appear to be smaller in proportion than in P.flavipes. 

Mus Hayi. Mus auribus majusculis, rostra obtuso, tarsis eloii' 
gatis, caudd corpus cum capite quoad longitudinem excellente ; 
corpore supra fusco; lateribus flavis ; pedibus corporeque subiiis 
albis; pectore notd jlavescente notato. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudse basin. ... 3 8 

caudce 3 10 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 1 If 

tarsi digitorumque 11 

auris 6f 

Hab. Morocco. 

* In M. Temminck's figure the three lateral incisors of the upper jaw are 
represented as being close to the anterior pair. There is, however, a space 
between the anterior incisors and the lateral, both in P. penicillata and in 
the two species here described. 



77 

This species, which is rather larger than Mus musculus, was pre- 
sented to the Zoological Society by E. W. A. Drummond Hay, Esq., 
Corr. Mem., after whom I have taken the liberty of naming it. 

Mus Alleni. Mus auribus parvulis, caudd corpore cum capife, 
longiore, corpore supra nigrescenti-fusco, subtiis cinereo ; pedibus 
obscuris. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudse basin. ... 1 9^ 

Cauda 1 11 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 7 

tarsi digitorumque 7^ 

auris 3 

Hab. Fernando Po. 

This species is less than the harvest mouse {Mus messorius) , and 
of a deeper colour than the common mouse {Mus musculus), being 
in fact almost black. The ears are smaller in proportion, and more 
distinctly clothed with hairs. The tail is very sparingly furnished 
with minute hairs. The tarsi are covered with blackish hairs above; 
the toes are dirty white. 

I have named the species after Lieut. W. AUen, R.N., Corr. Mem. 
by whom it was discovered and presented to the Zoological Society. 

Mus Abbottii. Mus auribus mediocribus, caudd corpore cum 
capite longiore ■ corpore supra intetisefusco, subtiis canescente ; 
pedibus obscuris. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudae basin. ... 1 6 

Cauda 1 11 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris .... 6^ 

tarsi digitorumque 1^ 

auris 4 

Hah. Trebizond. 

This species is less than the harvest mouse {Mus messorius), and 
of a deeper colour than the Mus musculus, in which respects it agrees 
with Mus Alleni ; from this, however, it may be distinguished by the 
tail being longer in proportion, the ears larger, and the tarsi more 
slender. It was presented to the Zoological Society by Keith E. 
Abbott, Esq., Corr. Mem., after whom it has been named. 

Mr. Gould then continued the exhibition of Mr. Darwin's Birds, 
a series of which were upon the table. One only among them was 
considered new, a species belonging to the genus Pyrgita from the 
island of St. lago. Mr. Gould characterized it under the name of 

Pyrgita Iagoensis. Pyr. summo capite, et maculd parvd gulari 
intense nigrescenti-fuscis, strigd superciliari, collo, humeris dor- 
soque intense castaneis, hujus plumis strigd fused centrali nota- 
tis ; alis cauddqtie brunneis, tectricibus alarum mi?ioribus albis, 



78 

qui color fasciam transversam efficit ; lined angustd a nare ad 
oculum ; genis corporeque subtiis albis, hoc colore in cinereum ad 
latera transeunte ; rostro, pedibusque fuscis. 

Long, tot., 5 unc. ; caud., 2\; ala, 2^; rost. ^; tarsi, |. 

Hab. St. lago. 

Obs. This is in every respect a typical Pyrgita, and rather smaller 
than the common species, P. domestica. 

Mr. Gould then called the attention of the Members to some spe- 
cimens of M. alba and M. YarrelUi, which presented in a very de- 
cided manner the distinctions referred to by him at the last Meeting. 
He afterwards characterized a new species of that genus under the 
name of 

MoTACiLLA LEUcopsis. Mot. fttcie, vertics, plumis auricularibus, 
guld, abdomine, crisso, rectricibus caudce duabus externis albis ; 
primariis, tertialibus, tectricibus majoribus minoribusque alarum 
albis ; notd pectorali semilunari, occipite, collo, dorso, humeris, 
uropygio, rectricibusque octo cavdee intermediis nigris, primariis 
ad apicem et internl nigrescenti-fuscis ■ rostro pedibusque nigra- 
fuscis. 

Long, tot., 7 unc. ; alee, 3|; caud., 3f ; rost.,%; tars., 1. 

Hab. India. 



79 



August 8th, 1837. 

Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair. 

A letter was read from J. B. Harvey, Esq., of Teignmouth, Devon- 
shire, Corresponding Member, addressed to W. Yarrell, Esq., accom- 
panying a donation to the Society of some very beautifully preserved 
specimens of Radiata and Fish. 

Mr. Gould then called the attention of the Meeting to the con- 
eluding part of his work on the Birds of Europe, which he laid on 
the table as a donation to the Library ; and he expressed the grati- 
fication which he felt at having brought to a successful termination 
a publication upon which he had been engaged with almost unre- 
mitting attention for more than five years. 

The Chairman, in returning the thanks of the Meeting to Mr. 
Gould for his donation, spoke of the advantages accruing to the 
Society from being connected with a naturalist whose works on Or- 
nithology were justly held in the highest estimation both here and 
on the Continent. 

Mr. Gould then characterised the following birds from the So- 
ciety's collection as new species : 

CoRvus NOBiLis. Corv. corpore toto nitide nigro, non sineful- 
gore purpureo ac viridi prcBcijme ad alas ac scapulas, necnon 
ad gulam pectusque ubi plumcB sunt elotigatce et lanceolatcB ; 
Cauda lata et gradatd ; rostro pedibusqice nigris. 

Long. tot. 25 unc.,- rostri, ^ ; alee, 18 ; caudce, 11 / tarsi, 3. 

Hai. Mexico. 

Obs. This beautiful species is a true raven, and may be distin- 
guished from the European, and from that inhabiting the United 
States of America, by the more metallic lustre of its plumage, by its 
more lengthened and slender bill, the greater length of its primaries, 
and the more cuneate form of its tail. 

Ortyx guttata. Ort. capite crislato ; summo capite tiigres-. 
centi-brimneo ; fronte et lined siipra-oculari usque ad occiput ten- 
dentepallide brunneis, singulis plumis ad apicem pallidioribus ; 
gutture nigro in longum li7ieis albis exiguis striata. Plumis 
atiricularibus, lined utriitsqiie colli lateris ad nucham coales- 
cente, castaneo-brutmeis ; dorso rufo-brunneo, pluinis sitigulis 
liyieis obscuris siibfuscis delicate fasciatis, strigd centrali albes- 
centi-cervind interpositd. Scajmlaribus alaque tectricibus ma- 
joribus magts brunneis, notis vonspicnis nigerrimis, transversim 
et irregulariter striatis, interspaliis guttulis undulatis repletis: 
plumis scaptdaribus, teclricibusque mujoribus ct minoribus notam 

No. LVI & LVH. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



80 

triangularem cervinam ad apicem ostendentibiis ; uropygio pal- 
lide luteo obscure nigro guttata ; caudd fuscescenti-nigrd notis 
fasciisque rufescenti-cervinis irregulariter ornatd; pectoreabdo- 
mineque intense fuscis, hoc colore in rufum ad latera transeunte ; 
singidis plumis ad apicem notam album triangularem plus mi- 
niisve nigro cinctam exhibentibus ; rostro nigro ; pedibus ni- 
grescenti-brunneis. 
Long, tot., 10 unc. ; rostri, ^ ; alee, 5J ; caudce, 3 ; tarsi, 1|. 

Obs. This is one of the largest species of the genus, and is from 
the Bay of Honduras. Presented to the Museum of the (Society by 
Captain Barlow. 

Thamnophilus fuliginosus. Thamn. Mas. Capite, cristd, 
genis, gutture et pectore nigerrimis. Dor so, alis, corpore subttis, 
cauddque cinercscenti-fuliginosis, hiijus pogo?iiis internis lineis 
angustis transversis albis fasciatis ; rostro pedibusque nigris. 

Foem. Summo capite, dorso alisque casta neo-fuscis ; loro, lined su- 
per oculos, plumis auricularibus, colli lateribus, gutture, corpore 
subtus et caudd intense cineraceo-cceruleis ; plumis singulis lineis 
cinerescenti-albis fasciatis ; pogoniis internis rectricum albis li- 
neis fasciatis ; rostro pedibusque nigro-brunneis. 

Long, tot., 7^ unc. ; rostri, ll ; alee, 3^ ; caudce, 3 ; tarsi, 1^. 

Hab. DemerEira. 

Obs. This species is distinguished from the other members of the 
genus by its robust and powerful frame. The female is of the same 
size as the male, or a trifle larger in all its proportions. 

Mr. Gould from his own Collection presented to the Society, and 
characterised a fourth species of his genus Dendrocitta, under the 
name of 

Dendrocitta rufigaster. Dend. facie, summo capite plumis 
auricularibus, gutture, pectoreque biimneis, hoc colore gradatim in 
rufo-brunneum transeunte apud abdominem ; lateribus crissoque 
nitide castaneis ; occipite et nuchd cinerescenti-albis ; dorso rufo- 
brunneo ; uropygio tectricibusque caudac siiperioribus cineres- 
centibus ; rectricibus cauda; diiabus intermediis nigrescenti-gri- 
seis, ad apicem nigris, utrisque proxitnis nigris, ad basin ni- 
grescenti-griseis ; rectricibus cceteris nigris ; alis nigerrimis, pri- 
mariis omnibus ad basin (externis exceptis) albis, qui color notam 
conspicuam in alis mediis ejfficit; femoribus griseis; rostro 7iigro ; 
pedibus brun7ieis. 

Long. tot. 16|unc. ; rostri, 1^; alee, 1\; cauda, 11|; tarsi, 1^. 

Hab. India. 

06s. This species is nearly allied to, but differs fromDendrocitta leu- 
cogaster in its shorter tail, and in the less extent of the black colour- 
ing on the tips of the two centre tail feathers, in the chestnut brown 
colouring of the under surface, and in its thickened and more robust 
bill. 



81 

Mr. OgUby exhibited skins of two species of his new genus Kemas, 
and directed the attention of the Society to their generic and specific 
characters. Mr. Ogilby observed, that the genus in question occu- 
pied an intermediate station between the goats and the Oryges, 
agreeing with the former in its mountain habitat and general con- 
formation, and with the latter in the presence of a small naked muzzle 
and four teats in the females. Of the two species exhibited, one 
was a fine male specimen of the Iharal, presented by James Far- 
rail, Esq., and the other a new species from the Neilgherry Hills, 
known to Madras and Bombay sportsmen by the name of the Jungle 
Sheep, and which Mr. Ogilby had long looked for. In form and 
habit of body, as well as in the character of the horns, this animal 
is intermediate to the Iharal and Ghoral ; the specific name of Kemas 
Hylocrius was proposed for it in allusion to its local appellation. 
The body is covered with uniform short hair, obscurely annulated 
like that of most species of deer, and more nearly resembling the 
coat of the Ghoral than that of either the Iharal or Chamois, the 
other species of which the genus is at present composed. The horns 
are uniformly bent back, surrounded by numerous small rings, 
rather flattened on the sides, with a small longitudinal ridge on the 
inner anterior edge : the ears are of moderate length, and the tail 
very short. Mr. Ogilby entered at some length into the characters 
and relations of the genus Kemas ; he observed that naturalists and 
commentators had greatly puzzled themselves to discover the deri- 
vation of the word Kemas, and the animal to which the ancient 
Greeks applied that name. Among others. Col. H. Smith applies it 
to the Chira, with which the ancients certainly were not acquainted : 
but Mr. Ogilby observed, that the root, both of the Greek Kemas and 
the modem Chamois, was manifestly traceable to the German word 
Gems, which is still the name of the Chamois eastward of the Rhine, 
and which the Dutch colonists have transferred to the Cape Oryx 
{Oryx capensis). 



82 

August 22nd, 1837. 
Thomas Bell, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mr. Owen brought before the notice of the Society, through the 
kindness of Mr. Edward Verreaux, the cranium of an Orang 
Outang (Simia Wurmbii, Fisch.), exhibiting an intermediate or trans- 
itional state of dentition, there being in the upper jaw the first or 
middle incisors, and first and second molares on each side belonging 
to the permanent series, and the lateral incisors, the canines, and 
the first and second molares (which are replaced by the bicuspides) 
belonging to the deciduous series ; and in the lower jaw, both the 
middle and lateral incisors, and first and second molares on each side 
belonging to the permanent series, and the second left lateral de- 
ciduous incisor (not yet shed), the deciduous canines, and the first 
and second deciduous molares. 

The permanent teeth, which were in place, corresponded in size 
with those of the great Pongo of Wurmb, and prove that the Orang 
differs from man in the order of succession of the permanent teeth, 
having the second true molar, (or fourth if the bicuspides are reckoned 
as molars), in place before the appearance of the permanent canines. 

Mr. Owen remarked, that the intermaxillary suture still remained 
unobliterated in the immature cranium exhibited, and he conceived 
that the ultimate obliteration might be caused by the increased vas- 
cularity of the parts during the protrusion of the great laniary teeth. 
In the Chimpanzee this obliteration takes place at a much earlier 
period. 

Although the marks of immaturity, and consequently those which 
impress an anthropoid character upon the skuU of the Orang, were 
generally present in the head exhibited, yet, on a comparison of it 
with the skull of a younger Orang in which all the deciduous teeth 
were retained, an approach to the condition of the mature cranium 
might be observed in the greater protrusion of the intermaxillaries, 
the lengthening of the maxillary bones, a thickening and greater 
prominence of the external and superior boundary of the orbit, an 
enlargement and thickening of the malar bone and zygoma, in the 
commencement of the development of the cranial ridges, and in the 
widening and deepening of the lower jaw. 

Mr. Owen then directed the attention of the Meeting to an ex- 
ceedingly interesting preparation of a foetal Kangaroo, with its ac- 
companying uterine membranes, upon which he proceeded to offer 
some observations. He remarked, that in a paper read before the 
Royal Society in 1834, he described the foetus and membranes of a 
Kangaroo (Macropus major), at about the middle period of uterine 
gestation, which in that animal lasts thirty -eight days. In tliis in- 
stance the condition of the membranes, and the relation of the foetus 
to the mother, were essentially such as are found to exist throughout 



83 

the ovo-viviparous reptiles, with the exception of there being no trace 
of the existence of an allantois. Mr. Owen, in order to determine 
whether an allantois was developed at a subsequent period of the 
growth of the embryo, dissected very young mammary foetuses of 
different marsupial animals, as the Kangaroo, Phalangista, and Pe- 
taurus ; and finding in them the remains of a urachus and umbilical 
vessels, he stated that " it would appear that an allantois and um- 
bilical vessels are developed at a later period of gestation, but pro- 
bably not to a greater extent than to serve as a receptacle of urine." 
(Phil. Trans., 1834, p. 342.) 

The examination of a uterine foetus of a Kangaroo kindly placed at 
Mr. Owen's disposal by Dr. Shearman, and exhibited on this occasion 
to the Society, has proved the accuracy of this prevision. The chorion, 
which enveloped and concealed the foetus, was a sac of considerable 
capacity,exceeding probably by ten times the bulk of the foetus and 
its immediate appendages, and adapted to the smaller cavity of the 
uterus by being disposed in innumerable folds and wrinkles. It did 
not adhere at any part of its circumference to the uterus, but pre- 
sented a most interesting modification not observed in the previous 
dissection of the Kangaroo's impregnated uterus, viz., that it was in 
part organized by the extension of the omphalo -mesenteric vessels 
upon it from the adherent umbilical sac. The foetus was further ad- 
vanced than the one previously described in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions. The digits on the hinder extremities were distinctly formed. 
The umbilical chord extended nearly three lines from the abdo- 
minal surface of the foetus ; the amnios was reflected from this point, 
to form the usual immediately investing tunic of the foetus ; and, 
beyond the point of reflection, the chord divided into a very large 
superior vascular sac, organized by the omphalo-mesenteric vessels, 
corresponding in all respects with the vitelline sac described and 
figured in Mr. Owen's first paper ; but below the neck of this sac 
there extended a second pyriform sac, about one-sixth the size 
of the vitelline sac, having numerous ramifications of the umbilical 
vessels, and constituting a true allantois. This sac was suspended 
freely from the end of the umbilical chord : it had no connexion, at 
any part of its circumference, with the chorion, and consequently 
was equally free from attachment to the parietes of the uterus in 
which the foetus was developed*. 

* The following note has been communicated by Mr. Owen to be ap- 
pended as a postscript to the above remarks. " Having been anticipated 
in the description of my preparation, so far as relates to the allantois, 
by M. Coste, I here subjoin, by permission of the Committee of Publi- 
cation, a statement of the circumstances which enabled that embryologist 
to announce the discovery of the allantois to the Academy of Sciences. 
In a recent work on Embryogeny, M. Coste • has stated that the Marsupiata 
differ from other Mammalia in the absence of an allantois, — a statement 
which appears to have arisen from a misconception of my memoir in the 
Philosophical Transactions for 1834, in which, although the allantois was 

* Emlryogenie comparee, p. 1J8. 



84 

Mr. Charlesworth then exhibited a series of specimens of the paper 
nautilus, in several of which injuries to a very considerable extent 
had been repaired with new substance agreeing in every respect 
with the original shell ; affording the most decisive evidence that 
the animal by which they were constructed possessed the same re- 
parative powers as other testaceous molluscs. It would appear from 
the observations of Captain Rang, who had recently repeated at 
Algiers the experiments originally undertaken by Madame Jeanette 
Power at Messina, that the Poulp does not fill up the breaches arti- 
ficially produced in its habitation by a deposit of shelly matter, but 
with a transparent diaphragm, which has neither the texture, white- 
ness, or solidity of the original shell. This fact, in connection with 
the specimens exhibited to the Meeting, appeared to Mr. Charles- 
worth strongly to confirm the opinion entertained by Mr. Gray, De 
Blainville, and others, of the parasitic character of the genus Ocythoe. 

Mr. Owen remarked, that he could not admit the validity of the 
line of argument adopted by Mr. Charlesworth, because the dif- 
ferences in the nature of the reproduced portions might depend 
upon the particular part of the shell in which the perforation or 
fracture had been effected, and a consequent difference in the repro- 
ductive powers of the corresponding part of the mantle. 

not developed in the embryo, whose dissection is there figured, (PI. VII. 
fig. 1.), yet the evidences of the ulterior development of an allantois in dif- 
ferent marsupial genera, are described in the text, (p. 338, 342.) 1 therefore 
took the opportunity of showing to Dr. Cosle during his visit to England the 
foetal Kangaroo with the allantois now before the Society; and Mr. Costs 
having expressed some doubts respecting my determination of the two ap- 
pended sacs, we together dissected the foetus, and found that the vessels ra- 
mifying on the larger sac, which 1 had before described as the umbihcal 
vesicle, had the usual disposition and connections within the abdomen of 
omphalo-mesenteric trunks, corresponding with the figure above-cited in the 
Philosophical Transactions, and that the allantois was contin\ied from an 
urachus, such as is represented in figs. 6, 7 and 8, pi. VII., Philos. Trans., 
1834." 



85 



September 12tli, 1887. 
Dr. Bostock in the Chair. 

Some observations were made by Dr. Andrew Smith, Corresp. 
Member, on the necessity for a revision of the groups included in 
the Linnean genus Squalus. 

Dr. Smith commenced with stating that in the course of his ex- 
amination of the Sharks which he had obtained while at the Cape, 
he found that although they could all readily be referred to the ge- 
nus Squalus, as defined by Linnaeus, yet there were many forms among 
them which would not admit of being placed in any of the subdi- 
visions proposed by Cuvier, This led him to perceive the necessity 
of either altogether remodelling Cuvier's groups, or of establishing 
additional ones for the reception of the new species. After mature 
consideration, he determined upon the adoption of the latter course, 
finding the new forms so distinct and numerous that they could not 
with propriety be included in any divisions which only ranked as 
sub-genera. 

Dr. Smith stated that he could not attempt to indicate the higher 
groups of the family of Squalidts, but he was satisfied that all the 
sub-genera of Cuvier would receive such alterations and additions as 
would raise them to the rank of sub-families. In the very first sub- 
genus Scyllium, he had detected nine distinct minor groups, most of 
which included several well-marked species. Since fixing upon names 
for these groups, he had learned that several of them had been de- 
scribed as genera about a month previously by Prof. Midler and Dr. 
Henle of Berlin, and he had consequently adopted their nomencla- 
ture in preference to the terms under which it was his intention to 
have characterized them, with only this diiFerence, that he regarded 
these divisions as sub-genera rather than genera. 

Dr. Smith enumerated the sections above referred to of the genus 
Scyllium as follows : 

1. ScyZ/iwm, restricted, includes four species, Scyl. stellare, Linn., 
Squalus Canicula, Bioch, Scyllium capense. Smith, Scyl. bivium, id. 

2. Catulus, Willoughby, (three species,) Squalus Canicula, Linn., 
Scyl. marmoratum, Bennett, Catulus Edwardii, Smith. 

3. Poroderma, Smith, (four species, all found in the Cape seas,) 
Scyllium Africanum, Cuv., Poroderma pantherinum. Smith, Por. sub- 
maculatum, id. Por. variegatum, id. 

4. Ginglymostoma, Miiller and Henle, (one species) Squalus Gata, 
Garra. 

5. Chiloscy Ilium, Miiller and Henle, (two species) Scyllium plagi- 
osum, Bennett, Le Squale dentele, Lacep. 

6. Stegostoma, Miiller and Henle, (two species) Squalus fasciatus, 
Bloch, Squal. maculatus, id. 

No. LVII. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



86 

7. Hemiscyllium, Miiller and Henle, (one species) Squalus ocella- 
tus, Bloch. 

8. Chrossorhinus, Miiller and Henle, (one species) Squalus lobatus, 
described in PhiUips's Voyage to Botany Bay. 

9. Pristiurus, Bonaparte, (one species) Scyllium melanostomum, 
Bonap. 

Some drawings were exhibited by Dr. Smith, of the forms pre- 
sented by the teeth of the species composing several of the above 
sections, and he remarked that on a future evening it was his in- 
tention to lay before the Society some further observations upon 
other groups of the cartilaginous fishes. 

Professor Miiller of Berlin being present confirmed the views en- 
tertained by Dr. Smith as to the number of divisions which might 
properly be made of the family Scyllium, several of which he had 
already published, as mentioned by Dr. Smith. As to the rank which 
these groups should hold in a systematic arrangement, he considered 
this a point upon which we are hardly in possession of sufficient evi- 
dence to justify a decided opinion. 



87 



Jay. c 


/«^^ 




^S.-l 




/^, r 








Sa-') 





September 26th, 1837. 

Richard Owen, Esq. in the Chair. 

Two small quadrupeds from the Society's collection were exhi- 
bited by Mr. Waterhouse, who stated that he believed them to be 
undescribed species. The first was characterised as 

Galago Alleni. Gal. auribus permagnis, digitis perlongis ,- vellere 
intense plumbeo, rufescente lavato ; corpore subtiis flavo lavato, 

unc. lin. 

Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudae basin 8 1 

Cauda 10 

auris 1 2^ 

Latitudo auris 11 

Longitudo pollicis antipedum 6 

digiti longissimi 1 1 

pollicis pedum posticorum 7 

. digiti longissimi 1 2 

pedis postici a calce ad apicem digi- //5^ 

torum 2 11 7>^- ■= ^*^ 

Hab. Fernando Po. 

Obs. This specimen, which has four incisors in the upper jaw. and 
six in the lower, is about the same size as the Galago Senegalensis, but 
may be readily distinguished from that species by the greater size 
of the ears, (the length of which is equal to the distance between 
the tip of the muzzle and the base of the ear,) and the great length 
of the fingers and toes. In the colouring there is also a difference, 
G. Senegalensis being grey, washed with yellow, whereas G. Alleni is 
of a deep slate grey, all the hairs of the upper parts being of a rusty 
yellow at the apex, or, as on the fore legs, rusty at the tip. The 
under parts of the body are of a paler hue than the upper, the hairs 
being of a dirty yellow colour at the tip ; but like those of the upper 
parts, they are of a slate grey for the greater portion of their length : 
on the throat and chin each hair is whitish at the apex. The hairs 
covering the feet are of a deep brown colour. The tail is dusky 
brown. 

The animal here described was presented to the Zoological So- 
ciety by Lieut. Wm. AUen, R.N., Corres. Memb. 

Pteromys (Sciuropterus) Horsfieldii. Pter. fuscus, pilis fiaves- 
centi-fuscis crebre intersparsis ; corpore subtiis flavescenti-albo , 
genis et patagio lumbari ad marginem rufescenti-Jfavis ; caudd 
subtiis nitidi' ferrugincd ; auribus mediocribus. 



88 

line. lin. 

Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudse basin 9 6 

auris 7^ 



tarsi digitorumque 1 







Obs. This species is of a larger size than the Pteromys sagitta, from 
which it differs in having the ears larger in proportion ; the tail 
more bushy and of an uniform bright rust colour beneath ; the mar- 
gin of the flank skin is of a reddish yellow colour, as are also the sides 
of the face below the eye. On the upper parts of the body the fur 
is of a deep bro-\vn, each hair being grey at the base ; the inter- 
spersed longer hairs, which are abundant, are of a bright brown or 
reddish-yellow colour at the apex. The general tint produced by 
this mixture is rufous brown. On the under parts of the body the 
hairs are of a yellow or yellowish white colour, and not grey at the 
base. 

The specimen from which the above description is taken was pre- 
sented to the Zoological Society by the Earl of Derby, and is either 
from Java or Sumatra. I have taken the liberty of naming it after 
the author of the " Zoological Researches in Java," &c. 

Mr. Gould exhibited from his Australian collection of Birds two 
species of the genus Platycercvs, which he considered new : for one 
of these he proposed the specific name of hcematonotus, from the red 
spot upon its rump ; and for the other, which he had very recently 
received, and which he remarked was one of the most beautiful spe- 
cies of the genus hitherto discovered, that of h(Bmatog aster. 

Platycercus h.«:matonotus. Plat, summo capite,fronte, genis, 
tiuchd pectoreque smaragdino-viridibus ; dorso fuscescenti-vi- 
ridi ; uropygio coccineo ; articulo humerali, aid spuria et po- 
goniis externis primarium ad partem basalem nitide ccerideo- 
nigris, notd sulphured humerali. Retnigibus majoribus et 
minoribus, rectricibusque caudce duabiis intermediis viridibus, 
hoc colore in cceruleimi transeunte ad apicem, apicibus ipsis 
nigro-fuscis ; rectricibus reliquis ad bases viridibus, ad apices 
et ad pogonia externa cineraceo-albis ; abdomine medio jlavo ; 
femoribus obscure cceruleo-viridibus ; crisso ci?ieraceo-albo ; 
rostro corneo ; pedibus fuscis. 

Long. tot. 11 unc. ; al<E 5 ; Cauda 6^ ; tarsi |. 

PuLLUS intra annum primum, ab ave adultd differt partibus, qua in 
hdc smaragdino-viridibus, in illo cinerescenti-viridibus ; necnon 
crisso hand coccineo, abdomine hand jlavo ; astprimariis nonnullis, 
secondariisque ad bases albis. 

Hab. Nova Cambria Australi. 

Obs. This species imites Platycercus to Nanodes, and is in fact so 
directly intermediate between these genera in size and other charac- 
ters, that it is difficult to decide to which group it should be referred ; 
but I am induced to include it among the Platycerci. 



89 

Platycercus h^matogaster. Plat, fronte facieque ccEi-uleis ; 
summo capite, nucha, plumisque auricularibus Jiavescenti-cine- 
reis ; pectore cinereo tincto brunneo ; pliimis atiricularibus ad 
partem superiorem stramineis ; uropygio, tectricibusque supe- 
rioribus caudcB cerinis ; articulo humerali pallide ccerideo ; 
primariis intense fuscis etad apicem acutis ; secondariis tectri- 
cibusque majoribus violaceo-cceruleis ; tectricibus minoribus 
alisque ad partem superiorem intense, coccineis ; lateribus tec- 
tricibusque iriferioribus pallide Jlavis ; abdomine medio nitide 
coccineo; plumis duabus intermediis caudce ad bases pallide 
olivaceo-viridibus ad apices in cceruleum transeunte. Reli- 
quis plumis ad bases intense cceruleis ad apices i?i album trans- 
eunte ; rostra corneo ; pedibus fuscis. 

Long. tot. 1 2 unc. ; alee § ; cauda 7 ; tarsi |. 

Hab. Nova Cambria Australi. 

Mr. Gould also exhibited, on the part of Mr. Burton, a new spe- 
cies of Kingfisher, from the collection at Fort Pitt, Chatham, be- 
longing to the genus Ceyx, of Lacepede. Mr. Burton had proposed 
to characterize it under the specific name of microsoma. 

Ceyx microsoma. Ceyx subcristata, capite cauddque supra, 
nucha et humeris rufis ; strigd ab oculis ad nucham {pone ocu- 
los leviter, apud nucham iiitense) dorso et uropygio hyalino 
splendentibus ; alis brunneis, pogoniis remigum internis rufo 
marginatis, tectricibus punctis hyalinis ornatis : infra pallide 
rufa hoc colore apud ventrem dilutiore ; mento, guld et strigd 
auriculari albidis : rostra prcegrandi, aurantiaco. Pedibus 
rubris. 

Long. Corp. 4^ unc. ; capitis 2 ; rostri ab apice ad rectum 1 ^ ; 
caudee 1. 

Hab. in India Maderaspatana. 

Mr. Gould afterwards exhibited, on the part of the same gentle- 
man, a specimen of the genus Caprimulgus, supposed to be the fe- 
male of C. monticolus, and of which Mr. Burton had furnished the 
following description : 

Caprimulgus MONTICOLUS, Franklin*. Fcemina? Capr. pal- 
lidior mari : remigibus macula notatis rufd, ubi mas gavdet 
alba ; jugulo rufo tincto ; caudd rufd nigro fasciatd et inspersd, 
rufo rectrices apud exteriores dominante, caiuJdque externa maris 
albo omnino carente. 
Forma et staturd mari simillimd. 

Hab. in India septentrionali. In Musseo Medico -militari, Chat- 
ham. 

Ohs. The general form, character and colouring of this specimen 
harmonize so perfectly with those of Caprimulgus monticolus, that 
I have thought it safe to consider it as the female, until local obser- 

* Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence (Zool. Soc.'). 
1830-1. ■' 



90 

vation or dissection shall have decided the question : at all events, it 
is new, and hitherto undescribed. 

A species of the genus Carduelis, also from the collection at 
Chatham, vras characterized by Mr. Gould as 

Carduelis BuRTONi. Card, fronte et regione circum-oculari pul- 
chre roseis ; vertice genisque nigris ; corpore obscure fuscescenti- 
roseo, alis extervik nigris, singulis plumis plus minusve albo ad 
apicem notatis ; aid spurid albd ; rectricibus cauda nigris ; duabus, 
intermediis ad apicem albis, duabus proximis longius ad apicem 
albis, reliquis albd notd interne ad basin excurrente, ornatis ,- 
rostro, pedibusque pallidefuscis. 

Long. tot. 61 unc. ; rostri, | ; al(E, 3J ; cauda, 2^ ; tarsi, |. 

Hab. Himalaya. 

Obs. I am indebted to the collection of Fort Pitt, at Chatham, for 
the knowledge of this very fine species of Carduelis : the specimen 
here characterized is, as far as I am aw^are, unique. It departs in 
some respects from the other members of the genus, particularly in 
the robust form of the beak, which is slightly angulated at the base : 
the form of its wings and tail, together with their peculiar markings, 
however, clearly points out that it is only an aberrant species of that 
group. 

I have been induced to give this fine bird the specific appellation 
of Burton, for the purpose of paying a just compliment to StaflF- Sur- 
geon Burton, for the warm interest he took in the formation of the 
Fort Pitt collection, and for the readiness he has at all times evinced 
to aid in any way the advancement of zoological science. 



91 



October 10th, 1837. 
Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair. 

A paper was read by Colonel Sykes " On the identity of the 
" Wild Ass of Cutch and the Indus, with the Dzeggetai (Equus He- 
" mionus of Pallas)." 

The author commences with observing, " it is somewhat strange 
and anomalous, that an animal known to and named by Aristotle, and 
noticed by ^lian, Pliny, and subsequent authors, down to our own 
day, an animal remarkable for its beauty of colour, the antelope 
lightness of its limbs, and the tales of its swiftness, and its classic 
locality, should have attracted so little the attention of men of 
science, that it was not even figured* until Pallas put it before the 
public. The magnificent work of BufFon does not boast a representa- 
tion of it ; and as the proceedings of the scientific body at Peters- 
burg are necessarily rare, and confined to some few great public 
libraries, it was in fact scarcely known to the European world, even 
though Pennant copied Pallas's account in 1793. To remedy this 
defect we are indebted to M. Isidore Geoft'roy Saint Hilaire, who 
took advantage of the importation by M. Dussumier, of a female 
into the Paris Menagerie, to have a correct coloured figure made to 
accompany his paper, ' Sur le Genre Cheval,' in the Nouvelles An- 
nales du Museum d'Histoire NatureJlef. But even in this case the 
defect of it not appearing before the public in a sufficiently accessible 
and popular form, limited the benefit that should have resulted from 
M. Saint Hilaire's zeal and talents. Though I have been an ama- 
teur of Natural History for a great part of my life, I must confess 
that it is to a private copy of M. St. Hilaire's paper, obligingly 
presented to the Zoological Society of London, that I am indebted 
for my first view of a coloured representation of the Dzeggetai, 
and it was only last week that this fell into my hands. I have 
been thus particular in noticing the want of readily accessilile fi- 
gures of animals (for my observation will apply to many other ani- 
mals beside the Dzeggetai,) as this want of means to correct my 
judgement led me into the belief that a recently imported Wild Ass 
of Cutch, which was sent to England by an old friend of my own 
from Bombay, was a different species from the Dzeggetai of Pallas, 
which is represented as inhabiting the desert regions between the 
rivers Onon and Argun, on the southern parts of Siberia, through 
Tartary, even to the frontiers of China and Thibet ; and I might have 
been justified in my supposition had I attached the same weight that 

• In the Novi Commentarii Academi<e Scientiarum Peiropolitance, t. xix.. 
1774, p. 417. 

t t. iv. p. 97. 
No. LVIII. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



92 

gome niiturallsts do, to the opinion that the geographical distrihution 
of animals is regulated b_v mean temperature, the Dzeggetui of Pallas 
inhal)iting the borders of the arctic regions, the Wild Ass of India the 
borders of the torrid zone. There might be yet further question for 
doubt, did we take the description of colour from Griffith's edition of the 
' Rfegne Animal,' in which it is stated ' there is a black dorsal line 
which enlarges on the crupper. In winter the hair is very long ; 
but of a smooth and shining appearance in summer. The colour of 
the body is an uniform light bay, but in winter it partakes more of 
red* ;' and the forehead is described as 'flatted and narrow.' 

"M. St. Hilaire, who describes from the life, saj's ' Les deuxcou- 
leurs dominantes de I'Hemione, le blanc et I'isabelle passent I'une a 
I'autre par nuances insensibles sur le ventre, vers sa partie inferieure, 
et sur le cou, presque ci egal distance de son bord superieur, et de 
son bord inferieur. Sur la tete au contraire, le blanc n'occupe 
gu^re que le museau et la gorge, le cou etant presque enti^rement 
isabelle. Sur les membres, contrairement a ce qui alien sur le corps, 
c'est le blanc qui domine, &c.' Again, ' Tout ce systeme de colo- 
ration est rebasse superieurement par une bande dorsale longitudi- 
nale, non pas woiVe comme on I'a dit, mais d'un brunleg^rementrous- 
satre.' And now with respect to the change of colour with the season 
of the year, instead of getting redder in winter it would appear from 
the observations of M. Fred. Cuvier, that the ' animal a le poll plus 
gris, plus jmIs et plus long I'hlver que I'ete.' These discrepancies 
would have afforded to those strongly disposed to multiply species, 
some feeble grounds (particularly when I come to notice a point of 
conformation in the head,) for asserting the right of the Wild Ass of 
Cutch to the dignity of a specific character, for it will be borne in 
mind that M. St. Hilaire describes his specimen, which was a native 
of Cutch ; while in Griffith's Cuvier the description refers to the Dzeg- 
gct.ai, whose habitat is from southern Siberia to Thibet and China ; 
and we do not want instances of equally trifling discrepancies having 
been made available for multiplying species. 

" And now with respect to the animals in the Zoological Gardens, 
the one being called Dzeggetai, and marked on its ticket Mongolia 
and Asia ; the other known positively as the Wild Ass fi-om Cutch. 
The first, a male, has been in the possession of the Society since the 
3rd of March 1832, and was presented to the Society by Captain 
Glasspoole, R.N. Its birth-place is not known, but from the nature 
of Captain Glasspoole's maritime duties, which carried his ship along 
the coasts Cutch, Scind, and Persia, there is little doubt of its being 
from one of these states ; and as it is absolutely identical with the 
animal I am about to speak of, my own judgement is formed on the- 
subject. This creature has long been known in the gardens from its- 
great beauty, its fine condition, its vivacity, and its wickedness. 
The second animal was sent while quite a colt by an old friend of 
mine, the British Minister in Cutch, to the Military Auditor General 
of Bombay. It was allowed for a considerable period, (pending an 
answer from me, whether or not I would accept of it,) to amuse the 
* Quarto edit., vol. iii. p. -160. 



93 

children ; it was permitted to attend at breakfast-time, and eat from 
the table ; but manifesting as it grew up symptoms of ill nature (no 
doubt having been heartily teased,) it was put on board the Marquess 
of Hastings, Captain Clarkson, and brought to England : there can- 
not therefore be any doubt respecting its origin and its history ; and 
having one animal certainly from Cutch, we have a positive standard 
of comparison. Like the preceding it is a male, and with the ex- 
ception of being younger and smaller, and with a less short and 
glossy coat, it is identical with it in every feature ; and these two 
agree in all essentials with M. St. HUaire's very able and minute de- 
scription and coloured figure of a female in the Paris Menagerie. 
There is one point only in which there may be a difference, and there 
are two or three others in which there is a difference. M. St. Hi- 
laire does not state whether the forehead be flat or prominent ; and 
though the figure represents it to be somewhat raised, it is certainly 
not so much so as in the animals in the Zoological Gardens : with 
them the frontal development is a very prominent feature ; such fea- 
ture, however, being opposed to the descriptions in Griffith's 
' Regne Animal.' M. St. Hilaire also mentions another character, 
which it required some little perseverance to discover in the larger 
animal in the Zoological Gardens, the smaller animal being absolutely 
destitute of it. He states that on the Isabella colour on the limbs, 
there are transverse lines or very narrow bands of a darker Isabella, 
in the manner of the markings of the Zebra. These lines had never 
been observed by the keepers in the Zoological Gardens, and for 
sometime I could not discover them ; but at last with a reflected 
light I could just discern the transverse lines noticed by M. St. Hi- 
laire, but I was not so fortunate with the smaller animal. M. St. 
Hilaire, on the authority of M. Geoffroy-Chateau, who sent to him a 
description of a male Dzeggetai in Cross's Menagerie in London, 
states that there was a disposition in the dorsal band on that animal, 
by lateral projections at the withers, to form a small cross, like that 
of an ass. There is not the slightest trace or manifestation of such 
a thing in either of the animals in the Zoological Gardens. Finally, 
M. St. Hilaire speaks of the blending by insensible degrees of the 
Isabella and white markings of the Dzeggetai, but in our animals the 
lines of demarcation are sufficiently strong. 

" M. St. Hilaire's humorous description of the habits of kicking of 
the female at Paris, is laughably exact with respect to our animals, 
particularly the smaller one. I had sent one of the keepers into its 
yard with some hay, to throw down before it, to keep it stationary 
(at least its body) while I took a rapid sketch of it with the assistance 
of the camera lucida. The moment the hay was thrown down, the 
creature turned round and commenced flinging out most vigorously 
for some time, although the man was gone, and the odd beast all the 
time was gravely munching its hay. So petulant were both these 
creatures, that after having sketched them I could not get any of the 
keepers to take their measurements, nor could I succeed in obtaining 
them, but by getting them thrown down, which I declined to do. With 
respect to the swiftness of the Wild Ass of Cutch, without quoting 



94 

from Griffith ' that it runs Uterally with the rapidity of lightning,' 
or from M. St. Hilaire, who says, ' it appeared to him to go as fast 
as the best race horses ;' I will mention in confirmation of its extra- 
ordinary swiftness, that my friend Major Wilkins, of the Cavalry of 
the Bombay Army, who was stationed with his regiment for years 
at Deesa, on the borders of the Run or Salt Marshes, east of Cutch, 
in his morning rides used to start a particular Wild Ass so fre- 
quently that it became familiar to him, and he always gave chase to 
it ; and though he piqued himself upon being mounted on an exceed- 
ingly fleet Arabian horse, he never could come up with the animal. 
" It now remains to express my reasons for believing with M. St. 
Hilaire, that the Wild Ass of Cutch is the same as the Eqms Hemi- 
onus of Pallas. There are certainly sundry discrepancies in the ac- 
counts of the two animals ; in the colour, the dorsal line, the fore- 
head, and above all in the difference of mean temperatures between 
the northern and southern habitat of the species. But all the dis- 
crepancies of descriptions may be easily remedied by the supposition 
that animals examined by different individuals at different seasons 
of the year, did really slightly differ, owing to the difference of 
seasons ; and some part of the differences may be attributed to in- 
attention to terms. There are slight discrepancies between M. 
St. Hilaire's description and mine, both taken from life, and the 
animals from the same locality ; no one therefore can doubt their 
identity. In the main features the Dzeggetai and the Wild Ass 
of Cutch perfectly agree ; and with respect to the extent of geo- 
graphical distributions, I have elsewhere proved that it is no bar to 
the identity of species inhabiting mean temperatures varying nearly 
40° of Fahr., and separated by half the earth in longitude. But in 
the case of the Dzeggetai and the Wild Ass of Cutch, there are not 
any insuperable difficulties of geographical position. The Wild 
Ass of Cutch and the north of Goojrat, is not found further south 
in India than Deesa on the banks of the Bunnas river, in lat. about 
23° 30', nor have I heard of it to the eastward of the 75° of longitude 
in the southern side of the Himalayan Mountains. In Cutch and 
Northern Goojrat it frequents the salt deserts and the open plains of 
Thoodpoor, Jaysulmer, and Bickaneor. By swimming the Indus it 
may communicate through Scind and Buloochestand with Persia ; 
and in Persia it evidently exists from Sir Robert Kerr Porter's de- 
scriptions ; to the east and north of Persia abuts upon the peculiar 
localities of the Dzeggetai, through Bucharia to the deserts of Gobi, 
where it delights in the salt marshes, as it does in India, and thence 
to Tartary, Thibet, and South Siberia. The latitudinal range may 
be from 35° to 40° ; but the longitudinal range is necessarily very 
great, probably from the 45° to the 130° or 140°, or 95° of longi- 
tude ; but in case it ever was found in Cappadocia it would have a 
still greater range, or 100°. If it be desirable to believe that the 
animal migrates according to the season, there do not appear to be 
any insuperable physical impediments ; and its extraordinary fleet- 
ness and hardihood would sanction the belief in its making very 
long journeys, even to the banks of the Indus. But the animal of 



95 

Cutch and the Burmass river, would have to cross the Indus and its 
branches to get to the north and west ; and as they are seen at all 
seasons of the year in their Indian localities, I am quite content to 
believe that the Dzeggetai of Southern Siberia and the Wild Ass of 
Cutch are identical in species, and yet do not wander further than is 
necessary for forage from their respective localities. I say little of 
the advantage of domesticating this beautiful animal in Europe, 
but I do say that it would be worthy of the reputation of the great 
Society, to continue the attempt until success crowned its efforts. 

" I have yet one other object in laying this paper before the Zoolo- 
gical Society. I have stated the difficulties under which 1 laboured in 
obtaining the means to enable me to assist my judgement with respect 
toform. Language is sufficiently precise to enableus to judge correctly 
of descriptions of colour in animals ; but the most lucid mind, and the 
most studied terms and phraseology, cannot give just impressions of 
the contour and outlines, in fact the ensemble of animals. I would 
therefore through the medium of the Society's Proceedings call the 
attention of naturalists, amateurs, and ordinary travellers, who can- 
not even draw at all, to the means the camera lucida affords them of 
recording outlines with celerity and precision. I exhibit to the So- 
ciety five sketches of the two "Wild Asses in the Zoological Gardens ; 
and though I do not profess not to be able to draw, I do nothesitate 
to say that 1 can give much more correct figures of animalslf^^lts means 
than without it. It may be objected that the restlessness of animals 
renders the use of the camera lucida abortive; but I say that the rapid- 
ity with which the lines maybe traced with the pencil, enable a person 
usingit to make twenty sketches, where the draughtsman would other- 
wise make but one, and it will be hard if more than one of the twenty 
do not prove just. The five sketches exhibited were made in a few 
minutes ; and only one proved abortive, making six attempts in all ; 
and yet I have not used the camera lucida since 1830. The out- 
lines have been subsequently traced in ink. I trust therefore this 
notice may lead to its more extended use ; a use in natural history 
that cannot fail to be beneficial to the science. One word in con- 
clusion. I have been a declaimer in the Transactions of this Society 
against the modern habit in natural history of generalization from a 
limited number of facts ; and in pursuing the above inquiries I met 
with a new proof of the risk to truth of such a system. In the hi- 
story of the Domestic Ass it is stated, ' The countries most suitable 
to the Ass are those of the south. Accordingly it is in Persia, Egypt, 
and Arabia that the strongest and finest varieties of this species are 
to be found. Some, very different from the small and feeble natives 
of our climates, almost equal the Horse in magnitude and stature. 
Spain also possesses some fine races of the Ass, which are also occa- 
sionally to be found in the southern provinces of France ; as tve ad- 
vance northward, the animal diminishes in size and becomes more and 
more difficult of preservation.' Opposed to this is the fact, that in 
Western India, which it will be admitted is sufficiently far to the 
south, the Asses are not much larger than good-sized Newfound- 
land dogs. They are used in droves to carry small loads of salt or 



96 

grain ; tliey are also used by the pot-makers to carry tlieir clay ; 
and tliey are always seen, as in Europe, associated with gipsies." 

The Prince of Musignano exhibited to the Meeting a lithographic 
print of the Gigantic Salamander, brought by Dr. Siebold from 
Ja]mn, and presei-ved alive at Leyden. 

Mr. Gould called the attention of the Meeting to a collection of 
Birds from Australia and the adjacent islands, belonging to the Rap- 
torial Order, and upon which he proceeded to offer the following 
observations. 

" My attention during the last few days having been directed to the 
Raptorial Birds of Australia and the adjacent islands, and my own 
collection from those parts being particularly rich in the birds of 
this order, I am induced to lay before the Society a slight sketch 
of all the species found in that portion of the globe, and to exhibit to 
the Meeting a few which I conceive to be now for the first time 
made public. From our limited knowledge, however, of this vast 
continent, my observations will more particularly refer to the birds 
of the southern parts of Australia and Van Diemen's Land, these 
being the districts which up to the present time have been most ex- 
tensively explored. 

" Most ctf the forms now exhibited will be found lo bear a striking 
resemblance to those inhabiting Europe ; indeed, the similarity 
is so strikingly obvious as to leave no doubt of the influence of tem- 
perature on the form of animals. 

" A remarkable deficiency, and that a very important one, is the to- 
tal absence of any of the Vulturidce, or of any form by which this 
family might be represented. It is true that a bird has been described 
by Dr. Latham under the name of ' New Holland Vulture ;' but 
this bird is now almost universally admitted to belong to a totally 
different order, that of the Rasores. I have placed an example of 
this singular species on the table, an examination of which will en- 
able any member present (who has not before had an opportunity of 
inspecting it,) to judge of the impropriety of assigning it a place 
among the Raptores. The nearest approach to the Vulturida, said 
to be from New Zealand, and brought from thence by Captain Cook, 
is the Polyborus Novee-Zelandiee, the Falco Nova-Zelandice of Dr. La- 
tham: now as I conceive that the specimen brought home by Cap- 
tain Cook will prove to be identical with those so frequently trans- 
mitted from the Straits of Magellan, as I am not aware of any other 
specimen except Captain Cook's having been received direct from 
New Zealand, and, moreover, that the form is strictly confined to 
America and its adjacent islands, some mistake may have arisen in 
labelling the specimen brought home by our celebrated navigator, 
a circumstance which, if my opinion be correct, has involved the 
history of the species in considerable confusion. 

" Of the genus Aquila only one species has as yet been discovered, 
viz., the Aquila fucosa of Cuvier, which doubtless represents in Au- 
stralia the Golden Eagle of Europe, from which it may be readily 



97 

ilifctingulsliedby its more slender contour, and by its lengthened and 
wedge-shaped tail. 

" Of the genus Haliaetus or Sea Eagles, there are four species, the 
largest of which, clearly the analogue of the European H. albkilla, 
is one of the species which I consider to be new, and which from the 
wedge-shaped form of its tail I would characterise as H. sphenurus. 
I cannot but consider the form of the tail in this species as particu- 
larly interesting, inasmuch as it is a character peculiar to all the 
species of Eagle inhabiting Australia, although in a less degree to the 
others than to the present species. The second is a small species, 
described by Messrs. Vigors and Horsfield in the Linnsean Transac- 
tions as Hal. canoriis, the European representatives of which are 
not so clear to me as those just alluded to. The third is the Ha- 
liaetus Calei of Messrs. Vigors and Horsfield, of which a single spe- 
cimen exists in the collection of the Linnean Society, and which I 
should be rather inclined to assign to the genus Astia- than to tiiat of 
Haliaetus. In size this species equals the Common Buzzard, but has 
the rounded wing and several other characters peculiar to the genus 
Astur. The fourth is the White-breasted Eagle of Dr. Latham, a 
species inhabiting the continent of Australia and Van Diemen's Land. 
At a cursory glance this powerful bird might be said to represent the 
Haliaetus leucocephalus of northern Europe and America, and al- 
though I cannot but admit their resemblance, I discern characters 
sufficiently distinct to warrant its separation into a new genus. I 
am not, however, prepared to make this division at the present mo- 
ment ; still I am of opinion this bird will prove to be one of a group 
ranging between Haliaetus and Pandion, of which latter genus the 
Osprey of Europe may be regarded as the type, and of which a single 
species inhabits Australia. This bird appears to accord most accu- 
rately with European specimens excepting in its smaller size ; and if 
this should ultimately prove to be identical with our bird, it may 
then be said to be universally distributed over the Old World. The 
Osprey of America, on the contrary, presents us with some slight 
differences, which being constant, may I think be safely regarded as 
specific. 

" Of the genus Falco, the Pei-egrinus is replaced by a species most 
nearly allied to and hitherto considered identical with that bird : the 
exj)erienced eye of the ornithologist will, however, readily distinguish 
an Australian specimen when placed among others from various parts 
of the globe, so that there will be but little impropriety in assigning 
to it a separate specific name. As, however, my engagements have not 
allowed me to make that minute examination which is necessary to 
determine the point, I defer for the present affixing a new specific 
name for this species. The Hobby, so famihar as a European 
bird, is represented by the Falcon, for which I now propose the 
specific name of rufiventer, as I believe it to be undescribed. The 
third species, which I have provisionally followed Messrs. Vigors and 
Horsfield in placing among the true Falcons, is the Falco P.erigora, 
whose lengthened and slightly-formed tarsi indicate a difference in 
structure, which may ultimately prove to be generic. The Cerchnis 



98 

cenchr aides (Falco cencJirdides of Messrs. Vigors and Horsfield,) ex- 
hibits a beautiful analogy with the Common Kestril of our island, 
but although nearly allied possesses several important and permanent 
differences. 

" The great variety of changes to which the members of the genus 
Astur are subjected, has led to vast confusion, and it is only by a 
minute examination of the numerous examples in my collection in 
various stages of plumage, that I have been able to determine the 
species with satisfaction to myself ; and if I have found it necessary 
to consider as identical two or three species of this genus charac- 
terised by Messrs. Vigors and Horsfield, I feel confident that it was 
owing to the absence of sufficient materials at the time the Linnean 
collection was so ably named by those gentlemen, that they were 
described as distinct. 

" My attention has of course been directed to the great difference 
in size which exists between the males and females, and the various 
changes from youth to maturity which occur in the members of the 
genera Astur and Accipiter, and I must now call the attention of 
the members present to the beautiful analogy which exists between 
the Accipiter torquatiis and the Astur approximans of Messrs. Vigors 
and Horsfield, of which several examples are on the table ; I say 
analogy, because it is in colour alone that so great a similarity exists 
between them. These gentlemen having applied the names of ap- 
proximans and fasciatus to two birds which I believe to be synony- 
mous with the Falco radiatus of Dr. Latham, whose description was 
taken from a young bird, I retain the name of Astur approximans in 
preference to radiatus, from the near approach of these two birds to 
Accipiter torquatus. It wiU, perhaps, not be out of place to say a 
few words on the difference in structure of these birds, which in 
outward appearance offer so close a resemblance to each other. The 
females in both these minor groups far exceed the males in size, and 
both groups appear with a trifling deviation to be subject to the same 
changes of plumage ; while in their structure they exhibit con- 
siderable differences, the chief of which are the more delicate, 
slender, and lengthened form of the legs of Accipiter, the great pro- 
longation of the middle toe, and the square or forked form of the 
tail. On comparison it will be found that the centre toe of the little 
male Accipiter on the table is fully as long as that of the male Astur 
approximans, a bird nearly double its size ; that the tarsi in the latter 
bird are comparatively shorter and more robust ; and that the middle 
tail-feathers are the longest, giving a rounded form to that organ. 

" It may be truly said that Australia abounds in anomalies, witness 
its Black Swan and White Hawk, which latter bird has not a little 
puzzled me, and I am not yet satisfied as to whether it be not a per- 
manent albino variety of another species, examples of which are now 
on the table with a corresponding number of birds in the white plu- 
mage. Much difference will be found in their size, but this may be 
readily accounted for by the difference of size in the two sexes. 

"The males and females of the white birds agree so accurately in 
their measurements with those in the grey plumage, as to induce me 



99 

to believe that they are identical ; and after a close examination I 
am also led to consider the Astur Rait of the Linnean Catalogue as 
the young of the same species. 

" Of the genus Milvus my collection contains two species, and two 
more beautiful representatives of the two species inhabiting Europe 
cannot be imagined ; for one of these, whose affinities ally it closely 
to the Common Kite of England, I would propose the name of Mil- 
vus Novm-Hollandia ; and for the other, which is equally allied to the 
Milvus ater, that of M. aterrimus. 

" The bird which has hitherto been considered as identical with the 
Elanus melanopterus of Africa, is evidently distinct from that species ; 
an unerring difference may be found in the jet black spot on the 
white part of the under surface of the wing ; for this hitherto unde- 
scribed species I would propose the name of notatus. 

" One species of Harrier only, but a very interesting one, inasmuch 
as it represents there the Circus rufus of Europe, has come into my 
possession, I believe the female of this species to be the Circus affi- 
nis of Messrs. Jardine and Selby ; but as the male has not yet been 
characterised, and moreover differs very much from the female, to 
which alone the name of affinis would apply, I propose to drop that 
appellation and to give that of Jardinei instead. 

" On examining the family of Strigidee or Owls, we cannot but ob- 
serve the deficiency which exists in some of the subgenera, and the 
abundance of others ; thus while we have never seen any birds be- 
longing to the genera Bubo, Otus, Scops, &c., we have numerous 
species of the restricted genera Strix and Noctua : the name of Noc- 
tua, however, having been applied by Linnaeus to one of the tribes 
in Entomology, ought not perhaps to be adopted ; that of Athene, pro- 
posed by M. Boje, and employed by some German naturalists, may 
be used in its stead. 

" Four species of this genus are now on the table, the two largest 
of which are new to science. For the largest I would propose the 
name of Athene strenua, and for the other that of A.fortis. The third 
has been characterised by Messrs. Vigors and Horsfield as the Noc- 
tua Boobook, and the Noctua maculata of these gentlemen seems to 
be identical with it. For the fourth and last species of the genus, 
which is from Van Diemen's Land, and which is evidently distinct 
from either, I propose the name of leucopsis, from the white colouring 
of its face. The species of the genus Strix which I have called de- 
licatus, together with my Strix cyclops and Strix cnstanops and the 
Strix personata of Messrs. Vigors and Horsfield, may be said to be 
closely allied, but distinct species. 

" In conclusion it may be remarked that the birds belonging to the 
Raptorial Order inhabiting Australia and the adjacent islands are 
extremely few in number, when compared with those found in other 
countries ; at the same time, as our knowledge of this part of the 
world is very hmited, the number will in all probability be consider- 
ably increased as these countries become more fully known to us. 

" At present the species are twenty-six in number, and are distri- 
buted as follows. 



100 

1 True Eagle .... Aquila. 

4 Sea Eagles .... HctUaetus. 

1 Osprey Pandion. 

4 Falcons, ....... Falco. 

3 Hawks Astur and Accipiter. 

3 Kites 2 Milvus and 1 Elanus. 

1 New form allied to Pernis, 

1 Harrier Circus. 

8 Owls Strijc and Noclua or Athene" 



■26 



101 



October 24th, 1837. 
Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair. 

The Prince of Musignano read a short communication upon the 
Long-tailed Trogon {Trog. resplendens of Gould). 

Through the exertions of M. Gonzales, Minister of the United 
States of Central America, at Washington ; and Mr. Rebello, who 
represented the Brazilian government in that city, the Prince suc- 
ceeded in procuring some slight information respecting the above 
species, the most beautiful of the Trogon family. 

The Quesalt, the native name of this species, is a rare bird, and 
very shy in its habits; it is confined to restricted limits, being solely 
found in a peculiar section of the mountainous district of Vera Paz 
in the province of the same name, nov^ forming one of the live inde- 
pendent states constituting the Federal republic of Central America. 
A single instance is on record of its having been domesticated. It 
builds its nest in the shape of a barrel or bag, open at both ends, by 
Avhich means injury to its long tail-feathers is avoided. The Prince 
stated that he had communicated the present notice of the history of 
the Long-tailed Trogon to an American Journal some years since, 
and that so long as the year 1826, he had proposed that the specific 
name of Paradiseus should be given to the species. 

Mr. Gray exhibited a drawing of a new species of the genus Te- 
traptui-us, in the British Museum, which had been obtained at the 
Cape, and for which he proposed the specific name of Herschelii. 

Mr. Gray afterwards called the attention of the Meeting to some 
pieces of chalk, which he had recently found in the cliffs at Brighton, 
exhibiting perforations made by the Patella and Pholas, and pre- 
senting appearances which he considered to have been produced in 
the case of the latter genus by the rotatory action of the valves. 

The remarks of Mr. Gray elicited considerable discussion as to 
the manner in which certain molluscous genera penetrate limestone 
rocks and other hard substances, a phsenomenon which Mr. Owen 
thought could not be explained upon the supposition of its being 
exclusively caused by a rotation of the valves, but that it was chiefly 
due to the mechanical influence of the currents of water produced by 
the vibratile cilia of the animal, as noticed by Mr. Garner in a com- 
munication made to the Society in 1835. 

Mr. Martin exhibited a new Bat from Fernando Po, belonging to 
the genus Rhinolophus , which he characterised as 

Rhinolophus Landeri. Rhin. vellere molli, et pulchrt- castaneo- 



102 

rufescente ; auribus acutis.patulis, erectis, ad latus exterius etnar' 
ginatis, et lobo rotundato accessorio instructis ; prosthemate du- 
plice ; anteriore bidentato cum scypho parvulo ad basin anticam, 
h6c ferro-equino membt-anaceo circumdato ; prosthemate posteriore 
ad basin transversim sinuato, ad apicem acuta ; ferro-equino mem- 
branaceo, lata, margine libera antice bifida ; pallice brevi, gracili, 
in membrand subtiis per dimidium inclusa : ungue parvulo ; anti- 
brachiis robustis ; cruribus gracilibus ; patagiis nigricantibus. 

imc. lin. I 

Longitude corporis cum capite 1 4^ ;',^<•»^i~f•'■^^ f^ 

. caud(B ' 9 3 ;. V Vz ^. > 

■ aurium 7i 

— - antibrachii 1 7| 

cruris 8 

calcanei , 4^ 

Prosthematis longitudo 2 

Alarum amplitudo 9 

Habitat in Insulsl Fernando Po. 

" This beautiful little species of Bat is a genuine Rhinalophus ; the 
nasal appendages consist of a horse-shoe, a crest, and an elevated 
leaf. The horse-shoe is broad with indications of a double furrow; 
its outer margin is free and bifid anteriorly. In its centre is placed 
a little cup-like depression with an elevated rim, from the back of 
which rises a bifid crest not much elevated : the larger apex is the 
posterior of the two. On each side of this crest and behind it, the 
skin continued from the horse-shoe, and forming the base of the leaf, 
is furrowed by two deep but unequal sulci, with a marked posterior 
ridge, elevated across the base of the leaf, which latter ends in a 
short acute lanceolate point ; posteriorly it is covered with short hairs, 
anteriorly it is nearly naked. Its length is two lines. The ears are 
large, broad, and pointed ; the outer margin is emarginate, and passes 
into a large rounded accessory lobe, closing the ear anteriorly. The 
anti-brachia are short, the thumbs small, the tibia slender. 

" The fur is soft and delicate, and of a fine light or rufous chestnut, 
a little darker on the middle of the back ; the wings are blackish. 

" I have ventured to name this species in honour of the late enter- 
prising, but unfortunate Mr. Lander, during whose expedition it was 
taken at Fernando Po." 

Mr. Martin also communicated to the Meeting the following no- 
tice of a new species of Hedgehog. 

" Among the specimens of Natural History, from the neighbourhood 
of Trebizond, presented to the Society by Keith Abbot, Esq., is a 
species of Hedgehog, decidedly differing from our well-known British 
species, and appearing to be at present undescribed. It is much 
smaller than the Erinaceus Eiiropaus, measuring from the tip of the 
muzzle to the root of the tail, over the arch of the back, only 9^ Inches. 
The spines advance upon the forehead, and overshadow the eyes ; 
the general colour presented by the spines ' en masse' is mahogany 



103 

brown, but each spine individually taken is yellowish brown for three 
parts of its length from the basal extremity; this colour then becomes 
darker, and again passes into yellowish brown at the extreine apex ; 
the annulation, however, is far less decided than in the British ani- 
mal. 

" The ears are short and rounded, a white patch is placed before 
them, and also on the forehead ; the chest is dirty white ; the sides 
of the muzzle, and the whole of the under surface are intensely 
blackish, or umbre brown, several long white hairs being intermixed 
with the rest on the shoulders, extending from the chest. 

" ITie tarsi are longer than in E. Europceus. In a very large speci- 
men of the latter, measuring from the nose to the root of tail, over 
the back, 14^ inches ; the foot from the heel to the end of the middle 
toe, excluding the nail, measures 1 inch |, while in this smaller 
species it measures 1 inch ^. 

" For this species I propose the name of Erinaceus concolor. It may 
be thus characterised. 

" Erinaceus concolor. Er. obscure fuscus, spinis infrontem.et 
super oculos obductis ; spinis rigidis, flavescenti-fuscis ad basin, 
apicem versus intense fuscis, apice extremo pallide rufescenti-brun- 
neo; auribus parvis, rotundatis ; rostro breviusculo ; infrontem 
notd albd, necnon ante aures ; pectore sordidt albo, vellere cor- 
poris subtits nigrescenti-fusco, pilis longis albis ad humeros 

sparsim intermixtis. 

unc. liu. 

" Longitudo corporis, a rostro ad caudse basin, super 

dorsum • • • 9 6 

" Longitudo pedis postici a calce ad apicem digiti 

intermedii ungue excluso 1 7^ 

" Habitat apud Trebizond." 

Mr. Waterhouse called the attention of the members to two spe- 
cies of Kangaroos, which were upon the table. One of these had 
lately been procured by the Society, and was from the neighbour- 
hood of Hunter's River, the other had died in the Menagerie. Of 
this latter species the Society has possessed several living specimens ; 
and there is still one in the Gardens, which was bred there. ' 

Mr. Waterhouse stated that his object in bringing the animals in 
question before the Meeting, was to show that the specimen from the 
Menagerie was hot, as had been supposed, the Macropus ualabatus of 
Lesson, but that it was in fact an undescribed species, being distin- 
guished from that of Lesson, (which Mr. Waterhouse considered as 
identical with the specimen from Hunter's River,) by the following 
characters : — the under parts are grayish white, instead of buff yel- 
low ; the ears are rather longer in proportion, and the tail hoary gray, 
white beneath, and with a white tip, instead of being almost totally 
black. Mr. Waterhouse proposed that the m.me Macropus Bennetti 
be adopted for this species, and proceeded to characterise it as follows ; 

Macropus Bennetti. Mac. intense cineraceus, regione scapula ri. 



104 

clunlbiis, ef rerjione clr cum- ocular i, rnfo-brunneis ; corpore sublits 
cinerescenti-albo ; rostro, auribus postice , digitis atiticis posli- 
cisqiie tiigris ; lined albescenti vis distinctd ab angulo oris, ad 
genas excurrente ; caudd cinerescente, ad apicem nigrd, et subtiis 
sordide flavescenti-albd. 

unc. lin. 

Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudse basin .... 24 10 

caud<E 24 7 

ab apice rostri ad marginem oculi . . 3 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris 5 10 

tarsi digitorumque (sine unguibus) . . 8 9 

■ — auris 3 1 

Hab. Nova Cambria Australi. 

" The fur of this animal is rather long and moderately soft; the 
longest hairs on the middle of the back measure about two inches, 
and the shorter about one and a half inches in length. Its general 
line is a very deep gray, inclining to black on the back, somewhat 
paler on the sides of the body, and a rust-like tint is observable on 
the back of the neck and base of ears externally, over the haunches 
and shoulders and in the region of the eye. The under parts of the 
body, and the inner side and fore part cf the Jiinder legs, are of a 
grayish white colour. The muzzle is black, and the crown of the 
head is brown black ; an obscure whitish line extends backwards 
from the comers of the mouth, and becomes obliterated on the cheeks ; 
the hairs on the lips are dirty white ; the chin is blackish. The ears 
are furnished with while hairs internally, and longish black hairs 
externally, excepting at the base. The limbs externally are of the 
same hue as the sides of the body ; the fore feet, and the toes of the 
hind feet are black, the outer side of the heel is also black. The 
hairs of the tail (excepting at the base, where they are of the same 
colours and character as those of the body) are rather harsh, black, 
and broadly annulated with silvery white near the apex ; the general 
tint is hoary gray, the white portion of each hair being most conspi- 
cuous ; the apex of the tail is black, and on this part the hairs are 
long and form a kind of tuft ; the under side of the tail is white. 
The hairs on the upper part of the body are of a deep slate colour at 
the base, the remaining portion of each hair is black annulated with 
white, or more generally with pale rust colour ; on the under parts 
of the body, the hairs are of a deep slate colour with the apical por- 
tion white. 

" The above descriptions and dimensions are taken from an adult 
male ; the two females in the Society's Museum are of a smaller 
size and paler colour, their prevailing tint being reddish graj'^ : 
around the entrance to the pouch the hairs are of a deep rusty brown 
colour." 

A species of Mouse from the Cape of Good Hope was next de- 
Bcribed by Mr. Waterhouse under the name of 

Mus suBsriNosus. M. pilis subspinosis, corpore suprd fuscescenti- 



105 

griseo ; ad lalerafiavescente ; mbliiS niveo, oculis fltiiido cinctit; , 
caudd capite corporeque breviore ; auribus mediocribus. 

unc. liii. 

Longitudo ab apice rostri ad caudse basin 3 4 

• Cauda • 2 11 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris 10^ 

■ tarsi digitortimque 8^ 

auns " "^4, 



Hob. Cape of Good Hope. 

" This species is allied to the Mus Cahirinus of Geoflfroy; it is, 
however, not so large ; and although the hairs are flat and bristle- 
like, they are less harsh than those of the North African species ; it 
also differs in its colouring." 

Mr. Gould introduced to the notice of the Meeting a very singu- 
lar form among the Caprimulgida for which he proposed the generic 
ajjpellation of 

Amblypterus. 

Rostrum debile et elongatum. 

Nares elevatse et rotundatae. 

Rictus setis robustis instructus, rostro longioribus. 

AltB truncatse ; remigibus externis sextis fere requalibus et falcatis ; 
remio-ibus 2<*°, 3"", 4'° ad externum pogonium emarginalis, 7™°. 8"°, 
9"° ad apices elongatis et attenuatis, lO""* abrupte brevi; secondariis 
brevissimis, rotundatis et ab tertiariis tectis, his longissimis. 

Cauda brevissima et quadrata. 

Pedes ambulatorii. 

Tarsi elongati, graciles, squamis indistinctis antice et postice fas- 
ciati ; digito intermedio longissimo et gracillimo ; digitis lateralibus 
brevibus et sequalibus ; digito postico parvo, debili et libero ; ungui- 
bus elongatis, ungue medio pectinate. 

Amblypterus anomalus. Amb. summo capite, corpore supra et 
alis cinereo-fuscis, singulis pluniis nigro irregii/arit^r sparsis et 
maculatis ; primariis nigris, ad bases rubrescenti-cervinis, ad 
apices albis ; secondariis cervinis, nigrescenti-fusco irregulariter 
fasciatis ; rectricibus caudce cervinis, nigrescenti-fusco irregula- 
riter fasciatis et maculatis ; duabus centralibus cinereo-fuscis ; 
gutture, pectore et abdomine ad partem superiorem nigrescenti- 
fuscis, singulis plumis cervino maculatis ; abdomine imopallide cer- 
vino, singulis plumis 7iigrescenti-fusco transvers\7n fasciatis ; ros- 
tro fusco ; pedibus pallide fuscis. 

Long. tot. unc. 6| ; rostri, 1 ; alee, 5J ; caudce, 3 ; tarsi, |. 

Obs. Mr. J. E. Gray believes this bird to be from Demerara, or 
the Brazils ; the specimen is in the collection at the British Museum, 
and so far as I am aware is unique. 



♦ 
106 

Mr. Gould afterwards exhibited a species of Ibis, having many 
characters in common with the Ibis religiosa of Cuvier, and two new 
species of the genus Plutalea, which were accompanied with the fol- 
lowing descriptions. 

Ibis strictipennis. lb. capite et collo svperiore nudis, et nigre- 
scenti-fuscis, caruleo lavatis ; corpore toto, et alls albis, cervino 
lavatis ; plumis in guld longis, angustis, lanceolatis et rigidis; 
primariis ad apices cceruleo-viridibus ; tertiariis valde productis 
et nigro-coeruleis, albo sparsis ; tarsis et spatio nudo sub aid 
rufo-fuscis. 

Long. tot. unc. 30 ; rostri, 6 ; alee, 14^; caudte, 6; tarsi, 4. 

Hab. Australia. 

Platalea regia. Plat, cristd occipitali pendente et corpore toto, 
pectore excepto, albo; pectore fiavo parum lavato ;f rente facie an- 
teriori et guld plumis prorsus nudis ; notd super oculos atque in 
occipite medio aurantiacd. 

Long. tot. unc. 39 ; rostri, 8^ ; aliB, 15 ; Cauda, 5^ ; tarsi, 5^. 

Hab. Nova Cambria Australi. 

Foem. Aiffert a mare adulto, staturd minors. 

Platalea flavipes. Plat, corpore toto albo ; parte faciei nudd 

angustiore quUm in Plat, regid ; parte nudd et rostro aurantiacis ; 

pedibus flavis. 
I^ng. tot. unc. 28 ; rostri, T\ ; ala, \4^ ; caudee, 5^ ; tarsi, 4|. 
Hab. Nova Cambria Australi. 



107 

November 14th, 1837. 
Thomas Bell, Esq., in the Chair, 

Dr. Martin Barry, of Edinburgh, exhibited a living specimen of 
the Proteus anguinus, and read the following communication from 
Professor Rudolph "Wagner, of Erlangen in Bavaria. 

" I was so fortunate, at the end of the late summer, as to obtain 
three living Protei; of which I have examined two, just killed, 
that proved to be a male and female, and have given the third alive 
to my friend Dr. Barry, who may perhaps have an opportunity for 
bringing it forward at a meeting of the Zoological Society. The re- 
sults of my examinations correspond perfectly with the statements of 
Cuvier, R. Owen, J. Miiller, and others, on the Proteidea ; but are 
opposed to several of the views lately put forth by Rusconi (Obser- 
vations sur la Sirene, 1837). I have, for instance, no doubt that the 
pulmonary sacs or vesicles really perform the function of lungs. Each 
lung contains a large artery and a still larger vein, which are con- 
nected together by means of large and numerous vessels. To me the 
most important point was the examination of the blood globules and 
the generative organs. I conjectured, on various gi-ounds, that the 
Proteidea would be found to have, of all animals, the largest blood 
globules : — first, because the size of the latter in the naked AmpJii- 
bia in general is the largest in the animal kingdom ; 2ndly, because, 
remarkable as it is, the blood-globules are here (in the naked Am- 
phibia) so much the larger, the longer the gills continue in the lar- 
val state ; hence the land and water salamander have much larger 
blood globules than the frog. I conjectured also that the Protei 
(probably also the Siren, &c.), because they permanently have both 
gills and lungs, — being therefore permanentlj' larva, — would be 
found to have the largest blood globules. The latter are indeed gi- 
gantic ; flat, oval, resembling those of the salamander, and from -^v 
to v^- of a Paris line in length ; hence, as minute points, visible to 
the naked eye. They are from once to twice the size of the blood 
globules of the salamander, nearly three times as large as those of the 
frog, and about twelve or fifteen times the size of those of man. 

" In a female, I found the ova very beautifully developed ; their 
structure, as well as that of the ovary, corresponding perfectly with 
that of the other naked Amphibia, especially the Triton. The small- 
est ova consist of a delicate chorion, yellow yolk, large germinal 
vesicle, and manifold germinal spot*. I regret to say that in the 
otherwise tolerably developed testes of the male there were no sper- 
matozoa. I conjecture however that the spermatozoa of this animal 
resemble those of the Triton. I would just remark, that the form 
and size of the blood globules, the formation of the ova, and the form 

* Compare my " Prodromus HisloricE Generationis." 
No. LIX. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



108 

of the spermatozoa, in different animals, have a great zoological and 
physiological interest. Already is it in my power, from a drop of 
blood or semen placed before me, to determine with the microscope, 
not only the class, but frequently the genus and the species from 
which these fluids have been taken. R. Wagner." 

Dr. Barry stated that, from his own microscopical examination, 
he was able fully to confirm the correctness of Prof. Wagner's ob- 
servations upon the size and shape of the blood globules in the 
Proteus. 

The Prince of Musignano laid before the Meeting the following 
communication, containing notices and descriptions of new or in- 
teresting birds from Mexico and South America. 

I. Messrs. Swainson and Wagler have, as far as their materials 
would allow them, ably described the Birds of Mexico. Through 
the kindness of the Messrs. Paris I have been allowed to examine a 
small collection from that country, a list of which, with descriptions 
of new or interesting species, I shall subjoin ; hoping thereby to add 
a little to our acquaintance with the ornithology of that interesting 
part of North America. 

1. Thrasajetos Harpyia, G. R. Gray. Harpyia destructor, Cuv. 
Falco destructor. Lath. Vultur Harpyja, L. 

2. PoLYBORUs Brasiliensis, Swaius. P. albo nigroque varius ; 
pileo nigro, plumis cervicalibus elongatis ; rectricibus alMs, nigra 
fasciatis, apice latissime nigris. 

Falco Brasiliensis, Lath. Polyborus vulgaris, Vieill. Quebranta 

huesos, Mexic. 
Figured by Vieillot, Swainson, and Audubon. 

3. Ceryle torquata. Nob. C. subcristata, cano-carulescens, 
torque albo ; subtus castanea ; alis cauddque albo maculatis. 

Mas. Pectore cano-carulescenti, crisso ferrugineo . Fem. Pectore 
castaneo, crisso albo. 

Buff. PI. Enl. 284. Alcedo cinerea, Vieill, Martin pescador, Mexic. 

Interesting for the locality, as it has been doubted, even by Mr. 
Swainson, the able discriminator of this group, (See Birds of West- 
ern Africa, n. p. 93.) 

4. Ceryie alcyon, L. Ispida Alcyon, Sw. 

The most southern limits of this North- American species hitherto 
ascertained are Mexico and one or two of the West Indian islands. 

5. Ramphastos carinatus. Swains., Wagl. R. nigerrimus, 
uropygio albo, guld pectoreque flavis ; crisso ac fasciold colli in- 
fimi coccineis ; rostro viridi apice coccineo, maculd submedid au- 
rantid, culmine percarinato flavo. 

Edwards, t. 329. Siv. Zool. 111. t. 45. 

This species, so rarely to be found in collections, has been con- 



109 

founded with a Linnean Toucan, notwithstanding Edwards's figure 
and description. 

6. Trogon, mas adultus. T. viridi-aureus, guld nigrd, abdomine mi- 
niaceo ; alls fuscis, tectricibus albo irroratis ; caudd nigrd, rec- 
tricibvs tribus extimis albo fasciatis ; rostra favo. 

Pito real. Mexic. 

Jun.fusco-cinereus; abdomine luteo; tectricibus alarum strigis albis . 

Gabilan, Mexic. 

7. Trogon Mexicanus, Swains. ? ? . T. olivaceus ; abdomine ru- 
bra ; caudd nigricante ; rectricibus truncatis, duabus mediis fer- 
rugineis fascid terminali albidd nigrdque, lateralibus tribus apice 
alio et latere externa albo fasciatis . 

I have not given names to these birds, because they will certainly 
be included in Mr. Gould's beautiful Monograph. 

8. Macrocercus militaris, Vieill. M. viridis ; urapygia remi- 
gibusque caruleis ; fronts rubra ; genis nudis lineis plumasis ; 
caudd rubricante, rectricibus apice cceruleis. 

Psittacus militaris, L. Edw., t. 113. Guacamaja, Mexic. 

9. Melanerpesformicivoeus, Swains. M. niger ; occipite rubra ; 
f route, urapygia, remigumque fascid basilari, albis ; guldflavidd; 
pectore nigra striis albis ; abdomine albo, lateribus crissoque 
nigra striatis. 

Picus melanapogon, Licht. Temra., pi. enl. 451. Carpintera negro, 
Mexic. 

10. Centueus subelegans. Nob. C. albo nigroque fasciatus ; 
subtus cum capite diluti cinerescens ; vertice rubra, fronte et 
cervice subauratis. 

This bird resembles Mr. Swainson's Centurus elegans, but is well 
distinguished by wanting the very conspicuous black superciliary 
spot, and by the much less brilliant gold colour of the crown. 

11. Colaptes eubricatus. Nob. C. grisea-rufescens, nigra su- 
pra fasciatus, subtus maculatus ; urapygia albo ; guld cinereo-vi- 
naced immaculatd ; remigum rectricumque scapis rubris. 

Mas. Fascid mystacali rubrd. Foem. Fascid rubra nulld. 

Colaptes callaris, Vig. Picus rubricatus, Licht. Colaptes Mexica- 
nus, Sw. Carpintera rasado, Mexic. 

Nearly allied to the Colaptes auratus of North America. To this 
group belong also the Picus arator (^Geacolaptes terrestris, Sw.) of 
CafFraria ; the Picus Chilensis, Lesson, Zool. Coq. t. 32 ; the beauti- 
ful Colaptes Fernandince, Vig., from the Island of Cuba, and two or 
three others. 

12. Cyanocorax coronatus. Nob. C. cristatus, cyaneus ; cristd 
ex tato caruled, capitis lateribus tantum nigricantibus ; mento, 
fronte, et superciliis albicantibus ; alarum tectricibus, remigihus 

scapularibusque nigra fasciatis ; caudd parum rotundatd. 



110 

Garrulus coronatus. Jardine and Selby's 111. Orn., t. 64. Azul 
Capet an, Mexic. 

This must not be confounded with the larger Garrulus Stelleri. 
Nob. Am. Orn. II. t. 13. f. 1. 

13. QuiscALus MAJOR, Vlcill. Urraca, Mexic. 

14. Xanthorntjs gularis, Wagler. X. rubro-aureus,Joris, guld 
etfascid jugulari, dorso, alis cauddque nigris ; tectricibus alarum 
minoribus supra infraque aureis ; remigibus basi, tectricibus ma- 
joribus apice, remigibusque secundariis margine externa, albis. 

Culandria de Bergara, Mexic. 

A species very similar to Oriolus Xanthornus, L., and still more so 
to Icterus Mexicanus, Leach, Zool. Misc., 1. 1. 2 (/ewcop^eryji:, Wagler), 
having its robust bill and extent of white marking on the wing, but 
is well distinguished from both by its black back and more vivid co- 
lour. 

15. Icterus Parisorum, Nob. /. niger, tergo, abdomine, tectri- 
cibus minoribus alarum, rectricibusque lateralibus a basi ad me- 
dium flavo-olivaceis ; tectricibus alarum majoribus remigibus- 
que secundariis apice albis. 

Calandria, Mexic. 

Nearly allied to let. Dominicensis (flavigaster, Wagl.), from which, 
however, it is distinguished by the white on the wing and the yellow 
on the tail. The bill in both is remarkably slender and very acute. 

I have much pleasure in naming this bird after the brothers Paris, 
who, notwithstanding the arduous nature of their professional en- 
gagements in Mexico, allowed no opportunity of furthering the in- 
terests of science to pass unimproved. I quite agree Muth the opi- 
nion, that in a country whose commercial transactions are so exten- 
sive as they are in this, the captain of a trading-vessel bringing 
home " a ' curious bird,' which may prove to be new, has no claim to 
have his name immortalized ;" but the same rule I would not apply to 
the Roman state, where a person crossing the sea is a rare occur- 
rence. 

16. Agelaius gubernator. a. niger, alarum tectricibus mino- 
ribus ruberrimis unicoloribus. 

Psarocolius gubernator, Wagl. in Isis, 1832, p. 2P1. 

This species, hardly established by Wagler under the specific 
name we have adopted, differs from the common Phwniceus of the 
United States by having the red spot on the shoulder of a uniform 
lively colour, wanting the ochraceous band beneath it ; whilst the 
new Rocky mountain closely allied species, figured by Mr. Audubon 
under the name of tricolor, has, as the name implies, three most di- 
stinct colours on the shoulder spot. Our Mexican species is larger 
than the common, has the wings longer and broader, and the tail less 
rounded. 

The diagnosis of Phoeniceus will be 



Ill 

Ag. Niger, alarum tectricibus minoribus rubris bicoloribus, fascid ter- 

minali ochraced. 
The diagnosis of tricolor, 
Ag. Niger, alarum tectricibus minoribus rubris bicoloribus, fascid ter- 

minali candidd latissimd. 

17. Sturnella Hippocrepis, Wagl. Also found in the island 
of Cuba, and registered by Mr. Vigors in his paper on the birds of 
that island, under the name of Sturnella collaris. 

Friguevo, Mexic. 

18. GuiRACA ccERULEA, Sw. Azulcro, Mexic. 

An adult male : this is worthy of remark, as Mr. Swainson's spe- 
cimens were all immature. 

19. GuiRACA MELANOCEPHALA, Sw. G. fulvo-ferruginea } pUco, 
genis, dorso, alls cauddque nigris, tectricibus alarum inferioribus 
et medio corpore subtus Jlavissimis ; alts cauddque albo variis. 

Fringilla xanthomaschalis, Wagl. Isis, 1831. p. 525. Fr. macu- 
lata, Audubon, necnon Lath. Figuerillo, Mexic. 

The Coccothraustes Bonapartei oi hesson's Zool. 111. is the same bird 
as the one described by Dr. Richardson in the Fauna Boreali-Ameri- 
cana, as the female of Coccothraustes vespertina. Cooper. 

20. Caedinalis ViRGiNiANUs, Nob. C. ruber ; guld et capistro 
nigris ; caudd valde rotundatd ; rostra conico, subdentato. 

Hab. Throughout N. America. 

Finding in the collection of the Zoological Society two beautiful 
undescribed species of this my new form, I take this opportunity of 
making them known, especially as both come from Mexico. They 
all preserve the short rounded wings and lengthened tail, and even 
the crested head and red colours. As to the different shape of the 
bills, it is only an additional proof of the little importance to be at- 
tached to the form of that member in the conirostral birds. 

Cardinalis PHCENicEus, Gould. C. ruberrimus ; capistro 
tenuissimo nigricante ; caudd rotundatd; rostro robustissimo 
conico-turgescenti sinuato-dentato. 
A small but most splendid species, received by Mr. Gould itova. 
the country south of the Bay of Honduras. 

Cardinalis sinuatus, Nob. C ruhro cinereoque varius ; 

guld et capistro coccineis ; caudd vix rotmidatd ; rostra cam- 

presso turgido sinuato. 
Hab. Western parts of Mexico. 

21. Phileremos cornutus. Nob. Alauda chrysolatma? , Wagl. 
Fildio de Llano, Mexic. 

Six species are now known of this peculiar subgenus of Alauda, 

22. TuRDus MiGRATORius, L. Sarsttl, Mexic. 

23. IcTERiA viRiDis, Nob. Pipru polyglotta, Wils. Icteria du- 
micola, Vieill. Arriero, Mexic. 



112 

The tints are somewhat darker than in the United States' speci- 
mens. 

24. Erythrospiza frontalis, Nob. PyrrTiulu frontalis, Say. 
Nob. Am. Om. 1. t. 6. f. 1. mas. 2. foem. Fringilla hamorrhoa, 
Licht. Wagl. Isis, 1831, p. 525. Gornion, Mexic. Nocktotl, Her- 
nand. Thes. p. 31. c. 81. 

This beautiful bird, reckoned until now very rare, and thought to 
be peculiar to the Rocky Mountains, in districts far removed from 
civilization, is very common in the city of Mexico, where according 
to Mr. Paris it takes the place of our common sparrow, provoking 
the science of the professors in the very yard of the university. 

25. Tyrannula coronata. Sw. T.fusca; capite, crista erectd 
rotundatd et corpore subtus coccineis. 

F(EM. griseo-fusca ; capite lavi concolore et pectore albidis ; ventre 

tanturn siibminiaceo. 
Mmcicapa coronata, Lath. Buff. PI. Enl. 675. f. 1. male. C«r- 

denal, Mexic. 
Its southern range extends to Demerara, where it is very common. 
Contrary to what happens in the other species of the group, the fe- 
male now described for the first time differs considerably from the 
other sex. 

26. Tyranndla divaricata, Nob. T. cristata, cinereo-olivacea ; 
mento orbitisque albiccmtibus ; dorso alisque olivaceo-riifescenti- 
biis; alis aciiminatis ; remigibus\'^° et 5^° subceqtialibus ; 2'^°,3"°, 
et 4*" omnium longissimis ; ccmdd divaricata corpore longiori 
rectricibus quatuor mediis dorso concoloribus ; duabus hinc inde 
nigricantibus, extimis duabus utri?ique dimidiato-cinereis. Ros- 
tra brevissimo nigerrimo. 

Long. 8"; rostr. 8'"; al. 6"; caud. 4"; tars. V". 
Riusito, Mexic. 

We have dwelt at greater length on the characters of this bird, as 
it is likely to become the type of a new group. 

27. Lanius Ludovicianus. Berduquillo, Mexic. 

A specimen with the two middle tail feathers only entirely black, 
in which condition it is most probably the L. excubitorides, Sw. 

When Mr. Swainson says, that he cannot reconcile the measure- 
ments and proportions of the quills of L. Borealis and excubitor, as 
stated by me, he is perfectly right, and no one but myself can ex- 
plain the reason : the fact is, that while comparing I unfortunately 
must have taken up a specimen of L. Italicus, Lath., instead of one 
of the excubitor. Mr. Swainson has taken much pains to point out 
several species of North American shrikes ; but we know only two 
species of that genus in America, his L. Borealis and Ardesiaceus ; 
which latter, by the by, should be called Ludovicianus on our ac- 
count, if not on Brisson's. 

28. PiPRA elegantissima, Nob. P. purpureo-nigra; frontecas- 



113 

taneo-fuscd ; vertice nucha et cervice pulchre cyaneis ; peclore 

abdomineque fulvo-wrugiriosis. 
This most elegant species of square-tail Manakin resembles the 
P. cyanocephala, Vieill., but is at once distinguished by the general 
blackness of its plumage, and especially by its having a black throat. 
It might be taken for an undescribed state of that most variable 
species, the P. serena, L., which however has always been found 
with a white forehead, a blue rump, the blue colour of the head 
much more circumscribed. The rufous belly will at once distinguish 
it from the P. cyaneocapilla of Wagler, Isis, 1830. p.'934., figured by 
Spix under the name of P. coronata, II. 67. f. 1. As to the Pi2)ra 
Musica (Euphonia cceruleocephala, Sw.), it diiFers by its black frontlet 
and orange rump. 

29. PiPRA LINEARIS, Nob. P.copite uUs cuuddque nigris ; vertice 
cristato coccineo; rectricibus duabus intermediis lineari-acumi- 
natis, nigris, cceteris triplo longioribus. 

Mas. Niger ; dorso cceruleo. F(em. Olivacea. 

Two sjiecies have been confounded by authors and by Wagler 
himself under the name of Pipra caudata, which are however well 
distinguished by the shape of the elongated tail feathers. The name 
of P. caudata must be retained, for the species figured by Shaw, t. 
153. Nat. Misc. V. whilst the longicauda of Vieill., of which D'Azara 
speaks under the characteristic name of Queue en pelle is at once 
distinguished by the dilatation in the apex of its elongated tail- 
feathers. We subjoin the characters of both. 

Pipra longicauda, Vieill. P. ccerulea ; capite, collo, alis 
cauddque nigris ; pileo cristato fulvo-coccineo ; rectricibus 
duabus intermediis cceteris dimidio longioribus, ccerulescenti- 
bus, apice dilatatis. 

Jun. subvirescens. 

Pipra melanocephala, Vieill. P. nigra dorso ccertdeo ; 

vertice cristato coccineo; rectricibus duabus intermediis c(B' 

teris sesqui-longioribus, nigris, acuminatis. 
P. lanceolata, Wagl, Isis, 1830, p. t.'31. 

30. CoLUMBA FLAviRosTRis, Wagl. Isls, 1830, p. 519. C. 
rvfo-vinacea ; alis extus et totis subtus, uropygio, caudd, ventre 
abdomineque plumbeis ; rostro pedibusque ridjris ; rectricibus 
saturatioribus ; remigibus albo minutissime externe limbatis. 
Long. 1'. 

31. Leptoptil A RUFAXiLLA, Swains. L. brimneo-vinacea ; nitore 
colli vix conspicuo, fronte guld etpectore dilute vinaceis, abdo- 
mine albo ; rostro nigro ; pedibus rubris ; tecfricibus alarum 
ynijioribus et pennis axillaribus longissimis vivide castaneo-cin- 
namomeis ; caudd parum rotundatd ; rectricibus tribus extimis 
obscurioribus apice albis sine ullo vestigio fascice nigricantis. 

Long. 9" 6'"; caud. 3" C" ; al. 5" 3'"; rostr. 10'"; tars. 1". 
Columba frontalis, Temm. €. ruf axilla, Wagl. 



114 

Closnly resembles C. aurita, Temm., from which it differs in want- 
ing black spots to the wings, in having a less rounded tail without 
the black band, and in the wing coverts being rufous, and not grey. 

32. Ortyx Montezumve, Vigors, Jard. and Selby. 111. Orn. fasc. 
9. t. 1 26. O. cinereo-violacea ; plumis nigrofasciatis, secimdum 
rachim cinnamomeo lineatis ; tectricibus alarum maculis rotun- 
datis nigris : subtus nigra maculis perlatis albis ; abdomine me- 
dio longitudinaliter castaneo. 

In our specimens, perhaps arising from immaturity, the throat is 
whitish, and not black. 

Fcem. Tectricibus alarum nuiculis non rotundatis atfasciformibus; 
subtus Icete vinacea, nigro signata, maculis albis obsoletis. 

Codarniz, Mexic. 

Among the numerous Ortyges lately discovered in Mexico, and 
especially among the crestless species, the Ortyx MontezvmiE, of 
which we now, for the first time, introduce the female to the notice 
of naturalists, is the most handsome. 

33. Egretta Leuce, Nob. Ardea leuce, HI. Ctanza blanca, 
Mexic. 

34. Rallus Chiricote, Vieill. Gallina de Montensoma, Mexic. 

35. Parra Jacana, L. P. purpureo-castanea ; capite, collo cor- 
poreque subtus nigro-violaceis ; remigibus Jlavo-olivaceis riigro 
marginatis ; spina alarum robustd Jiavd. 

Jaqnanar at Vera Cruz. Buff. PI. Enl. 272. 
All the Mexican specimens I have seen are of a much darker tinge 
and of a larger size than the Brazilians. 

II. Having lately, through the kindness of Colonel Velasquez de 
Leon, had an opportunity of examining a collection of birds, formed 
by him during a fortnight's scientific tour in Guatamala, 1 think it 
desirable to give the Society a list of the known species contained in 
it, with concise descriptions of those birds which appear to me to be 
new. I hope they may prove not uninteresting to the naturalist, 
for whom that part of Central America possesses attractions not in- 
ferior to those of any other country. 

1. Herpetotheres CACHiNNANS, Vieill. H. alb'us, nigra coro- 
■natus ; dorso alisque fuscis, remigibus interne rufo fasciatis ; 
rectricibus albo nigroque fasciatis. 

Falco cachinnans. Lath. Macagua ricaneur, D'Azara. 

2. BuTEo. A species which I am unwilling to give a name to, 
owing to the immature state of the only specimen I have seen. 

It is of an ashy brown colour, with the vent feathers whitish, 
banded with rusty. The wings reach a little beyond the middle of 
the tail ; the primaries are rusty red, with black bands except at the 
tip. The tail-feathers ashy, with four wide black bands. 

3. Prionites Momotus. P. viridis, subtus fulvescens ; pileo 



115 

nigro, corona cyaned ; rccfricibtis duubus mccliis ultra rachim 
nudam ccerideis, apice niyricante. 
Momotus, Briss. Ramphastos momota, L. Momotus Brasiliensis, 
Lath. 

4. CuoTOPHAGA SuLciROSTRA, Sw. Or. Cascisu, Less. 
Long. 11" 6'". 

5. CoRvus Cacalotl. Wagl. Isis, 1831, p. 527. Cacalotl. 
Hernandez Thes. p. 48, c. 174. 

This hird is verj^ properly regarded and characterized by Wagler 
as distinct from the European Corvus Corax, although its differen- 
tial characters have escaped the notice of all writers on North Ame- 
riciin ornithology. It therefore diminishes still further the daily 
decreasing list of birds which have been regarded as common to the 
two great continents. 

Besides the different form of the bill, contour of the feathers, and 
shape of the tail, the proportions in the lengths of the primaries differ, 
as is usual in the different species of crows. The first quill is shorter 
than the seventh, the second and sixth are equal ; the third is shorter 
than the fifth, the fourth being the longest ; while in the European 
bird the second quill is longer than the fourth, and the third is the 
longest of all. In the American species, the second is much shorter 
than the fourth, which is even longer than the third and fifth. 

This species must not be confounded with the more brilliant and 
more strongly marked C. splendens of Gould, also from Mexico. 

6. Cyanurus Bullocki, Nob. Pica Bullockii, Wagl. 

The numerous synonyms and descriptions of this magnificent and 
well-known species need not be recited here. 

7. Cyanocorax coronatus, Nob. Garrulus coronatm, Sw. 
Not to be confounded with the closely-allied species, G. Stelleri. 
"We propose retaining Cyanurus, Sw., for the long-tailed Blue 

Magpies, whilst Cyanocorax, Boje, belongs by right to the American 
Blue Jays. 

8. Cassicus. a small white-billed species, of an uniform in- 
tensely black colour, with a remarkably robust tail. This can be 
referred to the C. nigerrimus of Spix, or, perhaps with still more 
propriety to the C. solitarius of Azara. In consequence of the con- 
fusion which still reigns among these black American birds, I am 
unwilling to increase it by giving the present bird a specific name, 
but must content myself with subjoining a description. 

C. in toto nifferritnus; rostro valido acuminato ex virescente albo • 
pliimis capitis elongcdis, latis, rotundatis ; remigibus rectrici- 
busque latissimis, subfasciatis ; caudd gradatd, 

9. CoccYzus Cayanus. C. rufus, pectore abdomine femoribus- 
que plmnbeis ; caudd longissimd vcdde cimeald, rcctricibus late- 
ralibus apice albis. 

Cuculus Cayanus, L. 



116 

10. Trogon. An immature specimen, which, as the young of 
several other species, agrees with the Trogon strigilatus of Linn. 

11. Centurus Santa Cruzi, Nob. C. albo nigroqtie striatus, 
capite et corpore suhtus griseo-olivaceis ; vertice cerviceque ru- 
bris ; fronte et uhdomine aureis ; uropygio albo ; remigibus rec- 
tricibusque nigris. 

Nearly allied to the Picus CaroUnensis ; but distinct, by its bill 
being more arcuated, the tail feathers all black, and the golden 
front and belly ; distinct also from the albifj-ons of Mr. Swainson, 
which, with a golden belly, has tlie front, the sides of the head, and 
half of the throat, white : its rump is also thickly banded. 

A much smaller undescribed species in Mr. Swainson's collection 
(Picus aurifrons) comes still nearer to mine, which, at the request 
of Colonel Velasquez, I have named after a scientific professor in 
Mexico. 

12. Icterus Baltimore. Oriolus Baltimore, L. An adult male 
and a young bird. 

13. Icterus spurius. Oriolus mutatiis, Wilson. Psarocolius 
castaneus, Wagler. An adult male and a young bird. 

14. Icterus. 

A female bird, closely allied to the Baltimore and the spurius, but 
different from either : its colours would bring it much closer to the 
Baltimore, but it wants the black on the throat, whilst aU its under 
parts are much more vivid than the corresponding portions in any 
stage of the spurius. Its rump is olive-yellow, the head and the back 
olive-brown, the white bands on the wings very broad and conspi- 
cuous. 

15. Icterus Bonariexsis. Psarocolius sericeus, Wagl. PI. Enl. 
710. Adult male. 

16. GuiHACA LuDoviciANA, Sw. Loxiu Ludoviciaiia, L. Frin- 
gilla punicea. Lath. A young bird. 

17. Pyranga estiva, Vieill. Tanagra ccstiva. Lath. Male, in 
moult. 

18. Ptranga Ludoviciana, Nob. P. fiava ; facie rubricante, 
dorso alis cauddque nigris ; cdarum fascia duplici-flavd ob 
apicem tectriciim. 

Tanagra Ludoviciana, Wils. Pgranga erythropis, Vieill. 

19. Tanagra chlorotica. 

20. Tanagra episcopus, L. T. cinereo-cccrtdescens, stibtus 
paullo dilutior, remigibus rectricibusque fuscis, margine externa 
ccendeo ; rostro plumbeo-nigro . 

21. Tanagra viCARius, Lesson. T. rostro nigra robusto; capite 
cyanea, capistra nigra ; dorso sordide virescentc ; abdomine Jla- 



117 

vescente ; teclricibus alarum minoribus cyaneis, speculo alari 
fiavo. 
This beautiful species, figured by Lesson in his Centurie Zoolo- 
£^ique, pi. 68, considerably resembles the several blue species of 
Tanayra, often confounded with the T. episcopus, L., on account of 
their similarity to it ; I mean the T. archiepiscopus, Desm. ; T. Sayaca, 
L. (T. glauca, Sparrm) ; T. olivascens, Licht. (erroneously taken for 
the female of the T. Sayaca) ; but the beautiful goldfinch-like yellow 
spot, which it bears at the base of the primaries, as well as the 
blacker and much more robust bill, almost bullfinch-shaped, distin- 
guish it from them all. 

22. EuPHONiA vioLACEA. E. mgro-ckalybea ; fronte pectore ab- 
domineque Jlavissimis ; tectricibus alarum inferioribus, remigi- 
btis intus basi, maculdque media pogonii interni, recti-icisque la- 
teralis albis. 

23. EuPHONiA HiRUNDiNACEA, Nob. E. olivaceo-fiava, fronte et 
subtus Jlavd, vertice genisque nigro-chalybeis, remigibus rectrici- 
busque nigricantibus, margine externa olivaceis ; rostro nigra 
valde uncinato, subhirimdineo. 

24. Arremon giganteus. Nob. A. Icete olivaceus ; rostro robus- 
tissimo nigerrimo, capite nigro ; giild media alba (imde nigro- 
cincta) ; pectoi'e abdomineque plumbeo, crisso fiavo, ceruginoso ; 
remigibus nigris, caudd olivaced, valde rotuiidatd. 

As the chief difference between this bird and the Silens consists 
in its greater dimensions, I subjoin them : 

Long. tot. 9" 6'"; rostr. 1" ; al. 4" 6'" ; caud. 4" 6'" ; tars. 1". 

2.5. Icteria Velasquezi. I. viridis ; pectore fiavo-aiirantiaco ; 
rostro nigricante, mandibuld albicante. 

An important addition to the genus Icteria, which hitherto com- 
prehended only one species, the Pipra polyglotta of Wilson, Icteria 
viridis, Vieill., from which it differs in the more intense, almost 
orange-colour of the breast, and by the whiteness of the under man- 
dible of the bill, which is entirely black in the viridis. J. viiidis 
may stand characterised as follows : 

r. viridis, pectore fiavo ; rostro ex toto nigro, 

26. Thamnophilus doliatus. T. albo nigroquefasciatus, vertice 
candido, nigro cincto. 

27. Thamnophilus rutilus, Vieill. T.rufo-cinnatnomeiis, subtus 
flavo-cinnamomeus, rostro robusto, genis albo nigroque variis ; 
remigibus medio fuscis ; rectricibus rufis, unicoloribus. 

28. Tonus cinereus, Briss. (PI. Enl.) T. cinereo-olivaceus, 
subtus fiavissimiis, pileo nigricante ; alis ?iigricaMibus, tec- 
tricibus lemigibiisque exferne fiavo limhatis, caudd gradatd ni- 
gra, rectricibus lateralibus apice albis ; rostro nigro, subtus al- 
bido. 



lis 

29. Setophaga ruticilla, Sw. 
A female. 

30. Setophaga rubra, Sw. S. rubra, alts cauddqtie fuscis : 
gents albo-sericeis. 

Sylvia mmiata, Lafresn., Mag. de Zool., 1836. CI. II. tab. 54. 

31. Sylvicola decurtata. Nob. S. Icete viridis, subtus, cum 
tectiicibus alarum, albo-virescens ; capite collogue supra plum- 
bets, subtus albis ; alls mcijusculis, remigibus subfuscis, supra 
extertie viridi margmatis, subtus interne albo limbatis. Primo 
dimidium, secundo cequulis duodeclmi, 3, 4, 5, 6""i"^ omnium 
longissimis. Cauda parvd angustd cequali, rectricibus vii-es- 
centibus. 

Long. 4"; rostr. 7'"; al. 2" ; caud. 1" 3'"; tars. 7'". 

This very singular small bird, partaking partly of the cha- 
racters of Vireo and Si/lvia, is very remarkable from the abbreviated 
form of its body ; its wings and tail are also very singular, and al- 
most entitle it to rank as a distinct genus. 

32. TuRDus Grayi, Nob. T. olivaceo-fuscus, subtus flavo-cin- 
namomeus, gidd tantum vix fuscescenti striatd : tectricibus ala- 
rum inferioribus remigumque margine interno aurantio-cinna- 
momeis, remigum primo sextam cequante, 4*° et 5'° omnium lon- 
gissimis, tertiam et sextam vix superantibus ; caudd aquali, duo 
pollices ultra alas pra:tensd ; rectricibus submucronatis. 

Long. tot. 8" ; rostr. 1"; al. 4" 3'"; caud. 3" 3'"; tars. 1" ]'". 
A typical species : which I have much pleasure in dedicating to 
Mr. G. R. Gray, a young ornithologist. 

33. Tyrannus superciliosus. Swains. T.fusco-olivaceus, sub- 
tus cum tectricibus alarum Jlavissimis ; caudd emarginatd; ver- 
tice basi rtd)ro ; superciliis amplis guldque candidis. 

Long. tot. 6" 6'" ; caud. 3" ; al. 3" 5'" , rostr. 9'" ; tars. 8'". 

34. Synallaxis cinerascens, Temm., PL Col. 227, f. 3. S. 
fusco-badia, capite toto saturatiore, pectore alis cauddque Icete 
castaneis, ventre cinerascente ; remigum apicibus jiavescentibus ; 
rostro nigro. 

35. Mniotilta varia, Vieill. Sylvia varia, Lath. Oxt/glossus 
maculatus. Sw. 

36. Ccereba cyanea, Vieill. Certhia cyanea, L. 

ScoLOPACiNus, Nov. Gen. 

Rostrum longissimum, basi trigonum, gracile, rectissimum ; man- 
dibidis aequahbus, superiore apice extimo subcurvato, subhian- 
tibus : nares fossa majuscula, membranula fere omnino clausse. 

Pedes elongati ; tarso digito medio sesquilongiore : digiti omnes a 



119 

basi fissi, valde ina?quales, postico validiore, ungue robusto valde 
arcuato. 
Ala; maxime rotundatse ; remigibus l""", 2'*". 3"° sensim longiori- 
bus ; 4'" cseteris sed vix longiore, omnibus latis. 
Cauda breviuscula, valde gradata. 

37. ScoLOPACiNus RUFivENTRis, Nob. Sc. brunneo-oUvaceus ; 
gents et subtiis aurantio-cinnamomeis ; guld albd inferne striis 
nigris ; remigibus fuscis ; caudd nigra, rectrice extimd maculd 
transversali, 2"^*^ maculd internd apicali, tertid apice tantum, 
albis. Rostrum fuscum subtus basi album. 

Longit. 4" 6'"; al. 2"; caud. I" &" ; tars. 10'". 

This bird is closely related to the Troglodytes rectirostris of Swain- 
son's Zool. 111., t. 140, which, though its bill be shorter than in this 
our typical species, belongs to the same genus ; which the learned 
author could not but anticipate when he placed it with the Wrens. 
A specimen of it in the British Museum wants the white markings 
on the tail, and has the bill shorter than in our rufiventer. 

Since writing the above, I find that Mr. Sundeval has formed the 
latter species into a genus, which he named Acontistes. 

38. Caprimulgus vociferus, Wils. Common in the United 
States. 

39. Penelope vetula, Wagl. P. brunneo-olivacea ; capile col- 
logue ardesiaceis ; epigastro et ventre albis, crisso vix rufescente ; 
rectricibus aneo-viridibus, lateralibus apice late albis ; remigibus 
integris ; tarso digito medio breviore ; meatu nudo, vittd inter- 
medid subpiloso-plumosd. 

It differs too little from the P. vetula, Wagler, Isis, 1830. p. 1111. 
sp. 14, for me to venture to make a distinct species. 

III. I subjoin the description of some new or rare species (placed 
in my hands by Mr. Leadbeater, during my stay in London), from 
that portion of Brazil bordei'ing on Peru ; and interesting, as further 
elucidating the Ornithology of that little-known country. I under- 
stand that they will hereafter form a portion of that valuable collec- 
tion which belongs to the Earl of Derby. 

1. Crypticus Martii, Nob. C virens, capite, collo, pectoreqtie 
rufo-fulvis : fascia, oculari, maculisque jugidarihus nigris. 

Momotus platyrhynchus, Leadb. Prionites Martii, Spix. 

A specimen with the middle tail-feathers entire. 

To this new genus of Mr. Swainson will also belong the Momotus 
superciliosus of Mr. Sandbach, lately described at a meeting of the 
British Association at Liverpool, 

2. Capito macrodactylus, Nob. C.fusco-brwnneus,pilcocas- 
tuneo, cervice cinnamomed ; guld juguloqtte albidis, colluri hi- 
tissimo nigra; abdomine nebuloso. 

Ci/phos macrodactylus, Spix, pi. 39, fig. 2. 



120 

3. MiCROPOGON AUROViRENS, Nob. M. oUvaccus, pileo ruher- 
rimo, guld pectoreque aurantiacis. 

Bucco aurovirens, Cuv. Le Vaill. Suppl. pi. E. 

From Sarayacu. " The eyes were red, the legs grey." 

4. MiCROPOGON FLAvicoLLE, Nob. M. nigcr luteo maculatus, 
pileo htteo-virescenti : guld aurantiacd : abdomine Jlavo, 

Mas. Jugulo immaculato. Foem. Jugulo maculis nigris. 
Resembles Capita aurifrons, Vig. from Chili ; but is sufficiently 
distinct. 

5. Galbula tombacea, Spix, pi. 58. G. aureo-viridis, abdomine 
rufo : jugulo immaculato. 

A tail-less specimen belonging certainly to that species, distinct 
from the numerous ones just described by Mr. Swainson ; differing 
from all by the uniform green colour of the chin, throat, and breast. 

6. Dendrocops platyrostris, Nob. D. rufescens, nigra undu- 
latus, uropygio, remigibus, rectricibusquepuris. 

Dendrocolaptes platyrostris, Spix, pi. 89. 

A large and very remarkable species, in which the characters of 
the genus, as beautifully described and drawn by Mr. Swainson, are 
strongly developed. 

7. AsTHENURUS RUFivENTRis, Nob. A.fuscus, subtus cum getiis 
rufis : pileo nigra, rubra maculato. 

8. Melanerpes meropirostris, Nob. M. niger,fronte rubra : 
vittd superciliari alba, postice aured : uropygio Candida: abdo- 
mine medio coccineo ; lateribus, crissa, remigibusque alba nigro- 
quefasciatis. 

Picus meropirostris, Wagl. 

The bill is rather more curved than in other species of the group, 
and has the culminar and nasal ridges remarkably distinct. 

9. Xanthornus mentalis, Wagl. A young specimen. 

10. Sturnella militaris, Vieill. 

11. A female of a species of Dolichonix, with a belly tinged with 
red, and less acute tail-feathers than in the type, intermediate be- 
tween the only two species of the group hitherto known : perhaps 
the female of the Agelaius phcenisomus, Swains. 

12. GuiRACA MAGNiROSTRis, Nob. G. griseo-flavido nigra 
maculata; subtus cum superciliis Jlavis : crisso albo: remigibus 
rectricibusque fuscis: tectricibus alarum majoribus scapulari- 
busque apice albo notatis. 

A female bird of an unknown species, allied to the G. melanoce- 
phalct, Sw. ; but differing by the bill being much longer and thicker. 

13. Spiza versicolor, Nob. 'S'. violaceo-cyanea jnirpureoque 
varia : uropygio cyaneo : capistra nigra : alts cauddque fuscis. 

Found near Temascallepec : " has a sweet song ; feeds on seeds ; 



121 

eyes brown." With the amoma, the ciris, and the cyanea, it belongs 
to my genus Spiza, as I have lately restricted it ; that is, to my Ta- 
nager-like Spizee. 

14. Ramphocelus nigrogularis, Spix. R. coccineus, facie, 
dorso, ventre, alls cauddque nigris. 

Ramphocelus ignescens, Less., Cent. Zool., pi. 24. 

This synonym is interesting as settling the point of the identity 
of the Mexican and Brazilian birds, which 1 left undecided in my 
small monograph on this genus. Sir W. Jardine's Ramphopis 
jiammigerus (111. of Zool., tab. 131.) is the same as my R. Passerinii. 
M. d'Orbigny figures a fifth species of the genus, in his recent voy- 
age, under the name of 

Ramphocelus atro-sericeus, D'Orb. Voy. Am.M. Ois. pi. 24, 
fig. 1. R. niger capita guldque atro-coccineis. 

Ramphocelus iCTERONOTus, Nob., R. niger, dorso postico uropy- 
gioque flavissimis. 

This description is added, from a specimen contained in the Paris 
Museum. 

15. Tanagra cyanocephala, D'Orb., pi. 23. fig. 2. T. viridi- 
Jkiva, pileo cerviceqiie azureis ; subtus canescens ; alarum fec- 

tricibus inferioribiis, remigibus interne, crisso femoribusqiie fla- 
vissimis. 
The bill is rather more compressed than in many other typical 
species of Tanagers. This beautiful bird resembles several other blue- 
headed species of the genus, but is most easily distinguished by our 
diagnosis. 

16. Tanagra striata, Gm. T. nigra, capita, collo, alarumque 
tectricibus ccerideis ; pectore uropygioqiie aurantiacis; abdomine 
flavo : femoribus cinereis. 

This species closely resembles a Chilian bird in the British Mu- 
seum, brought to this country by the expedition under Capt. Fitz- 
roy ; the latter, however, may be distinguished by its longer bill, 
by being yellow instead of orange on the breast and rump, and by 
being brownish olive on the back. It may be distinguished as the 
Tanagra Darwinii, Nob. T. olivacea, capite, collo, alarumque 
tectricibus ceeruleis : subtus ex toio cum uropygio flavis : femori- 
bus cinereis. 

17. Tanagra CELE3TIS, Spix, pi. 55, fig. 1. T. cceruleo-grisea : 
tectricibus cdarum minoribus apiceque majorum albis. 

It is not unworthy of note, that whilst so many different species, 
closely related to the Tanagra Episcoptis of Linnreus, should be di- 
stinguished by the pecuhar hue of the shoulder spot, varying from 
pink to yellow in some species, to different shades of blue in others, 
in this it should be pure white : the tips of the greater wing-coverts, 
being also white, give to the wing a quite peculiar appearance. 

18. Aglaia nigro-cincta. Nob. A. viridi-cyanea, dorso, pec- 
tore remigibus cauddque nigris, abdomine albo. 



122 

It differs from Ayl. Brasiliensis by its smaller size and more deli- 
cate bill ; the greenish tinge of the blue is much more extended, as it 
invades the whole of the head and tail-coverts as well as the inte- 
rior of the wing. 

19. Aglaia ScHRANKii, Nob. A.viridisnigromaculata,uropy- 
gio et medio corpore subtus luteo-aureis : f route genisque nigris : 
remigibus rectricibusque fuscis externe cyaneo marginatis. 

Tanagra Schrankii, Spix, tab. 51, fig. 1 and 2. D'Orbign., pi. 
24, fig. 1. 

Closely resembling Agl. punctata, Edw., pi. 262, but differs in 
having the rump, and the middle of the body underneath golden 
yellow, and without spots. 

20. PiPRA STRioLATA, Nob. P. oUvacea, subtus rufa, albo stri- 
ata: pileo cristato coccineo. 

Exceedingly like the Pipra strigilata of the Prince Max. of Wied, 
from Brazil, but sufficiently distinguished by the under parts being 
rufescent striped with white, instead of white striped with rufous. 
Wagler describes, however, my species. 

Mr. Blyth exhibited some portion of the skeleton of the Great 
Auk, Alca impennis, and proceeded to offer some observations on the 
distinctions subsisting between the Auks and the Penguins. He 
remarked that these two genera differ in the type of their skeleton 
as well as in the progressive changes and structure of their plumage, 
for which reason he had long wished to obtain a sight of the skele- 
ton of the Alca impennis, with a view to ascertain to what extent the 
similarity of its mode of life to that of the Penguins would, in this 
species, modify the Auk type of structure. Through the kindness 
of his friend Mr. Bartlett, he had succeeded in obtaining the wing 
and leg bones of this remarkable bird, which had been left in a pre- 
served skin, and which proved to resemble those of the Penguin 
genus in weightiness, if not in structure, the humerus possessing a 
very small internal cavity, while the tibia was completely filled with 
marrow. These bones were exhibited, together with the analogous 
bones of Alca tarda, which latter were even proportionally consider- 
ably smaller, as well as lighter, and quite hollow. Mr. Blyth re- 
marked that the gradual absorption of the marrow in the bones of 
other birds was about coincident with the developement of the volar 
organs ; and stated the highly curious fact, on the authority of Mr. 
Gould, that the marrow was permanent in the leg bones of the genus 
Cinclus. He then made various observations on the structure of the 
northern or true Alcadcs, more particularly with relation to the de- 
velopement of the air-cavities in the species which could sustain 
themselves on wing, observing, that in these the wings were reduced 
to the minimum extent adequate for aerial support, in order that 
they might be more effectual under water ; and that when once tlie 
object of aerial flight was abandoned, as in the instances of the great 
Auk and Penguins, these organs were accordingly reduced to exactly 



123 

that size, which was most efficient of all for subaquatic progression; 
species of an intermediate character of course never occurring. It 
was obvious that a high standard of respiration is necessary to enable 
the Puffin and its allies to maintain aerial flight with their short and 
narrow wings : and the great development of the lateral air-cavi- 
ties in these birds, incidentally remarked by Mr. Ord (in his conti- 
nuation of Wilson's Ornithology) in the particular instance of the 
Rotche, he believed bore reference to that especial object. Mr. Blyth 
also called attention to the resemblance of the Puffin's mode of flight 
to that of a Beetle, and stated that its actions when under water so 
much resembled those of the Dt/ticidce, that whoever had seen the 
one could form a quite accurate notion of the other ; the bird ad- 
vancing solely by means of the wings, and the insect making use of 
only its middle pair of legs to oar itself along ; a further striking 
resemblance was pointed out in this exterior conformation, being a 
beautiful instance of analogy or adaptation of two extremely dissi- 
milar types to the same mode of life. 

Mr. Gray communicated to the Meeting the following arrangement 
of the Sorices, accompanying his observations upon this group by 
the exhibition of the shrews in the Society's collection. 

Mr. Gray remarked that Wagler, in the Isis for ] 832, divided the 
European shrews into three genera, according to their habits and 
the structure of their teeth; and Duvernoy in 1834 or 1835, over- 
looking the natural characters pointed out for the groups by Wagler, 
divided them into artificial genera according to the size and form of 
the cutting teeth. On examining the species in the British Museum, 
Mr. Gray found it necessary to further divide them in the following 
manner ; the various groups forming a series returning into itself. 

A. Land Shrews. Tail simple, feet not ciliated on the sides. 

1. Corsira. — Front lower cutting teeth sharp-edged, and toothed 
above : tail with short close-pressed hairs. 

2. Myosorex. — Front lower cutting teeth sharp-edged, entire above : 
tail with short close-pressed hairs. 

3. Sorex. — Front lower cutting teeth rounded, and simple above : 
tail with short hairs and longer scattered bristles. 

B. Water Shrews. Tail loith a series of bristles beneath : feel 

and toes ciliated on the sides. 

4. Amphisorex Front lower cutting teeth simple : 4 hinder cut- 
ting teeth gradually smaller, hinder very small. 

5. Crossopus. — Front lower cutting teeth sharp-edged, and toothed 
above : hinder cutting teeth rapidly smaller. 

1. Corsira, Gray. /S'orea;, Wagler? /T^/rfrosorea; part, Duvernoy*, 
Head elongate, muzzle slender, produced ; ears hid in the fur. 
Tail elongate, slender, when young round, becoming quadrangular, 
covered with short, rigid, close -pressed hairs, (not ciliated,) ; feet 
simple, not ciliated ; front wrist bearded beneath. Skull elongate. 
Teeth coloured ; cutting teeth ^, large, two upper central, strong, 

• Since these observations were made, M. Duvernoy has transferred his 
name of Ilydrosorex to the group which he had formerly named Amphisorex, 
and vice versd. The references in the text are to his earlier arrangement. 



124 

nearly equally bifid, hinder ones rapidly decreasing in size : two cen- 
tral lower elongate, above shai-p-edged, and toothed ; grinders |, 
moderate. 

Like Crossopus, but the tail and feet not ciliated, and the noSe 
more produced. 

* Tail moderate. Upper cutting teeth rather large, grinders mo- 
derate. 

1 . Corsira vulgaris. ( Common Shrew, Shaw.) 
Sorex vulgaris, Linn. Mus. Ad. 10. 

Sorex araneus, Linn. F. Suec. — Jenyns's Man. Brit. Anim. 17. 
Mag. Zool. and Bot. ii. 27. t. 1 . f. 2. 

Sorex tetragonurus, Hermann, Obs. Zool. 48. Geoff. Ann. Mus.xvii. 
t. 2. f. 3. Sorex (Hydrosorex) tetragonurus, Duvernoy, Mem. Nat. 
Hist. Strasb. ii. t. 

S. cunicularia, and S. eremica, Bechst. 

Foetid Shrew, Penn. 

Inhab. N. Europe, Sweden, England. Brit. Mus. 

2. Corsira Forsteri. (^American Shrew.^ 

Sorex Forsteri, Richardson, Fauna A. B. — Gapper, Zool. Jour. 
V. t. 7. 

Inhab. N. America. Mus. Dr. Richardson, and Roy. Inst. Bristol. 

This is probably the genus Sorex as restricted by Wagler, to 
which he refers Sorex pygmams, Pallas, and three of his species, S. 
rhinolophus, S. concinnus and ^S". megalodon, which are probably 
only varieties of vulgaris : here also perhaps should be added S. con- 
strictus, Geoffrey, which agrees with them in the ears being hid, and 
in the face being lengthened. See Ann. Mus. xvii. t. 3. and 4.; see 
also S. longirostris, S. Cooperi, S. Richardsonii, Bachman. 
*** Tail short ; fore feet strong. Blarina. 

3. Corsira (^JBlarina) talpoides. 

Sorex talpoides. Gapper, Zool. Jour. v. t. 8. 

Inhab. N. America. Mus. R. Inst. Bristol. 

To this section probably should be referred Sorex brevicaudatus 
and S. parvus, Say, S. Dekayi, S. personatus, Geoffroy, ^S*. Caroli- 
nensis, and S. cinereus, Bachman. 

2. Myosorex, Gray. Head elongate, ears hid under the soft 
fur ; tail elongate, slender, covered with short, rigid, close-pressed 
hairs, when old quadrangular ; feet and toes not ciliated : teeth white ; 
cutting teeth f , two upper central unequally bifid, the second lateral 
moderate, the third very small, rudimentary, the fourth small but 
larger than the third. Front lower cutting teeth elongate, with an 
entire sharp upper edge ; second and third lateral teeth small, simple, 
crowded on the base of the front ones. 

Myosorex varius. 

Sorex varius, Smuts, p. 108. Sorex cinnamomeus. Licht. 
Saugth. t. ?. 

Inhab. Cape of Good Hope. Mus. Zool. Soc. 

Like Sorex pilorides in appearance, but at once known by the 
shape of the tail and lower cutting teeth. Teeth shining white. 

3. Sorex. Head elongate ; ears exposed ; fur soft, perpendi- 
cular : tail elongate, tapering, with whorled scales, covered with 



125 

short hairs and scattered longer bristles. Feet not ciliated ; toes 5 — 5, 
free. Cutting teeth I (or ^ ?), white, the front upper unequally bifid, 
the 3 (or 4?) others becoming rapidly smaller to the last ; front lower 
cutting teeth produced, upper edge rounded and entire. 

a. Larger, tail thick, tapering, sides with a white glandular spot. 
Sorex pilorides, Sha;v. 

Sorex gigantea, Geoff. 

Inhab. India. 

To this division should be referred Sorex myosurus, Geoff. Ann. 
Mus. xvii. t. 3. f. 2. 3. S. crassicaudatus, S. capensis, Geoff., S. 
Jlavescens, (C. G. H. Mus. Zool. Soc.) S. capensoides, (C. G. H. 
Mus. Zool. Soc.) S. pukhelhis, and *S'. pumilus if they are all di- 
stinct from one another. Gmelin in the description of the latter, 
probably misled by the plate, considers the scattered longer hairs as 
forming a subdistichous tail. 

b. Smaller ; tail very slender. Crocidura, Wagler. Sorex, Duver- 
noy. Sunkus, Ehrenb. 

1. Sorex araneus, Schreb. t. 160. {French Shrew.) Pale grey 
brown, paler beneath. 

Sorex araneus, Schreh. t. 160. Geoff. — Duvernoy, Mem. N. H. 
Strasb. li. t. cop. Jenyns, Mag. Zool. and Bot. ii. t. 1. f. 1. 
Inhab. Europe, France. Brit. Mus. 
Cutting teeth |, small. 

2. Sorex leucodon, Herm. ( White toothed Shrew, Penn.) Black 
brown, whitish beneath. 

Inhab. Europe, France. Brit. Mus. 

See also Sorex etruscus, Sav. Crocidura major, C.rufa, C.moschata, 
and C. poliogaster, of Wagler, which are probably only varieties of 
S. araneus. 

4. AiMPHisoREx, Duvernoy. Head elongate, ears entirely hid. 
Tail elongate, slender, covered with short close-pressed hairs, when 
young round, becoming subquadrangular ; under side and edge of 
the feet ciliated with a series of mobile bristles. Skull elongate, 
muzzle narrow ; cutting teeth ^^* ; two centre upper unequally bifid, 
the three next on each side gradually smaller, the hinder very 
small, two lower central simple. Grinders f , rather large. 

This agrees with Crossopus in the structure of the tail and feet, 
and in its aquatic habit:?, but differs in the form of the teeth. 

1. Amphisorex Pennantii. {Pennant's Water-shreiv.) 

Sorex fodiens. Flem. — Jenyns 's Brit. Anim Mag. of Zool. and 

Bot. ii. t. 1. f. 4. 

Water Shrew. Penn.— Don. — Bell, Brit. Mam. 
Inhab. Europe, England. Brit. Mus. 

2. Amphisorex ciliatus, {Black water shrew.) 
Sorex ciliatus. Sow. Brit. Misc. (1806) 

Sorex remifer, Geoff. Ann. Mus. (1«11) xvii. t. 1. f.l. 
Inhab. Europe, England and France. Mus. Brit. 
Duvernoy describes another species under the name of Amph, Her- 
mannii. 

3. Amphisorex palustris. 

Sorex palustris, Richardson, Faun. Amer. Bor. 
Inhab. N. America. Mus. Richardson. 



126 

5. Crossopus (part) Wagler, 1832. Hydrosorex (part) Du- 
vernoy, 1835. Pinalia, Gray, MSS. 

Head elongate. Ears hid in the fur, valvular. Tail elongate, 
squarish, with short close pressed, rigid hairs, grooved, and with a 
row of long bristles beneath the tip. Hind feet ciliated with mo- 
bile bristles. Cutting teeth g, the two upper central strong, equally 
nicked ; hinder upper rapidly decreasing in size : the two central 
lower cutting teeth flattened, sharp edged, and toothed above. 

Crossopus Dauhentonii, ( White-bellied water shrew). 

Sorex fodiens, Pallas ? Duvernoy. S. carinatus, Herm. Geoff. 
A. M. — S. canaliculatus, Lyuge. «S'. Daubentonii, Erxl. 

Europe, France. Brit. Mus. 

Brehm has described what he considers three German species 
allied to ^S". fodiens under the name of S. amphibius, S. natans, 
and S. stagnalis; Wagler, two others which he calls C. mnsculus 
and C. psilurus. Duvernoy refers to Hydrosorex, Sorex tetrago- 
nurus, Hermann and Geoff. Ann. Mus. xvii. t. 2. f. 3, which being 
a land shrew, I have referred to the genus Corsira ; see also Sorex 
fimbripes, Bachman. 

A small collection of birds from Erzeroum in Persia, recently 
presented to the Society by Keith E. Abbott, Esq., Corr. Mem., was 
brought before the notice of the meeting, accompanied with the 
following observations by Mr. Gould : — 

" Of the nine specimens composing this collection, I find eight 
are distinct species, two of which are known to inhabit Britain, and 
six, including these two, belong to the Fauna of Europe ; the re- 
maining two I have no hesitation in considering as undescribed 
species, though referable to European types, being closely allied to 
the Fringilki nivalis and Alauda alpestris of authors. The great 
length of wing, square tail, and other prominent characters pre- 
sented by Fringilla nivalis would seem to indicate the propriety of 
separating it from the rest of the Fringillidce, in which case the 
present species will probably be placed along with it in a distinct 
genus, which it appears to me would exhibit the same relation to 
Fringilla, as Plectrophanes does to Emberiza. 

" The Lark is a second example of that singular form distin- 
guished by lengthened tufts on each side of the head resembling 
horns, and for which Al. penicillata will, perhaps, serve as an ap- 
propriate specific designation. 

" The remaining species are Lanius minor, Phcenicura ruficilla, 
Alauda calandra, AL rupestris, Pyrgita petronia, Linaria canna- 
bina. 

" I would observe that the collection though small is a most in- 
teresting one, since it adds to ornithology two new examples of 
forms, previously known to us by only solitary species; and I would 
remark that collections from this part of the world are almost sure to 
• be productive of highly interesting results." 

The two new species noticed by Mr. Gould in the above collec- 
tion were characterised as 

Alauda Penicillata. Al.fronte, mento, auricularibus, abdo- 
mine, pectore alisque sitbtiis alhis ; fascia super frontem, peni- 



127 

cillis capitis lateralibus et lined super nares late per genas ex- 
currente, collogue anteriori nigris ; summo capite et nuchd 
vinaceo-cinereis ; corpore supra cinereo ; remigihus alarum 
cinereo-fuscis, reniige primo externe albo ; rectricibus caudoR 
duabus intermediis fuscis, ad marginem pallidioribus ; reliquis 
nigrescentibus externa utrinque albo marginatd ; rostro pedibus- 
que nigris. 

Long. tot. unc. 8 ; alee, 4^-; caud., 3 ; rost., f; tars., 1. 

Hab. Erzeroum. 

Fkingilla sanguinea, Fring.brunnea, summo capite nigro ; 
remigum pogoniis externis sanguineo lavatis ; primariis nigris ; 
secondariis nigris, ad apices albis ; tectricibus caudcB et regione 
circum-oculari sanguineo lavatis; rectricibus caudce duabus in- 
termediis nigris, reliquis plus minusve albo notatis, externa utrin- 
que fere alba; rostro jlavo ; pedibus fuscis. 
Long. tot. 6 unc. | ; alee, 4 ; caud., 2^ ; rest., f ; tars., |. 
Hab. Erzeroum. 

Mr. Gould afterwards described a new Ibis from Hayti, presented 
by John Hearne, Esq., Corr. Mem., as 

Ibis erythrorhyncha. lb. dorso, alls cauddque metalltce vi- 
ridibus ; capite colloque superiore nigrescenti-cinereis, albo 
sparsis ; corpore subliis nigrescenti-cinereo ; rostro pedibusque 
rubris ; rostro ad basin nigro. 
Hab. Hayti. 

Mr. Yarrell exhibited a quill from the wing of a Harpy Eagle, 
which had died while in the Menagerie of the Earl of Derby, and 
which was found upon examination to be infested with a great 
number of a species of Pediculus. It appeared that these minute 
creatures had chosen for their place of retreat the hollow of the 
large quill- feathers ; and the specimens forwarded to Mr. Yarrell by 
the President were filled with their exuvice ; two circular apertures 
situated near the base of the quill afforded the animals access to its 
interior. 

A specimen of the White-bait presented to the Society by Mr, 
Williams, was exhibited by Mr. Yarrell in order to show the large 
size sometimes attained by this species ; its dimensions were as follow : 

Entire length 6 inches. 

Depth, measured about midway between the dorsal fin and the 
extremity of the head, 1 inch 2 lines. 

A collection of insects were upon the table which had been col- 
lected at Manilla by Mr. Cuming, at whose request Mr. West- 
wood had furnished the following descriptions of some of the more 
interesting species for insertion in the Society's Proceedings. 

CoLLYRis (CoLLiuRis Latr.) FEMORATA (albitarsis Erichs. ?) 
affiiiis C. Robynsii et luguhris, V.L. C. capite titer aceque vio- 
laceis, labro 7-dentato, a?iten7iis capite longioribus, fere fltfor- 
mibus, articulis 3 et4 annulo apicali, 5^° in medio, et bast 6*" et 7""* 
fulvis, palporum labialium articulo basali albo ; thorace strigis 
nonmdlis transversis in parte untied cum punctis paucis posticis ; 



128 

elytris ceneo-cyaneis, valde punctatis, puiictis disiinctis, versus 
apicem punctis multo minoribus, apice ipso Iruncato emarginato ; 
pedibus cyaneis, femoribus ferrugineis, tar sis piceo-nigris, {duo- 
bus posticis albidis in mare exceptis.) 
Long. Corp. (J- ''"• 6 ; ? lin. 7. 

06s. The possession of both sexes of this insect agreeing pre- 
cisely together, except in size and the colour of the posterior tarsi, 
induces me to give it as a distinct species, since on comparison, its 
characters will not agree precisely with those of the species previ- 
ously described by Dejean, MacLeay, Van der Linden, &c. 

Therates coracina. Erichs. Act. Acad. Caes. Nat. Cur. 16. 
Suppl. T. nigra nilidissima, elytris nilore sub j)urpureo niten- 
tibus, his tuberculo basali alteroque minori ante medium ; labro, 
antennarum articulo basali, abdomine, pedibusque luteis, tarso- 
rum articulo 1™° et 2^° ad apicem, cceteris J'uscis, mandibulis 
Inteis, dentibus nigris. 
Long. corp. lin. 9^. 

MoRio ORiENTALis. Dejcan Species Gen. i. p. 433. 

Clivina castanea. ('. capite thoraceque castanets, elytris pedi- 
busque pallidiorihus. CI. Fossori dimidio major, capite minori 
convexo lateribus valde impresso, fronte puncto minuto nee stria 
Ion gitudinali impressa, thorace subquadrato (postice parum la- 
tiorij ad angulos posticos impresso, elytris elongatis parallelis 
sub-punctato-striatis punctisque tribus majoribus in striam 
tertiam, femoribus anticis crassis, hand dentatis, tibiis anticis 
exlus dentibus tribus elongatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. S4-. 

NiGiDius LiEVicoLLis. N. tiiger nitidus, capite supra depresso 

punctata, thoracis dorso l(Evi, lateribus punctatis margineque 

antico simplici tuberculo minutissimo vix apparenti, elytris inter 

strias elevatas triplici punctorum impressorum ordine instruclis, 

tibiis anticis 6 dentatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 9. 

Prionoceru* CjERULEIPENnis. Perty, Obs. Coleopt. Ind. Orient, 
p. 33. 

RiiYNCHiTES mamillensis. R. oblongus, cyaneus, nitidus, rostra 
longiori nigra, punctata, lineis duabus supra ad basin impressis, 
thorace conico, punctis minulissimis, longiludinaliier haud cana- 
liculato, imjyressione transversa cum margine postico parallela, 
elytris magis axruleis basi-virescentibuspunctalo-striatis, carport 
sublus et femoribus cyaneis, tibiis tarsis et antennis nigris. 

Long. corp. {cum rostra) lin. 3. 

Lamia pulchellator. Affinis L. Rubo et Sshestedii. L. luteo- 
fusca, sericea, thorace utrinque sjnna armato jmnctisque duobus 
nigris ante medium disci, elytris basi scabris, singulo maculis 4"^ 
irregidaribus lacteis, scil. 1'"" majori obliqua marginali, ante 
medium locata, 2"^* media, ovata prope suturam, 3*'° obliqua 
marginali, 4'* versus apicem sutur<x, maculisque nonnullis mi- 
noribus versus apicem elytrorum, in speciminibus variis vari- 



129 

antibtts, et irregularibns, ejusdem colons ; antennis concolortbus, 
apicibus articulorum ohscuiioribus. 
Long. Corp. lin. 11 — 16. 

EURYCEPHALUS NIGRIPES. Dej. Catal. 

Ceramhjx nigripes. Oliv. G. 67. Sp. 68. t. 20. f. 149. ?. 

maxillosus. Oliv. G. 67. Sp. 69. t. 20. f. 147. (J. 

Obs. Species valde variam, maribus, giganteis. In individuis 
Manillce macula thoracis discoidalis mullum magmtudine variat. 
In maribus macula communis nigra versus apicem elytrorum 
rotundaia, nee ad apicem nee ad marginem elytrorum extensa. 
Infceminis vero apicem totum elytrorum occupat. 

Genus Colaspis, Scelodonta Subgenus novum. 
Corpus breve, rugosum. 

Caput oculis prominentibus fere thoracis latitudine. 
Labrum parvum quadratum antice marginatum. 
Mandibulce parvae acutse subuis dente parvo ante apicem armatae. 
Maxillce lobo interno truncate, externo distincto, tenui, longo 

acuto. 
Palpi maxillares et labiales apice acutae. 
Antennce longitudine thoracis .-(rticulo 2*^° 3*'° breviori, articulis 5 

uhimis majoribus. 
Thorax fere rotundatus, postice parum latior. Sterna simplicia 

lata. 
Elytra brevia obtusa, thorace dimidio latiora. 
Femora omnia subtus dente armata. Tibice 4 posticae ad apicem 

externe emarginatae. 

Scelodonta Curculionoides. aS*. aureo-viridis cyaneo varia, 
capite viridi ruguloso-punctato vertice lineis tribus impressis 
antice conjunctis, lateralibus obliquis, antennis nigris, articulis 
basalibus viridibus ; thorace aureo-viridi, utrinque macula ob- 
longa extus lobata, cyanea ; transverse anguloso ; elytris rugu- 
losis, punctis majoribus in lineas longitudinal es irregulariter 
dispositis, aureo -viridibus fasciis tribus irregularibus suturaque 
cyaneis. 

Long. Corp. lin. S. 

FoRiicutA TARSATA. F. nigra, thorace postice et elytris punctis 
elevalis nitidis ; capite nigro sericeo, antennis longis 25-articulatis, 
pedibus piceis, apice tibiarum tarsisque albidis, forcipe ^ lon- 
gissima,fere corporis longitudine gracili, e bast usque ad medium 
curvata, denticulis nonnullis internis armata ; e medio fere ad 
apicem recta, apice ipso incurvo acuto ; segmentis abdominis 
in § tuberculis minutis elevatis scabris, serieque in singido ad 
marginem posticum tuberculorum majorum, denteque obtuso por- 
recto in singido segmento utrinque ad unguium lateralem posticum. 

Long. Corp. (^ . lin. l.forcipis, lin. 5. = 12. 

Hymenotes. Genus novum e familia Locustidarum Tetrici affine. 
Corpus valde compressum. 
Caput mediocre, obliquum. 



130 

^ntennce breves gracillimae, filiformes, articulo 1"° crasso rotun- 
dato, 2^" multo minori, reliquis longitudine sensim crescentibus. 

Prothorax maximus foliaceus, valde compressus folium aridiim 
exacte refeiens, supra et ante caput angulariter porrectus, valde 
elevatus et postice supra abdomen protensus ; parte postica 
subtus, pro receptione alarum et abdominis canaliculata, proster- 
num in coUare pro receptione oris formatum. 

Pedes inter se basi longe distantes, femoribus praesertim posticis 
foliaceis, tarsis 3-articuIatis, articulo 2^^^ minutissimo. Pul- 
villi nuUi. 

Species 1. Hymenotes rhombea, Membracis r. Fabricius, Ent. 
Syst. 4. 8. 2. p. Syst. Rh. 7. Cicada r, Linn. Syst. Nat. 2. 
704, Alatus. 

Habitat in Jamaica. In Mas, Soc. Linn. Lond. olim Banks. 

Species 2. Hymenotes 3- angularis, H .fusca, prothorace sub- 
triangulari, margine, e f route ad medium integro et curvato, dein 
ad apicem obliquo, serrato, femoribus anticis vix foliaceis, pos- 
ticis latioribus, supra irregulariter incisis. 
Long. Corp. lin. 5|. Long, prothoracis lin. 8. 

FuLGOKA APicALis. Westw. Mouogr. Fulg. Trans. Soc. Linn, 
inedit. 

Machaerota ensifera. Burmeister, Handb. der Ent. 2. p. 128. 

Centrotus bifoliatus. C. fuscus punctatus jwothorace antice 
in cornu longissimum erectum conicum, postice setigerum elevato ; 
apice bifido, parte bijidafere longitudine cornu, retro extensa, cum 
apice exiremo singuli dilatato, acuto ; parte postica prothoracis 
compressa, longitudine corjwris apice sensim attenuato et 2)aullo 
deflexo-curvato, prothorace in medio, supra dorsum, fascia lata 
albida ; hemelytris fuscis punctis nonnullis obliquis pallidis ad 
marginem internum, tibiis anticis latioribus, posticis gracilibus. 

Long. corp. lin. S^. Long, e basi usque ad apicem cornu pro- 
thoracis, lin. 6. 

Obs. Valde affinis Centr. Hardwickei, Kirby in Loudon's Mag. 
Nat, ii. p. 21. a. e Nepalia. 

Centrotus horrificus. C. fuscus rude punctatus, abdomine 
nigro, punctis majoribus ; prothoracis parte antica in cornua duo 
elongata erecta divergentia setigera, apice singuli dilatato et 
acute emarginato, producta ; parte postica, abdominis longi- 
tudine, basi {supra scutellum distinctum bifdum) in nodum 
setigerum curvata, nodoque paullo ante apice multo majori ele- 
vato-compresso supra rotundato, setigero, armata ; tibiis 4 anticis 
oblongo-ovatis, hemelytrorum venis basalibus tuberculatis. 

Long. Corp. lin. 2. 

Reduvius tibialis. R. amceno, Guer. (Icon. R. An. Ins. pi. 56, 
f. 17,) valde affinis, capite postice magis attenuato. Niger, punc- 
tatus, thoracis lobo antico parvo tuberculis duobus elevatis armalo, 
hemelytris fuscis, plaga obliqua media, maculaque minori ovata 
subapicali albido-hyalinis, abdominis lateribus valde dilatatis, 
antennis, rostro, pedibusque rubris, femoribus nigris apice rubris. 

Long. Corp. lin, 12, Expans. alar, lin, 19, 



131 

November 28, 1837- 

Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mr. Ogilby brought before the notice of the Society anew species 
of Phalanger, hitherto confounded with Ph. Cookii, but possessing 
distinctive characters, which made Mr. Ogilby determine to separate 
it from that species under the name of Ph. Viverrina. It may be 
readily distinguished from Ph. Cookii by its superior size, dark ashy 
brown colour, and white ears, and by the absence of the clear red tinge 
which is so conspicuous on the throat, flanks and extremities of that 
species. Its chai-acters, however, are in other respects much the 
same: it has the same small round ears, the same long slender tail, 
similarly tipt with white, and the same division of the fingers into 
two groups, which Mr. Ogilby formerly pointed out as characteristic 
of the Ph. Cookii, and which led him to distinguish that species 
from the other Phalangers, as a subgenus, under the name of Pseu- 
docheirus. The two species distinguished on the present occasion 
differ in habitat, as well as in the characters pointed out ; the Ph. 
Cookii being confined to continental Australia, whilst the Ph. Vi- 
verrina is only found in the neighbouring island of Van Diemen's 
Land. 

Mr. Gray then laid before the Meeting a general arrangement of 
Reptiles, and observed, that since the publication of his Synopsis 
Reptilium he had found it necessary to modify the arrangement which 
he had adopted in that work, and he now proposes to divide the 
class Reptilia into the following orders : 

1st. Squamata, or ScaLy Reptiles, being the typical group, and 
including 1st, Saurians, and 2nd, Ophidians; 

2nd. The annectant group Cataphracta, or shielded Reptiles, con- 
taining 3rd, Amphisbanians ; 4th, Chelonians ; and, 5th, Emydo- 
saurians. ' 

Mr. Gray observed that in his previous arrangement he had fore- 
seen the difficulty connected with the Amphisbanians, and hesitated 
to make an order of a group then containing so small a number of 
species ; such extensive additions however have resulted from the 
recent labours of Zoologists that the genera now exceed in number 
the amount of species formerly known. 

Mr. Gray then proceeded to remark that the class Reptilia ex- 
hibits a regular series of affinities returning into each otiier, so as to 
present a circular disposition ; and he also observed that many points 
of resemblance may be noticed between the Saurians and the Pri- 
mates, the Ophidians and the Fera, and the Chelonians and Unc/u- 
lata ; but that the resemblance of the Amphisbanians and the Emydu- 
saurians to the Glires and the Cetacea is not so evident ; though the 
Emy do -saurians among the Reptilia, like the Cetacea among the Mum- 
malia, are the most truly aquatic of their class. 



132 

Mr. Gray then proposed to divide the Saurians into the following 
five sub-divisions : 

1. Pachyglosste, or thick -tongued Lizards, including, 1st. the Noc- 
turnal, or family of the Geckoes ; and, 2nd. the Diurnal, as the 
Chameleons and Agamas of the Old World, and the Guanas (Igua- 
nidcs) of the New World. 

2. Leptoglossa, or slender-tongued Lizards, including three sec- 
tions characterized by the form of the tongue, containing, 1 . the fami- 
lies of Lacertidee, Zonuridce, Cercosaurida, Cherocolidce, Chamasaurida, 
Helodermid(e ; 2. Monitor idee ; 3, Scincida. 

Mr. Gray then laid before the Society a catalogue containing a 
list of the Slender-Tongued Saurians in the collections of the Bri- 
tish Museum and the Zoological Society, and the descriptions of 
many new genera and species. 

Mr. Gray afterwards exhibited from the collection of the Earl of 
Derby a new Fox from Senegal, and a very young specimen of Ge- 
netta Senegalensis, which he remarked corresponded exactly with 
the adult animal in the peculiar form of the naked band on the soles 
of the hind feet. 

The new fox he designated as 

C. Vulpes dorsalis, (the Senegal Fox). Fur greyish-white, va- 
ried with black tips to the hairs ; face rather j^ellowish ; fore and 
hind limbs rather pale foxy ; back with a dark brown dorsal streak, 
varied with black ; chin and belly whitish ; tail rather slender, black 
tipped : length of body and head 15, tail 8 inches. The black tips 
of the hairs form indistinct spots on the sides of the back, a streak 
on the upper part of the base, and a black tip to the tail, where there 
are a few elongate white hairs. There is a very narrow black streak 
on the front of the fore legs. This species is very like the small In- 
dian fox, (V. Bengalensis, Gray,) and the C. Caama of Dr. Smith, 
but it is smaller, and has a less bushy tail, and a distinct dorsal 
streak, not found on either of them. It has not the black lips, nor 
the black spot on the hinder edge of the thighs of the Cape species. 

The Earl of Derby having forwarded to the Society a number of 
interesting birds, with a view to their exhibition at one of the sci- 
entific meetings, Mr. Gould, at the request of the Chairman, re- 
marked upon such of them £is were especially worthy of notice, and 
pointed out one new species of Grouse belonging to Mr. Swainson's 
subgenus Lyurus, which Mr. Gould characterized as 

Lyurus Derbianus. Lyu. vertice, collo, corporeque supra me- 
tallice nigrescenti-cyaneis, nitide brmineo, fasciatis et irroratis; 
tectricibus alee majoribus ad bases et apices albis; caudd nigra, 
rectricibus extemis brunneo irroratis ; corpore subtiis nigrescenti- 
brunneo, alho brunneoque irrorato; crisso albo ; femoribus albis ; 
(arsis obscure brunneis; rostro digitisque brunneis. 

Long. tot. unc. 15; rostri, 1 ; ate, 9; cauda, 7; tarsi, 2. 

Obs. The subgenus Lyurus has been separated from Tetrao by 
Mr. Swainson, and in this species the tail very closely approximates 



133 

in form to that of the common black cock, the type of Mr. Swain- 
son's section. 

The bird above described has every appearance of being adult, 
and, as far as I have been enabled to ascertain, is from Siberia; it is 
less in all its proportion than the common species, but has the tail- 
feathers more developed; there are traces of some white feathers 
about the throat and cheeks, but as the markings thus produced are 
not regular, I have reason to consider it as accidental. I have given 
it the specific appellation of Derbianus, in honour of the Earl of 
Derby, in whose collection it is contained. 

Mr. Gould afterwards exhibited, from his own collection of Au- 
stralian birds, an entirely new group of four species, for which no 
generic title has yet been applied, so far as he was aware, and but 
one species only characterized, by Messrs. Vigors and Horsfield, 
under the name of Acantheza frontalis ; for this genus Mr. Gould 
proposed the generic name of Sericornis, and for the three species, 
those of citreo-ffularis, humilis, and parvulus. 

Family SAXICOLINiE. 
Genus SERICORNIS. 

nostrum robustum, rectum, caputque quoad longitudinem fere 
aequans, ad apicem compressum, et indentatum. 

Nares basales, laterales, ovales, et operculo tectae. 

Al(B mediocres, rotundafge ; remige primo perbrevi, quarto, quinto, 
atque sexto longissimis et inter se fere aequalibus. 

Cauda mediocris et aequalis. 

Tarsi elongati ; digitus posticus cum ungue validus, digitum in- 
termedium fere aequans ; digitis externis aequalibus. 

PlumcB molles et sericeae. 

Typus est Acanthiza frontalis, Vig. and Horsf. 

Sericornis humilis. Ser. loro nigrescetiti-fusco ; et super hoc 
strigd indistinctd alba ; vertice, corpore supra, alis, cauddque 
olivaceis, rubro lavatis; aid spurid nigrescente; plumis singulis 
albo marginatis; guld cinered fusco guttatd; pectore abdomine- 
que medio, fuscescenti-flavis, illo fusco indistincte guttata ; late- 
ribus casta?ieis; rostro nigrescente; pedibus fuscis. 

Long. tot. 5 imc. ; rosfri, ^; alte, 2|; caudce, 2^; tarsi, 1. 

Hab. Terra Tan Diemen. 

Sericornis citreogularis. Mas. Ser. loro, annulo circum- 
oculari, plumisque auriciilaribus intense nigrescenti fuscis ; lined 
flavescente a naribus super oculos excurrente; vertice, corporeque 
supra, rectricihus, secondariisque alarum, cauddque rufo-brun- 
neis; primariis ad marginem externum olivaceis; aid spurid 
nigrescente; gidd citrind; pectore lateribusqu£ olivaceo fuscis ; 
abdomine medio albo; rostro nigra; pedibus brunneis. 

Long. tot. 5\ unc. ; rostri, |; alee, 2f ; cauda:, 2|; tar^, 1^. 

Hab. Nova Cambria Australi. 



134 
Obs. The female is less brilliant in all her markings than the 



male. 



O" 



Skricornis parvulus. Ser. loro pallide fusco, et super hoe 
strigd cinered; vertice, corpore supra, alis, cauddque olivaceo- 
fuscis, rubro lavatis; aid spuria nigrescente, plumis singulis 
albo marginatis; pectore, abdomineque medio citrinis, later ibus 
olivaceo-fuscis ; rostro nigrescente; pedibus luieis. 

Long. tot. 4 unc; rosiri, ^ ; alw, 1| ; caudce, 1| ; tarsi, |. 

Hab. in ora orientali NovEe Hollandiae. 



135 

December 12, 1837. 
Thomas Bell, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mr. Gray read a paper, consisting of a revision of the genera and 
species of venomous, prehensile-tailed and water snakes, with the de- 
scriptions of some new species contained in the British Museum col- 
lection, and that of the Zoological Society. Mr. Gray stated that 
tlie family of CrotalidcB in this catalogiie includes twelve genera 
and twenty -live species ; of which six genera and ten species are 
confined to America, three genera and twelve species to Asia and 
its islands, while one genus and two species are peculiar to Africa. 
Schlegel in his recently published work, describes seventeen species, 
and there are nineteen species in the National collection. 

The family of Viperida; contains eight genera and ten species, 
of which two genera and three species are from Asia, four genera 
and nine species from Africa ; two genera and four species occur in 
Europe; and one genus, including but one species, inhabits Australia. 
All the genera are confined to a single quarter of the globe but 
Echis, which has one species from Africa and the other from India. 
Schlegel described ten species, but then he has referred some of the 
species which have not come under his examination, without sulR- 
cient consideration, to the more common species. Specimens of all 
the species bvit one noticed in the last family, are in the collection 
at the British Museum. 

The family of BoidcB contains seventeen genera and twenty-seven 
species ; of these seven genera and nine species are confined to tropical 
America, three genera and four sjjecies are found in Africa, six 
genera and eight species in Asia, three genera and four species are 
found in New Holland, and one species in Europe. The species of 
the genus Python are found in Africa, Asia, and New Plolland : but 
eacli species has its peculiar country, and one species of Eryx is 
common to South Europe and North Africa. 

The family o^ Hydrides consists of twenty-three genera and forty- 
eight species, of which t\venty are found in the Indian Ocean, and 
sixteen in the salt-water ditches of India and the neighbourijig 
islands, and six are found in similar situations in tropical America. 
Schlegel described only twenty-seven species, and thirty of the spe- 
cies described in the present Catalogue are in the British Museum. 

Mr. Yarrell, on the part of Mr. John Leadbeater, exhibited to the 
Meeting a male Hybrid, the produce of a Pheasant and a Black 
Grouse. Mr. Yarrell observed that this was the third specimen 
which had been sent to the Society for exhibition within a compa- 
ratively short space of time. The first bird, from Cornwall, was 
more of a Grouse in appearance than a Pheasant : the second, from 
Shropshire, was more pheasant-like ; but the present bird was deci- 

No. LX. Proceedings of the Zoologxcal Society. 



136 

dedlj' intermediate, exhibiting characters belonging to both. The 
head, neck, and breast wei'e of a ricli dark maroon colour, the feathers 
on the breast showing the darker crescentic tips ; the upjier part of 
the tarsi were covered with feathers ; the back and wings mottled 
blackish gray, like that of a young Black Cock after his first moult, 
but with some indications of brown ; the feathers of the tail rather 
short, but straight, pointed, graduated, and pheasant-like. Mr. Yar- 
rel also remarked that this bird more closely resembled the Hybrid 
discovered by Gilbert White than any of the previous specimens 
which he had examined. 

Mr. Gould then brought before the notice of the Meeting a valu- 
able collection of Birds from the Himalaya Mountains, recently pre- 
sented to the Society's Museum, by James Farell, Esq., consisting of 
114 specimens, among which he characterised the following new 
species. 

Athene erytiiroptekus. Ath. disco fadali, capite corporeque li- 
neis fuscis et fulvescenti-albis, alternate fasciatis ; lateribvs gula, 
femorihus crissoque cinerescenti-albis ; primariis secondariisqtie 
rvfis et fuscis fasciis distinctis, latioribtis quam corporis ; caudd 
caryophillaccd fasciis angustis albis crebre notatd ; rostro jicdi- 
biisqtie flavescenti-olivaceis. 

Long. tot. 91 unc. ; ala, 45 ; cauda, 3 ; tarsi, l^. 

Obs. Nearly allied to but less in size than Athene cuculoides {Noctua 
cuculoides, Proc. of Comm. Sci. and Corr. of Zool. Soc, Part I.) 

TiTRDUS UNicoLOR. Turd. cinereus ; nbdomine medio, crissoqve al- 
bis ; kumeris stibtiis rufis ; rostra pedibusque livido-fvscis. 

liong. tot. 9^ unc. ; rostri, 1 ; ala;, 3^ ; cauda, 'i{\ ; tarsi, 1^. 

Ohs. Size of the Common Thrush. The young differs in having 
the gray strongly tinged with brownish olive, and the throat grayish 
white, bounded down each side with spots of reddish brown. 

Oreocincla I'ARViROSTRis, Or. capite, nuchd, pectore, lateribus 
corporeque supra oUvuceo-fuscis ; singulis plumis versus apiceni 
nitide cervino lavatis, et nigro-fusco late 7narginatis ; primariis 
obscure fuscis, piogoniis externis nitide ca-vino marginatis , pogoniis 
internis ad bases cervino-albis ; tcctricibus majoribus alarum ob- 
scure cervinis; aid spuriosd eodem colore cxterne margiiiatd; caudd 
fused margine subfusco, apiceque cinerescenti-albo ; guld, abdo- 
mine medio, tiropygio, crissoque albis ; rostro pedibusque corneo- 
fuscis. 

Long. tot. 10 unc; rostri, 1 ; ala, 5^ ; cauda, 4; tarsi, l^. 

Obs. This species has all the characters of the Oreocincla varia and 
0. Whiteii, but may be readily distinguished from them, by its much 
smaller size and its very diminutive bill. 

CiNCLiDiA. Genus novum. 

Rostrum caput longitudine sequans, leviter arcuatum, ad apicem 
emarginatum ad latera compressum ; ncires basales, lateralcs, in 



137 

fossa tribus vel quatuor setis ad basem instructa ; ala brevissimre, 
concavje, rotundatrc : remkjihis 6*° et 7""° longioribus ; cauda me- 
diocris, rotundata; tarsi majusculi; pedes elongati ; digito posti- 
co. medio longiore ; digitis lateralibus sequalibus et fere usque ad 
articulum primum conjunctis. 

CiNCLiDiA PUNCTATA. CiTic. summo cttpite, et nuchd rufis, singulis 
phimis stemmatibus albicantibus ; loro, plumis super-ocularibus 
cervino-albis ad apices nigris ; auricular ibus, lateribus colli, cor- 
pore supra, alis cauddque rvfo-fuscis ; pectore corporeque subtus 
cervinis, singulis plumis maculd fused apicem versus longitudi- 
naliter notatis ; rostro pedibusque pallide fuscis. 

Long. tot. 6f unc. ; rostri, | ; aide, 2| ; caudee, 3 ; tarsi, 1. 

Brachypus plumifera. Brae, capite, pectore, lateribus colli, guld- 
que nitide viridescenti-nigris ; corpore, alisque olivaceo-Jlavis; pri- 
mariis fuscis, olivaceo-fluvo marginatis ; secondariis, pogoniis in- 
lernis fuscis ; caudd fused ; rostro pedibusque nigris. 

Long. tot. 71 unc. ; rostri, |; alee, 3^; caudce, 31; tarsi, ^. 

CucuLUS MicROPTERUs. Cuc. summo capite, corpore supra alisque 
obscure plumbaceis ; caudd nigrescenti-plumbaeed, plus miniisve 
ttlbo notald ; primariis interne ad bases maculis oblongis albisque 
notatis ; gutture peet07-eque cinefeis ; corpore siibti(s albo, nigra 
crebre fasciaio ; rostro ad apicem nigra, ad basin cameo. 

Long. tot. 12 unc. ; rostri, 1 ; alts, 7^; caudce, 6|; tarsi, |. 

PoMATORHiNus LEUcoGASTER. Pom. strigd albd super- ocular i, a 
rostro per collum excurrente ; loro, lined inf'a-oculari, aurieulari- 
busque nigris ; summo capite, corpore supra, alis crissoque oliva- 
ceo -fuscis ; caudd fused; lateribus colli, pectoris, corporisque ni- 
tide 7-uJis ; guld, pectore, abdomineque medio albis ; rostro flavo ; 
pedibus plumbaceis. 

Long. tot. 9 unc. ; rostri, 1 J ; ala, 3^ ; cauda, 4 ; tarsi, 1^. 



138 



December 26, 1837. 

John Edward Gray, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mr. Gould exhibited a very extensive series of Australian birds 
principally from his own collection, including about eighty new 
species, all of which were severally brought before the notice of 
the meeting, Mr. Gould remarking upon such of them as presented 
characters of novelty or importance. The names jiroposed by 
Mr. Gould for the birds forming this great addition to our know- 
ledge of Australian ornithology, and their respective characters, are 
as follow : 

Haliaetus sphenurus. Hal. capite, michd, guttureque imllkle 
ccrvinis ; corpore supra alisqve intense fuscis, sinfftdis phtmis 
ad apicem pallide cervinis ; caudd cunetformi, ad basiii albe- 
scenti-cervind, apicem versus fused, ad apieem alba ; pectore 
fusco, jilumis cervino inarginatis ; abdomine, cervino fuscoque 
picto, crisso, caiiddque subtiis albis ; rostrofusco ; tarsis Jlavis. 
Long. tot. 32 unc. ; rostri, 2; ala, 25; caudie, 14^; tarsi, 3^. 
Hab. in terrii Van Diemen. 

Ohs. The above description was taken from two specimens in the 
United Service Museum, which ai-e doubtless male and female, but 
which are not quite mature. 

This fine species would appear to represent the European Ha- 
liaeius albiciUus in Australia. In size it nearly equals the Aquila 
fucosa, and like that bird it has a wedge-shaped tail, a character 
common to many of the Raptorial birds of Australia. 

Haliaetus leucosternus. Hal. capite, collo, pectore, abdomi- 
neque summo niveis ; dorso, alis, abdomine imo, fcmorihus, 
crissoque Icete castaneis ; primariis ad apicetn nigris ; caudd 
castancd, snhtiis pallidiore, rectricibus sex intermediis ad apicem 
cineresce7itibus ; rostro ad basin plumbaceo, ad apicem jiaves- 
ccnte ; pedibusjlavescetiti-plumbaceis. 

Long. tot. 22|^ unc; rostri, l-^-; ala, 15^; caudcc, 9; tarsi, 2. 

Hab. in Australia. 

Obs. This species is nearly allied to Hal. Pondiccrianns, but dif- 
fers from that bird in the smaller extent of the cere, and in the uni- 
form snow-white colouring of the neck and chest. 

Pandion leucocephalus. Pand. vertice, nucha, guld, abdo- 
mine, femoribus, crissoque albis ; plumis pectoris fusco ad api- 
cem notatis ; plumis auricidaribus fuscescenti-nigris ; colli late- 
rtbus fuscis; dorso, alis, caudd que brunneis, singulis j)lumis 
notd albd angnstd apicali oi'uatis; jjiimariis nigris ; rostro 
nigro} tarsis olivaceo-phimbaceis. 



139 

Long. tot. 21 unc; rostri, 1-^; alee, \Q\\ cmida;, 8; tarsi, 2^. 

Hab. in Australiii. 

Ohs. I venture to characterise this bird as distinct from the Pan- 
dion Haliaetus, as it appears to be always smaller in size, and is 
moreover said to have yellow tarsi. Tiie individual from which my 
description was taken has this character to a certain exient, although 
a leaden tint pervades in some parts. I have never seen a specimen 
of P. Haliaitas with so much white on tlie head and bade of the 
neck as is found in the Australian bird. 

Falco frontatus. Falc. fronte cinerescenti ; vertice, genis, 
jihimis auricularibus, corporeque sujjrd cinerescenti-jjlumhaceis ; 
primariis intiis macidis ovalibus cervinis ornatis; rectricihus 
Cauda duabus intermediis cinereis, niyro obscure fasciatis, reliqi/is 
einereo etrufescente alter naihn fasciatis ; gidd, pecloreque ■puLlide. 
cervinis, hvjus plumis in inedio lined fused notatis ; corpore sub- 
tiis obscure riifescenti-aurantiaco ; rostro plumbaceo, cerd pedi- 
busquc jlavis. 

Long. tot. 12. unc; rostri, \; alcE, 9|; caudoi, 5^; tarsi, 1|. 

Hab. in Nova Cambria Australi. 

Obs. I find the young of this species much darker than the adult, 
particularly in the markings of the chest and abdomen ; the upper 
surface also has most of the feathers tinged -with reddish brown, 
and the tail-feathers are tipped with this colour. 

This species is nearly allied to Falco subbuteo and F. ^salon. 

Falco melanogenys. Mas. Falc. capite toto fiiscescenti-nigro ; 
corpore supra, alis, cauddque einereo fuscoque alter natini fas- 
ciatis; jjritnariis extiis intense fuscis, intiis cervino fasciatis ; 
Cjuld pectoreque cervinis; abdomine rifcscenti-cinereo, yuttis 
ovalibus intense fuscis ornato; lateribus crissoque rufescenli- 
cinereis,fasciis intense fuscis contorthn notatis; rostro adapicem 
plumbaceo, ad basin flavo; cerd pedibusque fiavis. 

FcEM. A muri differt staturd majore, necnon colore gulai, pectoris, 
abdominisque intensiore. 

Mas. Long. tot. 15 unc; rostri, \^; aloi, \\\\ caudce, 5^; iarsi,!^. 

F(EM. 17 ; , If; — ,13|; ,6-^; ,l|. 

Hab. per totam Australian!. 

Obs. This species is closely allied to the Falco Peregrimts, from 
which it may be at all times distinguished by the black colouring 
of the cheeks. 

Falco brunkeus. Falc. capite, corporeque superiore intense 
fuscis; primariis intiis notis albis triangtdaribns ornatis; caudd 
lineis fuscesce?itibus septem obscure et angnste fasciatis; gidd, 
notdqiie ante oculos cervinis; pectore jjallide cervino, plumis 
lined fusco centrali notatis; corpore subtiis albo fuscoque com- 
mixtis ornato; iridibus jlavis ; rostro nigra; 2Jedibus 2}lumbaceis. 

Long. tot. 16 unc; rostri, 1^; ala;, 10; candce, 7^; tarsi, 2^. 

Hab. in Nova Zealandia. 

Obs. In the Collection of the Zoological Society. 



140 

Ieeacidea. Genus novum. 

Rostrum, ut in genere Falco dicto; alis attamen minus rigidis, 
remige tertio longissimo; tarsis longioribus, gracilioribus, et 
antice squamis hexagonalibus tectis ; digitis gracilioribus, digito 
postico breviore, unguihus minus robustis. 

Typus est Falco Berlgora, Vig, et Horsf, 

Lepidogenys subcristatus. Lep. vei-tice, genis, plumis auri- 
cularibus, dorsoque superiore fuscescenii-cinereis ; occipite, cris- 
tdque occipitcdi nigrescenti-fuscis; dorso, scaptdaribusque fuscis, 
alis supra fuscescenti-cinereis, subtiis argentco-cinereis, primariis 
secondariisque fasciis duabus nigris notatis; uropygio, tectrici- 
busque caudce superioribus fiiscis; caudd fuscescenti-cinered, 
nigro fasciatd, et ad apiceni large nigra; gidd, pectorc, humeri 
parte, crissoqu£, cinereis rufo tinctis; corpore s'ubtus jyallide 
cervino, castarieo fasciato ; 7-ostro pallide plumbeo, tarsis Jlavis. 
Long. tot. 18 unc; rostri, l\; alcE, 13; caudce, 8^; tarsi, \\. 
Hob. in Nova Cambria Australi. 

Obs. Tiiis bird would belong to M. Lesson's genus Lophotes; but 
that term having been previously employed, I have been induced to 
adopt the generic title proposed by Mr. J. E. Gray in its stead. 
The form is somewhat alliecl to Pernis. 

MiLvus Affinis. Milv. plu7nis capitis, nuchce, collique laterum 
ritfescenti-cenmds, strigd centrali fused notatis; corpore supra 
brunneo, tectricibus alarum rnfescentibus ; singulis jjlumis nigra 
lined centrali notatis et ad apicem pallide brunncis ; primaiiis 
nigris, secondariis nigrescentihus ; caudd fused, nigrescente fas- 
ciatd, et ad apicem cinei-ed ; guld fuscescenti-cervind, singulis 
plumis lined centrali nigrd ; corpore subtiis rufescentifusco, 
singulis plumis lined centrali fused apud pectorales maxime 
cojispicud ornatis ; rostro nigro ; pedibus Jlavescentibus. 
Long. tot. 21 unc. ; rostri, li ; al(B, 15| ; caudce, 10^ ; tarsi, 2. 
Hab, in Australia. 

Obs. This species is very nearly allied to the Milvus ater of Eu- 
rope : the circumstance of nearly the whole of the Fauna of Au- 
stralia being distinct from those of all other parts of the world has 
induced me to separate it specifically from that bird ; the chief dif- 
ference is in its being somewhat smaller in size. 

Milvus Isurus. Milv. fronte, linedque supra-oculari cervinis ; 
singulis plumis, ajnce, linedque centrali nigris notatis ; vertice, 
dorso, lateribus colli, gutture, Immeris supra et subtiis, cor- 
poreque subtus rufescenti-aurantiacis ; plumis singulis verticis, 
occipitis, et pracip^ie pectoris notam longitudinalem apicalem- 
que nigram habentibus ; dorso superiore, plumisque scapula- 
ribus intense fuscis ; jyrimariis ad apicem fuscis, nigro obscure 
fasciatis, ad basin intiis cinereis ; secondariis intense fuscis ni- 
gro fasciatis ; uropygio crissoque albis, nigro cervinoque fasci- 
atis ; caudd fere quadratd, et cinereo-fuscd ; rectricibus, duabus 
externis utrinque exceptis, obscure fusciis qu^tuor angustis nigris 



141 

oitiatis ; omnibus ad apicem nigris ; rostrofusco ; cerd, tarsisque 
Jiavis. 
Long. tot. 20 unc. ; rostri, If ; aim, 81 1 ; cavd(B, S\ ; tarsi, If. 
Hab. in Australia. 

Obs. Tliis species, the immediate locality of which is not known, 
offers the nearest approach to the Common Kite, Milvus vukjaris, 
that has yet been discovered ; but is readily distinguished from that 
species by the square form of the tail. 

El ANUS NOTATus. El. ocuUs nigro anguste drcumdatis ;fronte, 
kiteribus faciei corporeque subtus albis ; nucha, dorso, scapida- 
ribus,tectricibusque caiidce majoribus delicate cinercis; alis maxi- 
mis ex partibus nigris, kumeris subtiis albis ; primariis supra ni- 
grcscenti-cinereis, subiiis fusco-nigris ; caudd cinerescenti-albd ; 
rostra nigra ; cerd pedibtisque aicraiitiaco-Jlavis. 
Long. tot. unc. 14; alee, 11| ; caudce, 6^; tarsi, If. 
Hab. in Nova Cambria Australi. 

Obs. Distinguished from Elanus melanopterus by the oval spot 
of black on the under surface of the wing, whence its specific name ; 
it also differs from Elanus leucurus in the form of the tail and other 
characters. 

Circus Jardinei. Mas. Circ. vertice, genis, plumisque auricu- 
laribus intense castaneis, fusco longitudinaliter notatis ; disco 
fasciali, nuchd, dorso superiore, pectore necnon dorso into, sca- 
jiularibiisque, intense cinereis, his albo leviter notatis ; humeiis, 
alis subtiis, abdomine,femoribus, crissoque, castaneis, albo per- 
pulchre notatis; tectricibus alarum fusco-cineraccis, irregidariter 
albo notatis ; secondariis cineraceis, fasciis tribusfuscis anguste 
notatis, fascidque latd terminali ; primariis ad basin cervinis, 
jjer reliquas partes nigris ; tectricibus caudce superioinbus fuscis, 
fascias albas, apicemcpie album ostendentibus ; caudd cinereo 
fuscoque alter natim fasciatd ; rostro nigro; pedibus Jiavis. 
Long. tot. 19 unc. ; alie, 16 ; Cauda, 10 ; tarsi, 3f. 
Hab. in Nova Cambria Australi. 

Syn. Circus assimilis, Jard. and Selb. 111. Orn., vol. i. pi. 51, fe- 
male ? 

Obs. I am induced to believe that the bird figured by Messrs. Jar- 
dine and Selby under the name of Circus assimilis will jirove to be 
the female of this bird ; but as I am not quite certain, I have thought 
it best to characterise the present bird under a new name. 

Athene? fortis. Ath. facie guldque cinerescenti-albis ; vertice, 
corporeque supra fuscis, purpurea tinctis ; scapularibus, secon- 
dariis tectricibusque alec majoribus albo guttatis ; jnimariis al- 
ternatim fusco griseoque fasciatis ; fasciis pallidis ad mar- 
ginem externum albescentibus ; caudd fitscd lineis sex vel septem 
cinerescentibus transversim fasciatis, apice cinercscente ; cor- 
pore subtiis brunneo alboque marmorato, hoc colore marginem 
plumarum ornante ; tarsis ad digitos vestitis, fusco cervirioque 



142 

marmoratis ; rostro Jlavescenti-corneo ; digitis longis, flavis, jn- 

lisque tcctis. 
Long. tot. 15| m\c.; al(B, U^;cauda;, Vi; tarsi, 1|. 
Ilab. in Nova Cambria Australi. 

Athene? stuenua. Af/i. vertice, corpore supra, alts, cauddque 
intensefiiscis,fasciis2nirpiircscenti-hrunneisiransversunoriuUis; 
/lis majoribus pallidioribusque ad inmm dorsum ; sccondariis, 
rcctricihusquc cauda admarginem internum, facie, gidd, pccto- 
reqve siqieriore, badiis, j^^umis partium harum nold brunned 
centrali ornatis ; corjjore subius aibo, leviier badio lavato, etftisco 
fasciaio; rostro corneo ad basin, adapiccm nigro ; pedibas jiavis . 

Long. tot. 24 line. ; rostri, 2 ; alee, 15 ; caudoc, IQi ; tarsi, '2.\. 

liab. in Novtl Cambria Australi. 

Halcyon incinctus. Hale, fronte, medio et vertice nigrescenti- 
fuscis, Icviter ccrrideo tinctis ; fronte in latcribus strigis badiis 
notatd; occipite et mtchd cganeis; lore, lined infra-oculari u/c- 
ricularibusqiie nigris; plumis in fronte levitcr badio marginatis ; 
dorso medio lilacino viridi nitenli; humeris caudce tcctricibus 
majoribus et minoribus viridcscenti-carulcis ; alis spuriosis, se- 
condariisquc cyaneis ; primariis brunneis ad bases niveis, et 
ccerideo-viridicxterne marginatis; tcctricibus sujieriorihus caudce 
viridi-candeis, fulgore mctallico ; caudd cganed; guld alba; 
■pectore corporcque subtus pa Hide badiis; mandibtdd superiori 
nigra; mandibuld inferiori ad margincm apicemquc nigra, ad 
basin earned ; pedibus carneis. 

Long. tot. unc. 8 ; rostri, 1| ; alec, 3^ ; caudce, 2-|; tarsi, \. 

Hab. in Novii Cambria Australi. 

Obs. Nearly allied to Halcyon MacLcayii of Jardine and Solbj'. 

CAPRIMULGID.E. Fam. 

EuRosTOPODUs. Genus novum. 

Rostrum quanr in Caprimulgo longius et robustius ; nares lateralcs 
et lineares: rictus setis brevibus, debiiibus, divergent! busquo in- 
structus ; alee quam in Capriuudgo longiores et Ibrtiores ; rcmi- 
gibus Imo et 2do longissimis et a;qualibus; catida fere quadrata, 
mediocris ; tarsi robusti, pluniis antice instructi ; digiti breves, 
robusti, carnosi ; digiti externi ajquales et interniedio per dinu- 
dium, membrana conjuncti ; digito interniedio, nngue iutonie 
valide pectinato. 

Typi sunt, Cajwimidgus guttatus, in Linn. Trans., vol. xv. p. 192. 
Caprimulgus albogularis. Ibid. p. 194'. 

Myiagra nitida. 3Iyi. nigrescenti-viridi, fulgore metallico ; 
abdomine tcctricibusque cauda: infcrioribus albis; rostro ad 
apicem nigra, hoc colore versus basin in caruleum transeunle ; 
jyedibus fusco-nigris. 

Long. tot. unc. 6h; rostri, ^; ala:, 3|; caudce, ^\; tarsi, -f. 



143 

Hub. in Nova Cambria Australi et terra Van Diemen. 
Ohs, Differs from Myiagra plumhca in its larger size, and in the 
darker and richer colouring of the plumage. 

Graucalus parvirostris. Grauc. f route, facie, lateribtis colli, 
guldqice nigris ; vertice, corjjore supra, alisqiie in medio cinereis ; 
primariis, secondariisque i?itiis nigrescentibtis, gi'iseo marginatis ; 
cuudd nigrescente, ad basin cinercd, ad ajricem large albci, rectri- 
cibus intermediis exceptis ; pectore cinereo ; ahdowinc imo, aid 
interna, crissoque albis ; lateribus,fe)iioribusquej)allide cinereis; 
rostra pedibusque nigrescenti-fuscis. 

Long. tot. 12 una. ; rostri, 1^ ; ala, 7| ; cauda, 6 ; tarsi, 1. 

Hab. in Novii Cambria Australi. 

Obs. This species differs from Grauc. melanops principally in the 
much smaller size of the bill and the lighter tint of the grey. 

Graucalus melanotis. Grauc. loro, lined infra-oculari, plu~ 
misque aurictdaribus nigris ; verticc, nuchd, collique laieribus, 
dorso, tiropygio, caudce tectricibus, humerisque pallide cinereis ; 
primariis, secondariisque intiis nigrescenti-fuscis, cinereo margi- 
natis ; rectricibus caudce nigrescenti-fuscis, ad basin cinereis, ad 
apicem large albis ; gidd, pectore, lateribusque cinereis, fuscofas- 
ciatis; abdonune imo, femoribus crissoque, albis; rostro nigres- 
cente ad apicem, ad basin rufescente ; pedibus fuscis. 
Long. tot. 1 3 unc. ; rostri, 1 ^ ; alee, 7f ; caudce, 6| ; tarsi, 1 <\. 
Hab, in Nova Cambria Australi. 

Obs. Messrs. Vigors and Horsfield considered this bird as iden- 
tical Avith the Papuan Crow of Latham, but on comparison I find 
this is not the case ; it may ultimately prove to be an immature male, 
or a female of Grauc. melanops, but until future observation has 
cleared up this point it will be better to characterize it as distinct. 

Ceblepyris humeralis. Mas. Cebl. fronte, vertice, nuchd dor~ 
soque nitide viridescenti-nigris ; hitmeris, tectricibusque superio- 
ribus Cauda; ; alis nigris secundariis albo marginatis ; dorso in- 
feriore et uropygio cinereis ; caudd obscure nigrd,plmnis duabus 
externis utrinque apicibus albis; guld, pectore corporeque suhtus 
rostro pedibusque nigris. 
Foera. vertice, mtchd, dorsoque su.perioi'e brunneis ; dorso inferiore, 
urojjygio cuuddque ut in mare ; tectricibus majoribus minori- 
busq7ie caudce badio marginatis; secondariis mare latioribus 
albo marginatis ; guld corporeque subtus fusco-ulbis ; rostro pe' 
dibusque nigris. 
Long. tot. unc. 6| ; rostri, | ; alec, 4 ; Cauda;, 6^ ; tarsi, |. 
Hab. in Novii Cambria Australi. 

Obs. Nearly allied to Ceblepyris leucomela ( Campephaga leucomela, 
Vig. and Horsf. ; Lanius Karu, Less.), but differing from that spe- 
cies in its smaller size, in the greater extent of the white mark on 
the shoulders, and in nearly wanting the stripe of white which crosses 
the secondaries. 



144 

Falcunculus leucogaster. Fale. fronte alba, crista ocdpitali 
nigra ; genis albis lifted nigra notatis ad nucham exiendente ; 
dorso, humeris, tectricibusque caudcE et uropygio olivaceo-Jlavis ; 
primariis secondariisque brunneis, olivaceo marginatis ; rectri- 
cibus caudcB duabus externis albis, duabus intermediis olivaceis, 
reliquis brunneis, olivaceo-marginatis ; gidd olivaceo-viridi ; pec- 
tore tectricibusque caudce inferioribus nitide sulphureo-Jlavis ; 
abdomine femoribusqice albis ; roslro nigro ; pedibus plumbaceis. 
Long. tot. unc. 6 ; rostri, |} ; alee, 3| ; caudce, 2^ ; tarsi, ^. 
Hub. in Australia. 

Obs. For a knowledge of this new species of true Falcunculus, 
I am indebted to the Earl of Derbj', who lent me the example from 
which the above characters are taken ; and which, from the olive co- 
louring of the throat, may probably prove to be a female. 

Falcunculus flavigulus. Falc, loro albo ; vertice et strigd ab 
oculo usque ad lotus colli nigrescenti-brunneis, super infraque 
strigis albis ; dorso, tectricibusque superioribus caudce viride- 
scenti-albis ; guld olivaceo-viridi ; alis fuscis, pallide, brunneo 
marginatis; caudd fused, rectricibus tribus utrincpie plus mi- 
nusve albo ?wtatis ; mento macidd cdbd; guld,pectore, abdomine 
tectricibusque inferioribus Cauda; nitide Jlavis ; rostro pedibusque 
cyaneo-nigris. 
Long. tot. unc. 5 J ; alcB, 3| ; caudce, 1\ ; tarsi, |. 
Hid), in Australia. 

Obs. This species, indejiendently of its smaller size, may be rea- 
dily distinguished from all others, by the uuilbnu yellow colouring 
of the under surface, from the chin to the vent. It would seem that 
this bird was overlooked by Messrs. Vigors and Horsfield, who ap- 
pear to have thought it identical with Fal. gutturcdis. 

Eopsaltria parvula. Eop. vertice, auricidaribus, nucha dor- 
soque cinereis ; guld pectoreque inferiori griseis ; uropygio oli- 
vaceo ; alis brunneis ; caudd brunned, rectricibus apicibus gri- 
seis; pectore corporeque subtus nitide Jlavis ; rostro nigro ; jicdi- 
bus brunneis. 

Long. tot. unc. 5^ ; rostri, ^ ; alcE, 3 ; caudcB, 2| ; tarsi, |. 

Hcd). in Nova Cambria Australi. 

Obs. The genus Eopsaltria was instituted by Mr. Swainson for 
the Yellow-Breasted Thrush of Lewin {Pachycephala Australis of 
Vig. and Horsf.), to which the present bird is nearly allied. 

Eopsaltria griseo-gularis. Vertice, auricularibus, nuchd dor- 
soque griseis; guld pectoreque cinerescenti-cdbis ; abdotnine, uro- 
pygio, tectricibusque sujjerioribus et inferioribus ccmdce nitide 
Jiavis ; alis cauddcpic fuscis ; caudd ad extremum apicem cdbd ; 
rostro pedibusque nigrescenti-brunneis. 

Long. tot. unc. 6 ; rostri, £ ; ales, 3^ ; caudce, 2f ; tarsi, |. 

Hab. in Australia ai)ud flumen Cygnorum. 

Obs. Closely allied to Eopsaltria Australis. In the collection at 
Fort Pitt, Chatham. 



145 

Sericulus magnirostris. Ser. fronte, gulce lateribus, corpo- 
reque subtus griseis, singulis plumis brunneo marginalis ; ma- 
cula occipitali nigra et quadratd ; lined nigra irregulari in giit- 
ture centrali ; nucha, dorso, scapidisque cinerescenti-albis, niar- 
qine brunneo circmndatis ; alis, uropygio, cauddque olivaceo- 
brunneis ; rostro pedibusque nigris. 
Long. tot. line. 11^; rostri, 1^ ; alcB, 5^ ; caudce, 4| ; tarsi, \\. 
Hob. in terra Van Dienien ? 

Obs. This is in every respect a true Sericidus, and from what we 
know of the changes of the common species Ser. chrgsocephalus, I 
conceive that it may prove to be a female, or immature bird. 

Oreocincla. Genus novum. 

nostrum capitis longitudineni asquans vel superans, subincurvatum, 
lateraliter compressum, mandibula superiore apice prominente, 
dcnticula ab apice longe amota, gonide acuto ; rictus setis paucis 
brevibus instructus; alec mediocres, rigidae, remige P"° brevissi- 
mo, 4'° et 5'"^ fere asqualibus et longissimis ; cauda subbrevis, 
quadrata, plumis rigidis ; tarsi mediocres, squamis integris ; digiti 
graciles, posticus prsecipue, digitis lateralibus fere jjequalibus, in- 
terno breviore ; plumcc sericeae. 
Typi sunt, Oreocincla Novcc Hollandice et Tardus varins, Horsf. 

Oreocincla macroriiyncha. Or. stimmo capite, corjwre supra, 
olivacco-brunneis, singidis plumis nigi'o ad apicem leviter mar- 
ginatis ; caudd alisque olivaceo-brunneis ; secondariis badio le- 
viter marginatis ; rectricibus duabus externis idrinque ad apicem 
albis ; guld corporeque subtus cervino-albis, singidis plumis, 
maculis nigris lanceolatis ad apicem notatis ; rostro aldque spu- 
riosd ad apicem nigrcscenti-brit7}neis ; pedibus pallide. brunneis. 

Long. tot. unc. \Qi\ ; rostri, 1 1 ; alte, 5^ ; caudce, 4| ; tarsi, 1^. 

Hab. in Nova Zealandia. 

Obs. Nearly allied to, but differing from, the Turdus varius of 
authors, in the much larger size of the bill, and in the deeper black 
colouring of the margins of the feathers. In the British Museum. 

Familia ? 



Symmorphus. Genus novum. 

Rostrum subbreve, tumidum; mandibtdd superiori ad apicem leviter 
emarginata; culmine comtnissurdque subarcuatis ; 7iares basalos, 
ovales et plumis frontalibus fere occultatae ; alec mediocres, re- 
mige 1"^" breviore, 2'^" per diniidium ; 3"°, 4^° et 5'" longissimis 
et inter se fere Eequalibus ; cauda mediocris, rectrice externa 
utrinque per partem quartam cseteris breviore; tarsi et pedes me- 
diocres, illi antice scutellati ; digito postico cum ungue, medio 
breviori ; digitis lateralibus insequalibus, interno brevissimo. 

Symmorphus leucopygus. Sgm. loro yiigrescenti-brunneo ; li- 
ned supra-oculari cervino'albd ; summo capite, nucha, dorsoqtie 



146 

intense rufo-fuscis ; humeris, teciricibus majoribus alarum ad 
apices, uropi/gio, guld corporeque subtiis albis, badio jmllide la- 
vatis ; primariis secondariisque nigrescenti-brimneis, badio ob- 
scure marginatis ; rectricibus ccnuke quatuor mediis briamcis, 
ad apices cinerescenti-aJbis, tribus cxiamis utrinqiic ad basin 
per dimidiam jMrtem brunneis, pei- rdiquam partem albis; 
rosti'O 2^edibusqiie nigris. 

Long. tot. unc. 7| ; roslri, | ; alee, 3^ ; cauda, 3| ; tarsi, 1 . 

Hab. in Nova Cambria Australi. 

AcANTHizA MAGNIROSTRA. Ac. vcrticc, corporc superiore, alis 
cauddque olivaceo-fitscis ; Itdc, fronteque rufescentibus ; guld 
jKctorequc cinereis ; lateribiis olivuceis ; rostro nigro ; pcdibus 
brunneis. 

Long. tot. 4 J unc. ; roslri, | ; ala;, 2^ ; caudce, 1| ; tarsi, |. 

Hab. in Nova Cambria Australi. 

AcANTiiiZA UROPYGiALis. Ac. capitc, corporc snprd, alisque 
fuscis, levitir olivaceo lavatis ; uropygio tectricibusque cawltB 
IcBte castaiieis ; caudd nigrescenti-fiiscd, late ad apicem alba no- 
tatd ; guld, pectore, abdominequc medio griseis ; latcribus, cris- 
soque pallidc ceiTinis ; rustro, pedibusque nigris. 

Long. tot. 3| unc; rostri, ^ ; ala;, 2; caudce, \^; tarsi, f. 

Hab. in Nova Cambria Australi. 

AcANTHizA DiEMENENSis. Ac.frontc Tufo-brunneo, notis scmi- 
luna7-ibus cervinis, fuscoque adspersis, corpore superiore, alisque 
intense olivaceo-fuscis ; tectricibus caudce fuscis, castaneo lavatis; 
rectricibus olivaceis, nigrescenti-fuscofasciatis; genis, gidd, pec- 
toreque cinereis, ir regular iter fusco adspersis; abdonnne, cris- 
soque cinerescenti-albis rufo tinctis, hoc colore in crisso luteri- 
busc^ue prcevalente ; rostro pedibusque jjallide brunneis. 

Long. tot. 4 unc. ; rostri, -^ ; alee, 2^ ; caudce, 2 ; tarsi, |. 

Hab. in terra Van Diemen. 

Obs. Nearly allied to Acanthiza pusilla. 

AcANTHizA LiNEATA. Ac. vertice fusco-olivaceo, albo delicate 
striata ; dorso, alis, cauddque olivaceis ; luic apicem versus ni- 
grescente fascia td, ad apicem cinerescerdi-fuscd ; gidd, jjectoreque 
cinereis, olivaceo lavatis, et irregidariter fusco guttatis ; rostro 
pedibusque fuscis. 

Long. tot. 3J unc. ; rostri, | ; cdw, 2 ; cauda, 1-^ ; tarsi, ^. 

Hub. in Novii Cambria Australi. 

SYLVIAD^ ? Fam. 

PsiLOPUS. Genus novum. 

Rostrum capite brevius, tumidum, ad apicem dentatum, tomiis rec- 
tis ; nares basales, latcrales, ovales ; rictus setis i^aucis gracilibus 
obsitus ; aloi mediocres, remige prinio fere spurio, secundo elon- 
gato, tertio, quarto, quintoque longissimis et inter se aequalibus ; 
Cauda brevis et sequalis : tarsi laeves, graciles, mediocres ; digiti 



147 

perbrevGs et debiles, externi utrinque aequales et intermedio ad- 
juncti fere ad articulum prinium ; ungues incurvi. 
Typus est Psilopiis albogularis. 

PsiLOPUs BREViROSTRis. PsU. Tostw pcrhrevi, pallide fnsco ; 
strigd svjjerciliarijlavescente ; vertice fuscesce7iti-cine.reo ; nucha 
olivacect; dorso, uropygio, tectricibtisque cand(e olivaceis; plumis 
nuricularibus, genisque pallide. rufo-hrunricis; guld^ ptcctoreque 
albis, olivaceo lavatis, strigisque fuscis longitudinalibus, leviter 
ornatis ; abdomine pallide citrino ; rectricibus cauda infer mediis 
duabus fuscis ; reliquis ad basinfuscis dein nigrescente fasciatis, 
et interne albo notatis, apicibus pallide. fuscis ; jy^dibus nigre- 
scentibus. 

Long. tot. 3^ unc. ; i-ostri, |^; alee, 2; caudce, 11; tarsi, 1. 

Hab. in Nova Cambria Australi. 

Obs. In my own Collection. 

PsiLorus Fuscus. Psil. vertice, corporeque toto superne, saUirate 
fuscis, leviter olivaceo tinctis ; rectricibus caudce duabus inter- 
mediis fuscis ; relirjuis ad basin albis, dein nigrescentifusco late 
fasciatis, exinde albo notatis, apicibus jmllide fuscis ; guld, pec- 
toreque cinereis ; abdomine, crissoque albis ; j-osfro pedibusque 
intense fuscis. 

Long. tot. 3 J unc.; rostri, i; ate, 2^ ; caudcB, 1|; tarsi, |. 

Hab. in Australia. 

Obs. In the Collection of the Earl of Derby. 

PsiLOPUS OLiVACEUS. PsH. strigd svperciliari a basi mandihulce 
flavd ; vertice, corporeque supra olivaceis ; cdis fuscis, plumis 
extiis olivaceo marginatis ; rectricibus caud<e duabus intermediis 
fuscis; reliquis ad basinfuscis, dein albo, nigrescentifusco, ite- 
riimque cdbo fasciatis, apicibus fuscis ; rostro jjedibusque fuscis. 

Long. tot. 4^ unc. ; rostri, i ; alee, 2^ ; cauda, 1| ; tarsi, ^. 

Hab. ill Nova Cambria Australi. 

PsiLOPUS ALBOGULARIS. Psil. vcrtice, plumis auricidaribtis, cor- 
poreque supra olivaceo fuscis ; guld alba ; pcctore corporeque 
subtiis late citrinis ; rectricibus caudce duabus intermediis fuscis, 
reliquis ad basinfuscis, albo, dein late nigrescentifusco fasciatis, 
et interne adapicem cervinis ; rostro, pedibusque intense fuscis. 

Long, tot, 4-1 unc. ; rostri, i ; alee, 2J ; caudcs, 1| ; tarsi, |. 

Hab. in Nova Cambria Australi. 

Petroica modesta. Pet. summo capite, corpore supra, alis cau- 
ddque rxfo-brunneis ; gidd ulbd, brunneo lavatd ; pectore et 
abdomine centrali coccineo lavatis ; abdominis inferiori, crisso- 
que albis ; lateribus brunneis ; rostro nigrescenti-brunnco ; pe- 
clibus flavescenti-brunneis. 

Long. tot. unc. 5 ; rostri, ^ ; alee, <2f^ ; caudce, 2 ; tarsi, |. 

Hab. in Nova Hollandia apud oram' orientalem. 

Obs. The female resembles the male, but is rather lighter in colour, 
and has only an indication of the scarlet tinge on the chest and sides. 



148 

Origma. Genus novum. 

Rostrum, caput quoad longitudinem fere tequans, incurvatum, cari- 
natum, ad apicem denticulatum ; nares ovales, latevales, basales 
operculoque fere tectte ; alec mediocres, remige 1'"" brevissimo, 
4to 5to^ gto^ Ymoque longissimis et inter se fere sequalibus ; cauda 
niediocris et subrotundata ; tarsi mediocres ; digiti breves, in- 
terno longior externus. 
Typus est Saxicola solitaria, Vig. et Horsf. Rock Warbler, 

Lewiu, PL x\j. 

Ephthianura. Genus novum. 

Rostrum capite brevius, fere rectum, lateraliter compressum, ad api- 
cem indentatura ; nares basales, lineares, membrana tectae ; ala: 
elongatse, remige, 1'"° spurioso, 2''° longo, 3"" et ■t"' longissimis et 
inter se a^qualibus ; tertiariis longis ; cauda brevis ct truncata ; 
tarsi integri, mediocres, graciles ; digiti graciles, posticus cum 
luigue medio brevior ; digitus internus, externo brevior. 
Typus est, Acanthiza alhifrons, Jord. et Selb. 

Ephthianura aurifrons. Ephth. capite, tectricibvssuperiorihns 
caudcB, lateribus nuclice, pectore corporeque niiide aurantiacis, 
hoc colore in froute et centruli abdomine prcevalcnte ; dorso 
olivaceo ; alis brunneis olivaceo marginatis ; cauda obscure 
fused singulis rectncibus, duabus intermediis exceptis ad apicem 
interne albo maculatis ; mento et guld centrali nigris ; rostra 
nigro ; pedibus brunneis. 

Long. tot. unc. 4' ; rostri, f ; alee, 2^ ; caudee, 1-1 ; tarsi, |. 

Hub. in Nova Cambria Australi. 

Obs. In the Collection of the Zoological Society. 

Malurus longicaudus. Mas. Mai. summo capite, strigd in- 
fra uures, dorsoque anteriore, obscure cyaneis ; nivchd, scapulis, 
dorso uropygioque obscure nigris ; gutture pectoreque azureo- 
nigris; corpore infra cineresceiiti-albo, lateribus brunnescentibus ; 
rectricibus caudce obscure cyaneis, pallidioinbus apicibus ; rostro 
nigro ; tarsis brunneis. Fcem. Corpore supra, alis cauddque 
rufo leviler tinctis ; lined infronte et super ocidos, rostro pedi- 
bicsque rvfescentifuscis. 

Long. tot. unc. 5 ; rostri, ^ ; alee, 2 ; cavdce, 2§ ; tarsi, 1. 

Hab. in terra Van Diemen. 

Obs. This species is closely allied to Mai. cyaneus, but is more 
richly coloured, and exceeds it in all its measurements, particularly 
in the length of the tail. 

Pardalotus quadragintus. Pard. vertice, corporeque siipra 
olivaceis, plumis fusco leviter marginatis ; alis nigrescentibus, 
remigibus (prima et secundo exceptis), ad apicem albis ; genis, 
crissoque flavescenti-olivaceis ; corpore subtiis cinerescenti-albo ; 
rostro intense fusco ; pedibus fuscis. 

Long. tot. 3| unc. ; rostri, ^ ; alee, 2\ ; caudee, 1^ ; tarsi, |. 

Obs. This is the ' Forty-spot ' of the colonists of Van Diemen's 



149 

Land, so called from the numerous white spots with which it is 
adorned. 

Hab. in terra Van Diemen. 

Pardalotus melanocephalus. Pard.vertice,loro,plumisque 
auricularibus nigris ; strigd superciliari auranticd oriente, alba 
desinente ; gents collique lateribus albis ; nucha, dorsoque cine- 
rescenti-olivaceis ; reciricibus caudcB fuscescenti-cervims ; caudd 
nigra, ad apicem alba ; alts nigrescenti-fuscis ; remigibus tertio, 
quarto, quinto, sexto, septimoque albis ; secondariis albo margi- 
natis atqiie terminatis ; lined albd oblique per humeros abductd ; 
aid spuria coccineo terminatd ; lined gtitttirali, pectore, ahdomi- 
neque medio late fiavis ; crisso cervino ; rostra nigro ; pedibus 
fuscis. 

Long. tot. 4 unc; rostri, |; alee, 2\; ca.udcB, \\\ tarsi, |. 

Hab. in Nova Cambria Australi, apud oram orientalem. 

Pardalotus rubricatus. Pard. fascia frontali angustd sor- 
dide albd ; vertice, et occipife nigris, albo guttatis ; nucha, dorso, 
uropygio, tectricibusque alarum cinereis ; alis intense fuscis ; aid 
spuria, primariis ad basin, secondariisque ad marginem ex- 
ternum Icetc aurantiacis ; notd flammed ante oculos ; strigd su- 
per-ocidari cervind ; tectricibus caudce olivaceis ; caudd intense 
fused, ad apicem albd; guld abdomineque cinereis; jwctore 
fiavo ; mandibuld superiore fused, inferiore cincred ; pedibus 
fuscis. 
Long. tot. 4 unc. ; rostri, ^ ; alcB, 2^ ; caudce, l\ ; tarsi, |. 
Hab. in Australia. 
Obs. In my own Collection. 

Pachycephala xanthoprocta. Pach. vertice, corporeque su- 
pra olivaceis, hoc colore, ad crissum, ct ad marginem remigum 
alee, rectricumque caudce, Icetiore ; abdomine pallide fusco ; 
crisso flavo ; rostro ad apicem nigro, ad basin brunneo ; pedi- 
bus fuscis. 

Long. tot. 6 unc. ; rostri, jj ; cda;, 3^ ; caudce, 3 ; tarsi, |. 

Hab. in Nova Cambria Australi, apud oram orientalem. 

Obs. This may possibly prove to be the female of some species 
the male of which is at present vmknown. 

Pachycephala longirostris. Pach. vertice, corpore superiore, 
alisque olivaceis, primariis, secondariis, tectricibus, reclricibus- 
que caudcE ad marginem nitide olivaceo-aureis ; gidd, pectore- 
que pallide cinerescenti-fuscis ; crisso flavo ; rostro nigrescenti- 
fusco ; pedibus brunneis. 

Long. tot. 7 unc; rostri, |; alee, 4; caudce, 3^; tarsi, \. 

Hab. in Nova Cambria Australi, apud oram orientalem. 

Sphenostoma. Genus novum. 

Rostrum breve, durum, lateraliter compressum, et cuneiforme ; 
nares basales, rotundatae, opertEE ; rictus rectus ; mandibula supe- 



150 

riori haud dentata ; setis delicatis ad basin sparsis ; alee perbreves 
et rotundatoe, remigibus quarto, quinto, et sexto fere sequalibus 
et longissimis ; cauila elongata, et gradata ; tarsi mediocres, ro- 
busti, antice squarais tecti, postice Iseves ; pedes breves ; digifo 
postico valido, digitis externis inaequalibus, interne brevissimo. 

Sphenostoma cristatum. Sphen. capke plumis angustis acittis 
antice curvafis cristato; coipore supra et suhtiis omnino fusco ; 
ahdomine medio cinerescenti-albo ,- candd fused ; rectricibus 
iribus utrijique ad apicem albis ; rosiro 7iigrescente ; pedibus 
plumheis. 

Long. tot. 8 nnc. ; rostri, \ ; alee, 3|^ ; caudcB, 41 ; tarsi, |. 

Hub. in Nova Cambria Australi, apud orani orientalem. 

Obs. This species is closely allied to Strulhidea. 

CiNCLORAMPHUs. Gcnus novum. 

Rostrum capite subbrevius ; cuhnen leviter arcuatum, apice eniargi- 
nato ; commissura ad basin subangulata, incurvata per reliquam 
t.otam longitudinem ; 7>ares latcrales, ovales ; alu; mediocres, rigi- 
da3 ; remige 1"'° longo, 2^° et 3"° longissimis; cauda subparva, 
cuneiformis ; tarsi robusti antice scutellati ; digiti elongati, ro- 
busti, proecipue posticus, qui ad basin tarsi est articulatus. 
Typus est Megalurus cruralis, Vig. et Horsf. 

Dasyornis ? BRUNNEUs. Das. summo capite, corpore supra, 
alls lateribus cauddque, flavo-brunneis ; gutture, laieribns fa- 
ciei, et abdomine medio, fusco-albis ; rosfro ad apicem obscure 
fusco, ad basin pallidiore ; pedibus brunneis. 

Long. tot. unc. 5| ; rostri, ^ ; ala:, 2^ ; cauda, 3 ; tarsi, |. 

Hab. in Australia. 

Calamanthus. Genus novum. 

Rostrum capite brevius, ad basin tumiduni versus apicem latcraliter 
compressum, culmine promincnte et acuto ; nnres laterales, magnte, 
ovales et operculo tectas ; rictus sine setis ; a.l(c breves, rotundatce, 
remige 4;*" lotigissimo, 3''", 5'°, 6'° et 7'"° inter se 03qualibus; cauda. 
perbrevis et rotunda; tarsi mediocres, scutellis indistinctis antice 
instructi ; hallux subelongatus, ungue elongate munitus ; digiti 
laterales inasquales, externus brevior. 
Typus est Anthus fuliginosus, Vig. et Horsf. 

Cysticola ruficeps. Cyst, summo capite, nucha, picctore, late- 
ribus, femoribus, iiropygioque delicate cervinis, hoc colore in 
fronte et v.ropygio prcevalente ; dorso superiore, sccondariis, 
cauddque obscure fusco-nigris, singulis plumis, marginibus ba- 
diis circumdatis ; gutture et ahdomine centrali albis ; rostra 
brunneo ; pedibus Jlavo-brunneis. 

Long. tot. unc. 4 ; rostri, -1 ; alee, 1 1 ; caudce, 1 ^ ; tarsi, |. 

Hab, iu Nova Cambria Australi. 



151 



Familia 



Oreoica. Genus novum. 

Rostrum cjtpite brevius, robustum, lateribus compressis, ad apicem 
emarginatum; maxilla inferior, superiorem in robore fere asquans ; 
nai-es basales, rotundatte, tenuibus, brevibvis, capillaribus plumis 
(paucis elongatis intermixtis) fere tectse; alee subelongatse, remige 
l"'"brevi,3''°longissimo; tertiariisperlongis,primarias fere Jequan- 
tibus ; Cauda brevis et subrotundata ; tarsi sublongi et robusti, 
postice integri, antice scutellis duris muniti ; pedes ambulatorii ; 
digiti perbreves, posticus brevissinius, externo subbrevior inter- 
nus ; %mgues breves et fere recti. 
Typus est Falcunculus gutturalis, Vig. et Horsf. 

Calyptorhynchus xanthonotus. Cal. summo capite, genis, 
gutture, corporeque supra et infra fusco-nigris ; plumis pectora- 
libus, apicibus olivaceis ; auricularibusjlavis; rectricibus caudcB 
duabus infermediis nigro-fusds, reliquis ad bases et apices m'gris, 
in mediis pallide Jiavis, interdum plus minusve brunneo notatis; 
rostro albo, vel riigrescenti-brunneo ; pedibus obscure fuscis. 

Long. tot. unc. 24; afe, 14<|; caudce, 12; tarsi, 1. 

Hab. in terra Van Diemen. 

Obs. Nearly allied to Cal. Baudinii and Cal. funereus. 

Platycercus HjEmatonotus. Plat, summo capite, nuchd, ge- 
nis, pectoreque smaragdino-viridibus, in fronte, genisque palli- 
dioribus ; dor so brunnescenti-viridi ; uropygio coccineo ; sca- 
pula infra, aid spuriosd, marginibusque primariorum externis 
per partes basales, nitide cyaneis ; scapidd centrali, macula sul- 
phured notatd : tectricibus alte majoribus inferioribusque, cceru- 
leo-viridibus ; tectricibtts caudm rectricibusque duabus interme- 
diis viridibus, hoc colore in ccerideis apices versus transeunte, 
apicibus ipsis nigrofuscis ; rectricibus reliquis ad bases viri- 
dibus, hoc colore in ci7ierescenti-albo ad interna pogonia apicesque 
transeunte ; abdomine centrali fiavo ; femoribus cceruleo-viri- 
dibus; crisso cinerescenti-albo ; rostro corneo ; pedibus brunneis. 
Long. tot. unc. 1 1 ; alee, 5 ; caudec, 6§ ; tarsi, |. 
Obs. This species unites Platj/cercus to Nanodes,and is in fact so di- 
rectly intermediate between these genera in size and other characters, 
tiiat it is difficult to decide to which of them it should be referred. 

SiTTELLA PILEATA. Sitt.froute, strigd superciliari, gidd, pec- 
tore abdomineqxic medio cdbis ; vertice nigra ; plumis auricida- 
ribus, nucha, dorsoque cinercscenti-fuscis ; hujus lined satura- 
tiore per medias plumas excurrente ; uropygio albo ; tectricibus 
caudee, crissoque, cinerescenti fuscis, fusco alboque variegatis ; 
caudd nigra ad apicem alba ; alis nigrescenti fuscis, notci rifd 
centrali ; lateribus et ventre cinerescenti fuscis ; rostro ad basin 
flavo, ad apicem nigra ; pedibus flavis. 

Long. tot. 4f unc. ; rostri, ^ ; ala, 85 ; caudee, 1^ ; tarsi, ^. 

Hab. in Australia, apud Flumen Cyguorura. 



152 

SiTTELLA MELANOCEPHALA. Sitt. vertice, occipite, plumisque, 
auricularibus nigris ; dorso plumisque scapniaribus cinerescenti- 
fuscis ; alls 7iigris, primariis secondarnsque plus miniisve riifo 
nolatis ; uropygio, tectricibusque candce alb is ; caudd nigra ad 
apicem albo notatd; crisso alho,fusco fasciato ; pulpebris auran- 
tiacis ; rostro ad basin cameo, ad apicem nigro ; pedibus Jlavis. 

Long. tot. 4f unc. ; rostri, | ; ales, 85 ; caudce, 1| ; tarsi, f . 

Hab. in Australia, apud Flumen Cygnorum. 

SiTTELLA LEUCOCEPHALA. Sttt. capifc, guld, corporequc, subfits 
albescentibus, hoc lineis cinereo-fuscis longitudinalibus notato ; 
corpore supra cinerescenti-fusco ; urojyygio albo ; caxidd fused 
albo terminatd; alisfuscis; primariis secondariisque late rufo 
fasciatis ; crisso fusco, albo variegaio ,- rostro cmrantiaco, ad 
apicem fusco ; pedibus Jlavis. 

Long. tot. 45 unc. ; rostri, ^ ; alee, 2| ; caudce, \\ ; tarsi, \. 

Hah. in Australia. 

Meliphaga sericeola. Mel. summo capite, loro, orbitis, gut- 
tureque nigris ; fascid, indistinctd super ocidos et in fronte, 
alba; genis, plumis capillaribiis albis ; nuchd,dorso, uropygio, 
nigro-fuscis, singulis plumis brunnescenti-albo marginatis, hoc 
colore ad nucham prcevalente } alis cauddque nigro-fuscis; pri- 
mariis, secondariis Jlavis ; rectricibus ad pai-tes basales Jlavo- 
tnarginatis, et ad apices cinereo-albis, duabus intennediis ex- 
. ceptis ; pectore corporeque subtiis albis, singidis plumis, lineis 
centralibus fusco-nigris ; rostro nigro ; pedibus obscure brun- 
neis. 

Long. tot. unc. 5^ ; rostri, | ; alee, 2^ ; tarsi, | ; caudce, 2|. 

Hab. in Australia. 

Obs. This species very closely resembles in its markings the Me- 
liphaga sericea : it is however full a third less in all its proportions, 
and is without doubt distinct. 

Meliphaga inornata. Mel. summo capite, corpore supra, alis 
cauddque obscure olivaceo-brunneis ; primariis, secondariis et 
rectricibiis caudce (duabus intermediis exceptis) ad bases Jlavo 
marginatis ; gutture, pectoreque superiori brunneis ; abdomine 
centrali brunnescenti-albo ; lateribus brunneis ; rostro pedibiis- 
que brunneo-nigris. 

Long. tot. unc. 5\ ; rostri, | ; al(P, 2^ ; caudce, 2\ ; tarsi, f . 

Hab. in terra Van Diemen. 

Obs. Closely allied to Mel. Australasiana, but distinguished from 
it by the obscurity of its markings. 

Acanthagenys. Genus novum. 

Rostriim caput sequans, compressum, leviter arcuatum, ad apicem 
acutum, naribus sub-basalibus, mandibulae superioris tomiis ad 
apicem indentatis, et delicate serratis ; plaga nuda a basi man- 
dibulte infra oculos excunente ; genis infra plagam spinis sub- 
rigidis tectis; alai mediocres; remige primo brevissimo, tertio, 



153 

quarto, et quinto sequalibus cetero.«que excellentibus ; cauda rae- 
diocris subaequalis ; pedes validi ; digito postico forti, digitumque 
intermedium excellente ; externo ad intermedium basaliter ad- 
juncto ; unguibus ineurvatis. 

Hoc genus ad illud Anthochcera dictum appropinquat, difFert 
Cauda jequali, plaga faciali nuda genisque spinosis. 

AcANTHAGENYS RUFOGULARis. Accmth. capitc superiorc, dorso, 
alisque fiiscis, plumis ad marginem pallidioribus ; uropygio, 
tectricibusque caudce albis, in medio fusco tinctis ; strigd post 
oculos, et ad latera colli nigrescente ; super strigam lateralem 
colli, titled albescetite, fusco adspersd ; setis genarum albis, et 
infra ad basin mandibulce inferioris lined plumarum, albo ni- 
groque fasciatai-um ; guld pectoreque summo pallide rujis; cor- 
pore subtiis sordide albo, j)lumis fusco nolatis ; caudd ni- 
grescenti-fuscd, apice albo ; plagd faciali nudd, rostroque basi 
aurantiacis ; rostri apice, pedibusque nigris. 

Long. tot. 9| unc; rostri, l^; alee. 4^; caudce, 41; tarsi, 1. 

Hab. in Nova Cambria Australi. 

ANTHOCHiERA LUNULATA. Atith. summo capite, nuchd dorsoque 
anteriore olivaceo-brunneis ; dorso inferiori uropygioquc oliva- 
ceo-brunneis, singidis plumis, stemmatibus albis ; tectricibus 
sujierioribus caudce, olivaceo-brunneis, ad apices cdbis ; prima- 
riis brunneis ; secondariis tertiariisque brunneis, cinereo margi- 
natis ; rectricibus caicdcB intermediis duabus, cinereofuscis ; 
relicjuis obscure-fuscis, apicibus albis; plumis ntichcs lateralibus, 
elongatis ; acutis cinereis ; guld et nuchd anteriore, pectore, 
corporeque infra cinereo-brunneis ; maculd obliqud nived ad 
latera ; rostro nigrescentifusco ; pedibus rifo-brunneis. 
Long. tot. unc. 12; rostri, 1| ; caudce, 6^; ales, 5^; tarsi, 1|. 
Hab. in Australia, apud Flumen Cygnorum. 
Obs. Nearly allied to Anth. mellivora, but differs in its smaller 
size, in having a considerably longer bill, and in being entirely desti- 
tute of white strice down the head and back of the neck. In the 
Collection of Fort Pitt, Chatham. 

Plectorhyncha. Genus novum. 

Rostrum capite brevius, leviter arcuatum, fere conicum, et acutum, 
naribus basalibus, operculo tectis ; mandibula superiore obsolete 
ad apicem indentata ; alee mediocres, remige primo brevissimo, 
tertio quartoque longissimis ; cauda mediocris et aequalis ; tarsi 
validi ; digito postico cum ungue forti, et digitum intermedium 
anticum excellente ; digitis lateralibus insequalibus, externo lon- 
giore, et intermedio basaliter conjunct©. 

Plectorhyncha lanceolata. Plec. vertice, plumis auricu- 
laribus, nieckdque, albo fuscoque variegatis ; guld corporeque 
stibtus citierescenti-cdbis ; jjlumis pectoralibus sublanceolatis, et 
albis ; corpore toto, cauddque superne pallide fuscis; rostro 
fuscescenti-cortieo ; pedibus nigris. 



154 

Long, tot 9 line; rostri, 1 ; alee, 4-^; caudcB, 4;^; tarsi, 1. 
Hob. in Nova Cambria Australi. 

Entomophila. Genus novum, 

Hostrum fere capitis longitudinem sequans, ad basin latiusculum, 
dein compressum, et ad apicem, acutum ; mandibula superioris to- 
miis arcuatis, et apicem versus leviter indentatis ; nares basales, 
ovales, in membrana positae, et operculo tectse ; alcB longiusculae ; 
remige primo spurio, secundo tertium fere cequante, hoc longissi- 
mo ; Cauda brevis, sub-quadrata ; tarsi breves, et subdebiles ; di- 
gito posteriore bi'evi, forti; digitis externis baud aequalibus, interne 
paululum breviore. 

Entomophila picta. Mas. Ent. capite, gcn'is, corporeqne sup](i 
nigris ; plumls auricidaribus postice albo jimhriatis ; alls nigris, 
primariis secondariisque cxlus nitide Jlavis ; cnudce rectricibus 
nigris, extiisjlavo marginatts, omnibiisque (duahus internis excep- 
tisj plus minusve extus albo ad apicem notatis ; gulci, corporeque 
subtus alius, h6c ad latcra notis subfuscis longiludinalibus sparse 
ornato ; rostro Jlavescente ; pedibus nigrescentibus. 
Fcem. vel mas junior? Divert partibus fuscis, quce in mare adulto 
nigrce ; in cceteris mari simiHima,Jlavo colore minus nitido, ros- 
troque ad apicem fusco. 
Long. tot. 5^ unc. ; rostri, | ; al(Z, 3f ; cmidce, 2| ; tarsi, ^. 
Hab. in Nova Cambria Australi. 

Obs. The disposition of the yellow markings of the wings and tail of 
this kind reminds us of the Goldfinch ( Cardiielis elegans, Steph.): the 
lengthened wing, broad and short tail, the great breadth of the bill at 
its base, and the short tarsi lead me to believe that this species feeds 
principally upon insects which it pursues and captures on the wing. 

Glyciphila ? OCULARIS. Glyc. stttnmo capite, corpore suprci, 
alls caiuldque, obscure olivaceo-brunneis, hoc colore ad tiro- 
pygium et rectriccs caudales in luteo transeunte ; pone oculos 
pliimis paucis parvis nitide hrunneo-jiavis ; gtdd pectoreque 
cinereo-fuscis ; cd)domine crissoque olivaceo-dnereis ; rostro pe- 
dibusque ingro-brunneis, , 

Long. tot. unc. 5\; rostri, |; alee, 2|; caudce, 2\; tarsi, |. 

Hab. in terra Van Diemen. 

Glyciphila? subocularis. 

Obs. A species from New South Wales, which differs from Glyc. 
ocularis in being rather smallei', and in its more olive colouring. 

^GiALiTis ? CANUS. Mg.fronte, lined supra-ocxdari, genis, gida 
corporeque sublils, albis ; summo capite, corporeque supra cinereo- 
fuscis ; primariis obscure brunneis, stemmalibus albis ; caudd 
brunned, singulis plumls marginibus albis; rostro pedibusque 
nigris, oliuaceo tinciis. 

Long. tot. unc. 7i ; rostri, | ; alee, 3f ; caudce, 2^ ; tarsi, 1^. 

Hab. in Nova Cambria Australi. 



155 

Erythbogonys. Genus novum. 

Rostrum capite longius, rectum, paulo depressum ; nares basales, li- 
neares ; alee eloiigatae, remige primo longissimo ; tertialibus fere ad 
apiceni remigum tendentibus ; cauda brevis, et fere sequalis ; tarsi 
elongati ; digiti quatuor ; postico parvulo ; anticis inter se conjunc- 
tis, usque ad articulum primuui ; tibicc ex parte nudaj. 

Erythrogonys cinctus. Eryth. capite, plumis auricularihus, mu- 
chd, pectoreque nigris; gidd, abdomine medio, crissoque a Ibis ; hoc 
J'usco adsperso ; dorso, alis mediis, scajndaribusque olivaceis, 
hrunneo melallice lava t is ; iiropygio, rectricibus caudce duabus 
intermediis fuscis, rectricibus reliquis albis ; lateribus castaneis ; 
tibia parte nudd, cum arliculo, coccined; tarsis oUvaceo-fuscis ; 
rostra ad basin rubra, ad ap^icem nigra. 

Long. tot. 7 unc. ; rostri, 1 ; alee, 41^ ; caudce, 1| ; tarsi, \\. 

Hab. in Nova Cambria Australi. 

H^MATOPUS AusTRALAsiANus. Hcem. capite, nucha, iKctore, 
dorso, alis obscure viridi-nigris ; rectricibus caudce ad bases ni- 
veis ; tectricibus alee ad apices, abdomine, uropygio, et tectricibus 
caudee superioribus inferioribusqice niveis ; rostra obscrire auran- 
tiaco ; pedibus rubris. 

Long. tot. unc. 17 ; rostri, 3|^ ; alee, 10| ; caudce, 4^ ; tarsi, 2^. 

Hab. in Nova Cambria Australi. 

Obs. Nearly allied to the Hcem, ostralegus of England. 

Rhynch^a Australis. Rhyn. strigd brevi pone oculum alba; 
nucha castaned,fasciis angustis indistinctis, viridi-brunneis ; sum- 
ma capite obscure brunneo; genis, lateribus nuchce 7iigro-brunneis ; 
menta albo ; dorso olivaceo-viridi, cinereo tincta, et obscure brun- 
neo irrorato ; pectore carpareque sublils albis ; rostra rufa-brun- 
neo; pedibus obscure fuscis. 

Long. tot. unc. 8^ ; rostri, 2 ; alee, 5^ ; caudce, 2^ ; tarsi, \\. 

Hab. in Nova Cambria Australi. 

Obs. Differs from the Chinese species by its extremely short toes 
and larger Aving. 

NuMENius AusTRALis. Num. summo capite nuchdque nigro- 
fuscis, singulis plumis cerviiio marginatis ; dorso nigrescenti- 
fusco, singidis plumis rubrescenti-cervino ad marginem irregu- 
lariter maculatis ; tectricibus cdee nigro-fuscis, cinereo margi- 
natis; tertiariis brunneis, marginibus palUdioribus irrpgulariter 
macidatis ; uropygio tectricibusque superioribus caudce nigro- 
fuscis, singulis plumis cinerescenti-cei'viiio ad marginem fasci- 
atis ; tectricibus majoribus cdarum, nigrofiiscis, ad apiceni 
albis ; 1, 2, 3, 4, et 5, primariis brunneis, stemniatibus albis, 
reliquis cum secondariis irregidariter cdbo fasciatis ; lateribus 
faciei, gutture, carpareque infra, pallide cervinis, singulis plu- 
mis, lined centrali nigrescenti fused ; rostra ad basin flavescenti- 
brunneo, ad apicem nigrescenti-brunneo ; pedibus olivaceis. 
Long. tot. unc. 20 ; ro$tri, 5f ; alee, 1 1 ; caudce, 4^ ; tarsi, |. 



156 

Hab. in Nova Cambria Austi'ali. 

Obs. Nearly allied to, but differs from. Num. aquata in the entire 
absence of the white rump ; it is also rather less in size. 

Sterna melanura. Ster. summo capite corporeque supra brun- 
neis ; primariis Cauda que nigro-fuscis ; caudd furcatd ; fronte, 
gutture corporeque infra, albis ; rostra pedibusque nigris. 

Long. tot. unc. 11 ; rostri, 1| ; alee, 9 ; cauda, 4|; tarsi, |. 

Hab. in Nova Cambria Australi. 

Obs. This appears to be an immature specimen. In the Collec- 
tion of the United Service Museum. 

SuLA RUBRiPES. Sul. capitc, pectore, gutture, abdomitie crissoque 
fusco-albis ; dorso, rectricibusque caudce caryophillaceis ; alis 
pallide cai-yophillaceis, fusco-cinereis irroralis ; primariis se- 
condariisqiie nigro-fuscis ; rostra Jlavescenti-carneo, apice ni- 
gra ; pedibus nitide rubro-aurantiacis. 
Long. tot. unc. 23; rostri, 4; alee, 14; cauda, 7; tarsi, 1|. 
Hab. in Nova Cambria Australi. 

Obs. The specimen from which this description was taken ap- 
peared to be somewhat immature. In the Collection of the United 
Service Museum. 

PuFFiNUS ASSiMiLis. Pvff. summo capite, corpore supra, alis 
cauddque fuliginosis ; lateribus faciei, guld corporeque infra 
albis ; rostra fuscescenti-corneo ; tarsis digitisque viridescenti- 
flavis ; membrand inter-digitali aiirantiacd. 

Long. tot. unc. 11 ; rostri, 2f ; ate, 65 ; cauda:, 3 ; tarsi, \\. 

Hab. in Nova Cambria Australi. 

Obs. Very closely allied to Puffinus obscurus, but considerably 
smaller. 

Phalacrocorax cARBO'iDES. P/ial. guld et faciei lateribtis 
albis ; summo capite, nucha corpore infra, uropygio, cauddque 
nitide nigro-viridibus ; rectricibus caudce 14; dorso, alis, late- 
ribus superioribus nigro-brunneis, singulis plumis nitide nigro- 
viridibus late marginatis ; nucha plumis gracilibus lanceolatis 
albis ornatd ; paucis apud femora externa ; rostra corneo ; pe- 
dibus nigris. 

Long. tot. unc. 34; rostri, 4; ate, 13^; caudce, 8; tarsi, 2\. 

Hab. in terra Van Diemen. 

Obs. Closely allied to the Common Cormorant of Europe {Phal. 
Carbo). 

Phalacrocorax leucogaster. Plml. fronte, summo capite, 
nu£hd uropygioque viridi-nigris ; dorso tectricibusque alee viri- 
dibus, singulis plumis nigro marginatis ; primariis seconda- 
riisque nigris ; gutture, lateribus nucha, corporeque infra albis ; 
rostro nigro, rubro tincto ; pedibus nigris. 

Long. tot. unc. 26 ; rostri, 3 ; ate, 11^ ; catidce, 5% ; tarsi, 2^. 

Hab. in Nova Cambria Australi. 



157 

Phalacrocorax flavirhynchus. Phal. summo capite, ntichd, 
dorso, uropygio, crissoque nigris; tectricibus alee et scapu- 
larihns cinereo-nigris ; lined super-oculari, gutture, corporeque 
infra albis ; rostro nitide aurantiaco, cidmine fusco ; pedibus 
fuscis. 

Long. tot. unc. 23 ; rostri, 2^ ; afe, 9| ; caudcB, 6\ ; tarsi, 1 5. 

Hab. in Nova Cambria Australi. 

Obs. This species is distinguished by its much smaller size from 
the preceding, and by the conspicuous line of white over each eye. 



INDEX. 



The names of New Species and of Species newly characterized are printed 
in Roman Characters : those of Species previously known, but respecting which 
novel information is given, in Italics : those of Species respecting which 
Anatomical Observations are made, in Capitals, 



Page 

Abramys Buggenhagii, Thomps. ... 56 

Abrocoma, n. g., Waterh 30 

Bennettii, Waterh. ... 31 

Cuvieri, Waterh 32 

Abrothrix, n. g., Waterh 21 

arenicola, Waterh. ... 21 

brachiotis, Waterh. ... 21 

canescens, Waterh. ... 21 

longipilis, Waterh, ... 21 

micropus, Waterh. ... 21 

obscurus, Waterh 21 

olivaceus, Waterh. ... 21 

xanthorhinus, Waterh. 21 

Acanthagenys, n. g., Gould 152 

rufogularis, Gould 153 

Acanthiza albifrons, Jard. et Selb. 148 

Diemenensis, Gould ... 146 

frontalis, Vig. et Horsf. 133 

lineatus, Gould 146 

magnirostris, Gould ... 146 

lU'opygialis, Gould 146 

Acanthorhynchu?, n. g., Gould. „ 24 

dubius, Gould .... 25 

superciliosus, Gould 2^^ 

Accipiler torquatun, Vig. et Horsf. 98 

Acontistes, Sinideval 119 

jEgialitis? canus, Gould 154 

Agelaius guhertiator, Bonap 110 

Phainiceus, Vieill Ill 

tricolor, Aud Ill 

Aglaia Brasiliensis, Bonap 122 

nigrocincta, Bonap 121 

punctata, Edwards 122 

Schrankii, Bonap 122 

Alauda alpestris, Linn 126 

calandra, Linn 126 

penicillata, Gould 126 

Alca impennis, Linn 122 

torda, Linn 122 



Page 

Amblypterus, n. g., Gould 105 

anomalus, Gould... 105 

Ammodites toManus, Bloch 58 

Ampkisorex, Duv 124 

ciliatus 125 

Hermani, Dnv 125 

palustris 125 

Pennantii 125 

Anguilla, Linn 37 

latirostris, Yarr 58 

Anomiopsis, n. g., Westw 13 

Dioscorides, Westw... 13 
sterquilinus, Westw. . 13 

Anthochsera lunulata, Gould 153 

wieWiwora, Vig. et Horsf. 153 
Anthus fuliginosus, Vig. et Horsf. 150 

Aplergx Australis, Shaw 24 

Aquilafucosa, Cuv 96 

Argonauta, Linn 45, 84 

Arremon giganteus, Bonap 117 

Asthenurus rufiventris, Bonap 120 

Astur approxiinans, Vig. et Horsf. 98 

fusciattis, Vig. et Horsf. 98 

'Rati, Vig. et Horsf. 99 

Ateuchus Adamastor, Oliv 12 

Athene erythropterus, Gould 136 

fortis, Gould 99, 141 

leucopsis, Gould 99 

strenua, Gould 99, 142 

Balcena mysticetus, Linn 42 

Batrachia ,38 

Bei-o'e, Miill 1 

Blarina, n. g.. Gray 124 

talpoides, Gray 124 

Boidts 135 

Brachyotus, n. g., GoM^fZ 11 

Galapagoensis, Gould 10 

Brachypus plumifera, Gould 137 

Buccinum undatum, Linn 45 



160 



INDEX. 



Page 

Bueco Saltii, Stanley 50 

Buteo ? 114 

x&nwi, Gould 70 

ventralis, Gould 10 

Cactornis, n. g., Gould 6, 49 

assirailis, Gould 7 

scandens, Gould 7 

Ccerehacyanea, Vieill 118 

Calamanthus, n. g., Gould 1.50 

Calomys, n. g., Walerh 21 

bimaculatus, Waterh 21 

elegans, IVaterh 21 

gracilipes, Waterh 21 

Calijptorhynchus Baudimi, Vig... 151 

funereus, Vig. et Horsf. 151 

xanthonotus, Gou. 151 

Camarhynchus, n. g., Gould 6, 49 

crassirostris, Gou. 6 
Psittacula, Gould. 6 
Campcphaga leucomela, Vig. et 

Horsf. 143 

Ca7iis Caaina, And. Smith 132 

Capito macrodactylus, Bonap. ... 119 
Caprimulffus albo-gularis, Vig. et 

Horsf. 142 

bifasciatus, Gould ... 22 
gultalus, Vig. et Horsf. 142 
monticolus, Frankl. ... 89 

parvulus, Gould 22 

vociferus, Wils 119 

Cardinalis pbceniceus, Gould Ill 

sinnatus, Bonaj). ... Ill 

Carduclis Burtoni, Gould 90 

Virginianus, -flo7ja/>. ... Ill 

Cassicus ? Daud 115 

nigerrimus, Spix 115 

solitar'nu, Azara 115 

Catulus, Willougbby 85 

Edwardi, And. Smith 85 

poroderma, And. Smith . 85 
pantJierinus, And. Smith , 85 
suhmaculatus. And. Smith 85 
variegaius, And. Smith ... 85 

Ceblepyris humeraHs, Gould 143 

Centrotus bifoliatus, Westw 130 

horrificus, Westw 130 

Centurus elegans, Swains 109 

Santa Cruzi, £o«a/j 116 

subelegans, jBo7Jrtja 109 

Cepola, Linn 55 

Cerchnis Cenchro'ides, Gould 97 

Cercopithecus larvatus, Wurmb... 70 

Cercosaurid<e 132 

Certhidea, n. g., Gould 7,49 

olivacea, Gould 7 

Cervus Alces, Linn 53 



Page 

Cervus Hibernus, Desm 53 

Cervus Smithii, Gray 45 

Ceryle alcyon, hinn 108 

Torquata, Bonap 108 

Cey.\ microsoma, iS«;7on 89 

ChamoesaurldcB 132 

CherocolidcB 132 

Chrossorhinus, Miill. et Henle. ... 86 

Ch rysoch lor i.i,CuY 69 

Cinclidia, n.g. Gould- 136 

punctata, Gould 137 

Cincloramphus, n. g., Gould 150 

Circus affinis, Jard. et Selb 99 

assimilis, Jard. et Selby ... 141 

Jardinei, Gould 99, 141 

megaspilus, Gould 10 

pallid us, Sykes 48 

rufus, Briss 99 

Cleodora cuspidata 51 

Clivina castanea, Westw 128 

Clupea alba, Yarr 127 

SpraUus, Linn Gl 

Cobitis icBnia, Linn 59 

Coccot/iraustes Bonapartei, Less. Ill 

Coccyzus Cayanus, Bon 115 

Colaptes auratus. Swains 109 

Fernandlna, Vig 109 

rubricalus, Bonap 109 

Colliris femorata, Westw 127 

Colobus leucomeros, Ogilby 69 

Columba aurita, Temm 114 

Jlavirostria, Wag] 113 

Colymbus Arcticus, Linn 64 

Corsira, n. g., Gray 123 

Fosteri, Gray 124 

talpoides, Gray 124 

vulgaris. Gray 124 

Corvus Cacalotl, Wagl 115 

corax, Linn 115 

nobilis, Gould 79 

Coturnix pectoralis, Gould 8 

Crenilabrus cornubicus, Risso ...57, 59 

gibbus, F\em 59 

microstoma, Couch..., 55 
multidentatus, Thomps, 56 

rupestris, Selby 57 

tinea, Risso 57,59 

Cricetus vulgaris, Desm 50 

Crocidura major, Wagl 125 

moschatu, Wagl 125 

rufa, Wagl 125 

poliogaster, Wagl 125 

Crossopus, n. g., Gray 123 

Daubentonii, Gray 126 

Crotalidce 135 

Crotophaga Sulcirostra,Sv/!dns. . 115 



INDEX. 



161 



Page 

Crypticus Martii, Bonwp 119 

Cuculus micropterus, Gould 137 

Cyanocorax coronatus, Bonap.\09, 115 

Cyanurus Bullocki, Bonap 115 

Cyprinus Buggenhagii, Bloch 56 

Cysticercus 42 

Cysticola ruficeps, Gould 150 

Dasyornis? brunneus, Goidd 150 

Dasypus hybridus, Desm 13 

minutus, Desm 13 

Peba, Desm 13 

Dendrocops platyrostris, Bonap... 120 

DendrocUta leiccogaster, Gould ... 80 

rufigaster, Gould ... 80 

Dendromys, And. Smith 29 

Didelphis hortensis, Reid 4 

Dyticida 123 

Echiodon, n. g., Thomps 55 

Drummondii, Thomps. 55 

Egr etta Leuce, 'Rona.T^ 114 

Elanus melanopterus, Leach 99 

notatus, Gould 99, 141 

Emberiza Leshia, Linn 48 

Entomophila, n. g., Gould 154 

picta, Gould 154 

Eopsaltria griseo-guiaris, Gould... 144 

parvula, Gould 144 

Ephthianura, n. g., Gould 148 

aurifrons, Gould ... 148 

Equus hemionus, Pall 91 

Erinaceus concolor, Martin 103 

Ettropcsus, Linn 102 

Ei-ythrospiza frontalis, Bonap 112 

Erythrogonys, n. g., Gould 155 

cinctus, Gould 155 

Eryx, Daud 135 

Etheria, Lam 64 

Euphonia ceeruleocephala, Swains. 113 
Hirundinacea, Bonap... 117 

violacea, -Bo««p 117 

Eui'ostopodus, n. g., Gould 142 

Euryotis ? Brants 29 

Eurycephalus nigripes, Dej 129 

Falco Berigora, Vig. et Horsf. 97, 140 

brunneus, Gould 139 

Cenchroides, Vig. et Horsf. 98 

frontatus, Gould 139 

melauogenys, Gould 139 

Peregrinus, Linn 97 

radiatiis, Lath 98 

Falcunculus fiavigulus, Gould ... 144 

gutturalis, Vig. et Horsf. 144, 151 

leucogaster, Gould ... 144 

Felis Darwin ii, Martin 4 

Pajeros, Desm 3 

uncia, Schreb 67 



Page 

Forficula tarsata, fVestw 129 

Fringilla 7iivalis, Linn 126 

sanguinea, Gould 127 

Fulgora apicalis, Westw 130 

Gadus callarias, Linn 57 

minutus, Linn... 57 

Galago Alleni, Walerh 87 

Galbula tomhacea Spix 120 

Galictis, n. g. Bell 45 

AUamandi, Bell 45 

vittata, Bell 46 

Gaslerosteus brachycentrus, Cuv. 58 

Genetla Senegalensis, Geoff. 132 

Geocolaptes terrestris, Swains. ... 109 

Geospiza, n.g. Gould 5, 49 

dentirostris, Gould 6 

dubia, Gould 6 

fortis, Gould 5 

fuliginosa, Gould 5 

magnirostris, Gould ... 5 

nebulosa, Goidd 5 

parvula, Gould 6 

strenua, Gould 5 

Ginglymostoma, Miill. et Henle . 85 

Glyciphila? ocularis, Gould 154 

subocularis, Gould... 154 

Gobius bipunctatus, Yarr 62 

Britannicus, Thomps. ...61,63 

geniporus, Cuv. et Val. ... 62 

niger, Cuv. et Val 61 

Ruthensparii, Euphrasen 61 

Graucalus melanotis, Gould 143 

parvirostris, Gould ... 143 

Grus leucogaranus, Temm 48 

Guiraca coerulea, Swains Ill 

Ludoviciana, Swains. ... 116 

magnirostris, Bonap. ... 120 

melanocephala, Swains. . Ill 

Gulo vittatus, Desm 46 

Hsematopus Australasianus, Gou. 155 

ostralegus, Linn. ... 155 

Hemipodius melanogaster, Gould 7 

melanotus, Gould... 8 

Halcyon erythrorhynchus, Gould 22 

incinctus, Gould 142 

Halia'etus albicilla, Se\hy 97 

canorus, Vig. et Horsf. . 97 

Calei, Vig. et Horsf. ... 97 

leucocephalus, Savig. ... 97 

leucosternus, Gould ... 138 

splienurus, Gould 138 

Heliocantharus, Kirby 12 

Helix decollala 63 

Helodermidce 132 

Hemiscyllium,^l\A\. etUGxAe ... 86 

Ilerpetotheres cachinnans, Vieill. 114 



162 



INDEX. 



Page 

Himantopus leucoccphalus, Gould 2(3 

tnelanopterus, Linn. 26 

Hippocamptcs hreviiosiris, Cuv... 58 

Hirundo concolor, Gould 22 

fiontalis, Gould 22 

HydridcB t 135 

Hydrosorex, Duv 123 

Hylobates Choioniandus, Og'dhij . G9 

Hymenotes, n.g. Weslw 129 

angulai-is, Weslw. ... 130 

rhombea, Westw 130 

Ibis erythrovhyncha, Gould 127 

religiosa, Cuv 106 

strictipennis, Gould 106 

Icteria Velasquezi. Bonap 117 

Tcteria viridis, Bonap Ill, 117 

Icterus ? 116 

Baltimore 116 

Bonariensis, Bonap 116 

Dominicensis 110 

Mexicanus, Leach 110 

Van9,o\\\m, Bonap 110 

spurius 116 

leracidea, n. g., Gould 140 

Kemas hylocrius, Oyilby 81 

Labrus lineaius, Don 58 

maculatus, Blocli 58 

Psittacus, Risso 58 

variabilis, Thomps 59 

Laceriidce 132 

Lagostomns trichodaclylus, Br. ... 4 

Lamia pulchellator, Westw 128 

Lanius Ardesiacus, lAnn 112 

Borcalis, Linn 112 

excubitor,'Lm-\ 112 

Jtalicns, Latli 112 

Karu, Less 143 

Ludovicianus, Bon 112 

minor, 'Vemm 126 

Larus Audubonii, Temm 48 

Lepidogenys subcristatus, Gould . 140 

Leplogloss(E 132 

Leptophila riifaxilla, Swains 113 

Lepus Cuniculus, Linn 53 

Leuciscifs Lancastriemis, Yarr.... 59 

Limosa Terek, Temm 48 

Lhmria Cannabina, Swains 126 

Lophotes, Less 140 

Lutra vitlata,TYai\l 46 

Lyunis Derbianiis, Gould 132 

Machaerota ensifera, Burm 130 

Macrocercus millfaris, Vicill 109 

Macropus Bennettii, Watcrh 103 

major, Shaw 82 

ualabatus, Less 103 

Macroscelides, iUjd. Smith 69 



Page 

Magilus, Montf. 63 

Malurus longicaudus, Gould 148 

cyaneus, Vieill 148 

Medusa 2 

Megalaurus cruralis, Vig. et Hor. 150 

Melanerpes formicivortis. Swains. 109 

meropirostris, Bonap, 120 

MeUphaga Australasiana 152 

inovnata, Gould 152 

sericeola, Gould 152 

sericea, Gould 152 

Micropogou flavicoUe, Bonap. ... 120 

aurovirens, Bonap. . 120 

Milvus affinis, Gould 140 

aterrimus, Gould 99 

isurus, Gould 99, 140 

NovK-Hollandire, Gould . 99 

Moniioridce 132 

Monopterus, Comm 38 

Molacilla alba, Linn 74,78 

leucopsis, Gould 78 

Yarrellii, Gould 78 

Motella glauca, J enyns 57 

mustela, Cuv 57 

Mugil C/ielo, Cuv 57 

Mus Abbottii, Waterh 77 

Allcni, Waterh 77 

avenicola, Water h 18 

bimaculatus, Waterh 18 

bvachiotis, Waterh 17 

brevirostris, Waterh 19 

Cahirinus, GeofF. 105 

canescens, Waterh 17 

cricetus, Linn 50 

Darwinii, Waterh 28 

elegans, Waterh 19 

flavesccns, Waterh 19 

gracilipes, Waterh 19 

griseo-flavus, Waterh 28 

Hayi, Waterh 76 

Hibernicus, Thomps 52 

longipilus, Waterh IG 

Maurus, Waterh 20 

niicropus, Waterh 17 

nasntus, Waterh 16 

obscurus, Waterh 16 

olivaccus, Waterh 16 

rattus, Linn 53 

subspinosus, Waterh 104 

tumidus, Waterh 15 

xanthopygus, Watcrh 28 

xanthorhinus, Waterh. 17 

Mustela putoria, Linn 46 

Myiagra nitida, Gould 142 

Myosorex, n. g., Gray 123 

variits, Gray 124 



INDEX. 



163 



Page 

Nanodes elegans, Gould 25 

Nasalis recunnis, Vig. et Horsf... 71 

Naulilus, hhm 63 

Nigidius laevicollis, JFestiv 128 

Nociiluca: 51 

Noctita Boohook, Vig. et Horsf. ... 99 
maculata, Vig. et Horsf. . 93 

Numcnius Australis, Gould 155 

arquatus, Lath 15G 

Ocytho'e, Cranch 45,84 

Oniscus, Linn 42 

Oreocincla, n. g. Gould 145 

macrorhynclia, Gould 145 
pavvirostris, Gould.. 136 

Oreoica, n. g. Gould 151 

Orignia, n.g. Gould 148 

Oriolus Xanthornus, Linn 110 

Orpheus melanotus, Gould 27 

parvulus, Gould 27 

trifaseiatus, Gould 27 

Ortyx guttata, Gould 79 

MontezumcB, Vig 114 

phuiiifera, Gould 42 

Oryx Capensis, Smith 81 

Ostrea, Linn 64 

Olion Citvieri, Leach 42 

Otomys, And. Smith 29, QQ 

Otus Galapagoensis, Gould 10 

Oxymycterus, n.g., Waterli 21 

nasutus, Waferh... 21 

Pachycephala longirostris, Gould 149 

australis, Vig. ct Horsf. 144 

xanthoprocta, Gou. 149 

PacJujglosscs 132 

Pandion loucocephalus, Gould ... 138 
Paradoxurus Derbianus, Gray ... 67 

Pardalotus aflinis, Gould 25 

melanocephalus, Gou. 149 
quadragintus, Gould 148 
riibricatus, Gould ... 149 

striatus, Temm 25 

Parra Jacana, Linn 114 

Patella, Linn 101 

Pediculus, Linn 127 

Penelope vetula, Wngl 119 

Petaurus, Cuv 83 

Petroica modesta, Gould 117 

Petromyzon planer?, Cuv 58 

Phaniciira ruticilla, Sav 126 

Phalacrocorax brevirostris, Gould 26 
carboides, Goidd. . 156 
Carlo, Temm. ... 156 
leucogaster, Gould 156 
flavirhynchus, Goe<. 157 

Phalangista, Geoff. 83 

Cookii, Desm 131 



Page 

Phalangista viverrina, Oyilhy ... 131 

Phalcobienns albogularis, Gould . 9 

Montana, D'Orb. ... 9 

Phascogale flavipes, Waterli 75 

marina, IVaterh 76 

penicillata , Temm. ... 76 

Phileremos cornutus, Bonap Ill 

Pholas, Linn 101 

P/iycis furcatus, Flem 57 

Phyilotis, n.g., IVaterh 28 

Darwinii, Waterh. ...... 28 

griseo-flavus, Waterh. . 28 
xanthopygus, Waterh. . 28 

Physalia pelagica, ham 43 

Physcfer macrocephalus, Shaw ... 39 

Phytotoma tridactyla 50 

Picus arator 109 

aurifi-ons IIG 

Picus Carolinensis, Wils IIG 

Chilensis, Less 109 

Pinalia, n. g., Gray 125 

Pipra caudata, Shaw 113 

coronata, Spix 113 

cyaneocapilla, Vfagl 113 

cyanocephala, Vieill 113 

elegantissima, Bonap 112 

Wneaxls, Bonap 113 

longicauda, Vieill 113 

melanocephala, Vieill 113 

musica, Vieill 113 

Serena, Linn 113 

strigilata, Max 122 

striolata, Bonap 122 

Platalea flavipes, Gould 106 

regia, Goidd 106 

Platessajlesus, Flem 60 

pola, Cuv 58 

Platycercus flaveolus, Goidd 26 

haematonotus, Gould 151 

ignitus, Leadb 8 

Plectorhyncha, n. g., Gould 153 

lanceolata, Gould 153 

Plenronectes hirtus, Miill 60 

punctatus, Penn. ... 60 

rhombus, hmn 60 

Podargus, Cuv 67 

stellatus, Gould 43 

Pogonius Brucci, Riipp 50 

Polyborus albogularis, Gould 9 

Brasdiensis, Swains. 9, 108 
Galapagoensis, Gould . 9 

Polyborus Novcb Zelandice 96 

Pomatorhinus leucogaster, Gotild 137 

Prionites Momotus, Temm 114 

Pristiurusf Bonap 86 

Prionocerus cceruleipennis, Perty 128 



164 



INDEX. 



Page 

Procellaria puffinns, Linn 50 

Proteus anguinus, Lam 107 

Psilopus, n. g., Go?iW 146 

albogularis, Go?</rf 147 

brevirostris, Gould 147 

fuscus, Gould 147 

olivaceus. Gould 147 

Pteroglossus GowMIm, Nalterrer... 44 

Pleromys, Cuv 69 

Horsfieklii, Water h. ... 87 

Puffinus assimilis, Gould 156 

ohscurui 156 

PylJion, Baud 135 

Pyranga /Estiva, Vieill 116 

Ludoviciana, Bonap. ... 116 

Pyrgita Jagoensis, Gould 77 

petronia, Cuv 126 

Pyrosoma, Peron 3 

Atlanlica 51 

Pyrrhula rosea, Temm 48 

Quiscalus major, Vieill 110 

Pttllus Cliiricote, Vieill 114 

liamphastos carlnatus, Swains..., 108 

Ramphocelus atro-sericeus D'Oib. 121 

icteronohis, Bonap. 121 

nigro-gularis, Spix 121 

Ramphoph Jlainmigerus, Jard. et 

Selb 121 

Passerinii, Bonap. ... 121 

Reduvius tibialis, Westw 130 

Reithrodon, n. g., Waterh 29 

cuniculoides, Waterh. 30 

typicus, Waterh 30 

Rhea Americana, Briss 35 

Darwinii, Gould 35 

Rhinchites Manillcnsis, Westw. . 128 

Riiinoloplius Landeri, Martin ... 101 

Rhyncliaja Australis, Gould 155 

Salmo eriox, Linn 57 

trutta, Linn 57 

Salpa, Gmel 1 

Saiiridee 132 

Saxicola solitaria, Vig. et Horsf. 148 

Scapteromys, n. g., Waterh 20 

tumidus, Waterh 21 

Scarabefiis, Linn 12 

Sceliages, n. g., Westw. 12 

lopas, Westw 12 

Scelodonta, n. g., Westtv 129 

curculionoides, Westw. 1 29 

Sciuroplerus Horsiieldii, Waterh. 87 

Scyllium, Linn 85 

biviiim, Linn 85 

capense, And. Smith ... 85 

Africanum, Cuv 85 

plagiosum, Benn 85 



Page 

Scyllium marmoratum, Benn 85 

melanostomum, Bonap. 86 

Sciuroptera fimbriata, Gray 67 

Turnbulli, Gray 68 

Scolopacinus, n. g., Bonap 120 

rufiventris, Bonap. 119 

Semnojiitheciis EnteUus, F. Cuv. . 73 

obscurus, Reid ... 14 

Septaria, Lam G4 

Sericornis, n. g., Gould 133 

citreogularis, Gould... 133 

humilis, Gould 133 

parvulus, Gould 134 

Sericnlus.magnirostris, Gould . ... 145 

Setophaga rubra, Swaina 118 

ruiicilla. Swains 118 

SiMiA NASALis, Schreb 70 

nasica, Schreb 70 

Wurmbii, Fisch 82 

Sittella leucocephala, Gould 152 

pileata, Goi/W 151 

nielanocephala, Gould 152 

Solea lingua, Rend 58 

Sorex araneus, Schreb 125 

amphibius, Brehm 126 

brevicaudatus. Say 124 

Carolinensis, Bachm 124 

Capensis, GeofF. 125 

Capensoides, And. Smith... 125 

concinnus, Pall 124 

constrictus, Geoff. 124 

crussicaudatus, Geoff. 125 

etruscus, Savi 125 

Jlavesccns, Geoff. 125 

fodiens,f \cm 126 

Icucodon, Herm 125 

megalodon, Pall 124 

musculiis, Wag] 126 

myosurus, Geoff. 125 

natans, Brehm 126 

pari'us, Say 124 

personatus, Geoff. 124 

pilorides, Shaw 124 

psilurus, Wagl 126 

pulchellus, Gmel 125 

pumilus, Gmel 125 

rhinolophus, Pall 124 

stagnalis, Brehm 126 

tetragonurus, Herm 126 

Sphagebranchus, Bloch 38 

Sphenostoma, n.g. Gould 149 

cristatum, Gould... 150 

Spirilla, Lam 64 

Spiza versicolor, fiowop 120 

Spondylus variuSjBrod.l 63 

Sfftalus, Linn, , , 85 



INDEX. 



165 



Page 

Squalus canicula, Bloch 85 

ocellatus, Bloch 86 

lobahis, Linn 85 

Ga/«, Garra 85 

fasclatus 85 

maculatus 85 

^V/e^ios^oma, Miill. et Henle 85 

Sterna macrotaisa, Gould 2G 

melanura, Gould 156 

poliocerca, Gould 26 

Strix ascalaplnis 48 

Cyclops, Gould 99 

castaiiop.i, Gould 99 

delicatus, Gould 99 

personata, Vig. et Horsf. ... 99 

Scops, Temm 54 

Sturnella Hippocrepis, Wagl Ill 

militaris, Vieill 120 

Slylephorus, Shaw 55 

Sula rubripes, Gould 156 

Surnia nivea,Y)xim 45 

Sos, Linn 23 

Sylvicola decurtata, Bonap 118 

Symmorplius, n. g., Gould 145 

leucopygus, Gould 145 

Synallaxh cinerascens, Temm. ... 118 

Synhranchus, Bloch 38 

Syngnathus cequoreus, Linn 58 

lumhriciformis, Jeny ns ? 60 

oplddion, 'Qloch 58 

lyphle, Linn 58 

Tanagra archiejnscopus, Desm 117 

celestis, Sj)ix 121 

chlorotica 116 

cynnocephala, T>'Orh. ... 121 

Darwinii, Bonap 121 

episcopus. Less 117 

Sayaca, Linn 117 

oUvascens, Licht..;r 117 

glauca, Sparm 117 

vicarius. Less 116 



Page 

Tanagra striata, Gniel 121 

TetrapturusHerschellii, Gray ... 101 

Tliamnophilus doliatus, Bo?iap.... 1 1 7 

fuliginosus, Gould 80 

rutilus, Vieill 117 

Therates coracina, Erich 128 

Thrasa'itos Harpy ia, G. R. Gray 108 

Todus cincreus, Briss 117 

Trichiurus, Linn 55 

Triglu aspera, Viviana 61 

cucidus, Bloch 57 

kirimdo, Bloch 61 

Gurnardus, Linn 61 

2)ini, Bloch 61 

pceciloptera, Cnv. etYal... 61 

Trochilus colubris, Linn 37 

Trogon Mexicamis, Swains.? 109 

Paradiseus, Bonap 101 

resplendens, Gould 101 

strigilatus, Linn 116 

Turdus Grayi, Bonap 118 

migratoritiSjLmn. Ill 

unicolor, Gould 136 

Tyranntda coronata, Swains 112 

dii\B.xica.ia., Bonap. ... 112 

Tyrannus superciliosus, Swains... 118 

Ursus Brasiliensis, Thunb 46 

Vespertilio Natterreri, Kuhl. ... 52 

Viperida 135 

Viverra vittata, Schreb 46 

J'ulpes Bengalensis, Gray 68 

dorsalis, Gray 132 

fulva, 68 

fulvipes, Martin 11 

vulgaris, Briss 68 

xanthura, Gray 68 

VULTUR AURA 33 

Xantlwrnus gularis, Wag] 100 

mentalis, Wagl 120 

ZonuridcB 132 



Printed by Richard and John E. Taylor, Red Lion Court, Fleet Street, London. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



OF LONDON. 



mmmi 



PART VI. 
1838. 



PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY, 
BY R. AND J. E. TAYLOR, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



LIST 



OF 



CONTRIBUTORS, 

JVifh References to the several Articles contributed by each. 



Bachman, Dr. page 

Monograph of the Species of Squirrel inhabiting North 
America 85 

BiBRON, M. 

Observations on some British Specimens of the Genus 
Triton 23 

BicHENo, J. E., Esq. 

Letter accompanying the Donation of a Skin of the Burr- 
hal Sheep from the Himalaya Mountains 79 

Blyth, E., Esq. 

Observations on the Structure of the Feet of the Trogo- 
nidcB 20 

Remarks on the Plumage and Progressive Changes of the 
Crossbill and Linnet 115 

Exhibition of the Skull of a Cumberland Ox, presenting 
a remarkable Development of the Horns 120 

Campbell, Colonel P. 

Letter respecting the probability of procuring some White 
Elephants for the Menagerie 119 

Cantor, Dr. T. 

Notice of the Hamadryas, a Genus of Hooded Serpents 

with Poisonous Fangs and Maxillary Teeth 72 

Observations on Marine Serpents 80 

CUiMiNG, H., Esq. 

On the Habits of some species of Mammalia from the Phi- 
lippine Islands 67 

Desjardins, M. J. 

Letter from 119 



IV 

DoHERTY, Lieut.-Colonel. pog^ 

Letter relating to the Chimpanzee and Hippopotamus. . 119 

Gordon, A., Esq. 

Letter begging the Society's acceptance of two Australian 
Quadrupeds which have been described in the Society's Pro- 
ceedings 149 

Gould, Mr. J. 

On two New Species of Birds from Australia, belonging 
to the Genus Ptilotis 24 

Gray, J. E., Esq. 

On a New Species of Perameles 1 

Harris, Capt. W. C. 

On a New Species of Antelope 1 

Harvey, J. B., Esq. 

Exhibition of some Specimens belonging to the Genera 
Siphunculus and Asterias, and notice of the occurrence of 
the Red-band Fish ( Cepola rubescens) near Teignmouth . . 45 
Vote of Thanks to, 76 

Hope, the Rev. F. W. 

Observations on the Ravages of the Limnoria terebrans. . 66 

Horsfield, Dr. 

Exhibition of Mr. M'^Clelland's Collection of Indian Mam- 
malia and Birds 157, 167 

Martin, W., Esq. 

On a New Genus of Insectivorous Mammalia . . . . 17 
On the Visceral Anatomy of the Spotted Cavy ( Ccdogenys 

suhniger, Cuv.) 54 

On some Species of Chameleon from Fernando Po . . 63 
On two Specimens of Saurian Reptiles sent to the Society 

by Mr. Cuming 68 

On two New Species of Snakes 83 

On some Snakes collected during the Euphrates Expedi- 
tion 81 

Observations on the Sooty and White-eyelid Monkeys 
(^Cercopithectisfuligi7iosus and C. j^tkiops.) 117 

MiCHELLOTTI, Dr. 

Letter fi'om, requesting the Society's acceptance of a Col- 
lection of Fossil Shells from Italy 167 

Ogilby, W., Esq. 

On a Collection of Mammalia procured by Captain Alex- 
ander during his journey into the country of the Damaras, on 
the south-west coast of Africa 5 

On a New Species of Galago 6 



Ogilby, W., Esq. page 

On a New Species of Kangaroo 23 

On a New Species of Marsupial Animal found by Major 
Mitchell on the banks of the River Murray in New South 

Wales 25 

Description of various species of the Genus Hypsiprym- 

nus 62 

Remarks upon the Burrhal Sheep 79 

On a New Species of Muntjac Deer from China . . . 105 

Otley, Mr. 

Extract of a letter from, relating to the ligamenium teres 
in the Coypou 118 

Owen, Professor. 

Notes on the Anatomy of the Nubian GiraflPe , • . 6, 20 

Observations on the Genus Menopoma 15 

On the Anatomy of the Dugong 28 

Description of the Organs of Deglutition in the Giraffe . 4Y 
On the Anatomy of the Apteryx (^Apteryx Australis, 

Shaw.) 48,71,105 

On the Osteology of the Marsupialia 120 

On the Dentition of the Koala (Lipurus cinereus, Goldf.) 154 

Paton, W., Esq. 

Letter accompanying a Donation to the Museum ... 81 

PoEY, Dr. P. 

Letter relating to Two Specimens of Capromys JFour- 
nieri, presented by him to the Society 167 

Porter, Mr. 

Exhibition of a Specimen of the Gymnotus electricus . .110 

Robertson, Capt. C. 

Letter containing an account of the capture of a Peregrine 
Falcon on board the ship Exmouth, on her passage from 
Bengal to London 77 

Smith, Lieut. T. 

Extract from his Journal relating to the Burrhal Sheep . . 79 

Strachan, F., Esq. 

Letter referring to the Chimpanzee and Hippopotamus . 66 

Sykes, Lieut.-Col. 

Observations on the Canisjubatus and some Skins of the 

Felis Pardina Ill 

On the Calandra Lark 113 

On the Fishes of the Deccan 157 

V. DER Hoeven, M. 

On a large Species of Salamander from Japan .... 25 



^'1 

Waterhouse, G. R., Esq. page 

On a New Species of Squirrel 19 

On a New Species of the Genus Delpliimis 23 

On two New Species of Mammalia, from the Society's 

Collection, belonging to the Genera Gerbillus and Herpestes 55 
On some New Species of Mammalia from Fernando Po . 57 
On some Skins of two species of Monkeys from Sierra 

Leone 61 

On a New Species of Hare from North America . . . 1 03 

On the Flying hemurs (Galeopithecus) 119 

On the Dentition of the FIjang Opossum? 149 

On the Skull and Dentition of the American Badger 

(^Meles Labradoria) 153 

Watts, G. B., Esq. 

Letter relating to a Collection of Specimens intended for 
the Society's Museum 149 

Williams, W., Lieut. R.A. 

Account of a Wasp's Nest presented to the Society by the 
Governor of Ceylon 167 

Yarrell, W., Esq. 

On a New Species of Swan 19 

On the occurrence of the Anchovy in the Thames ... 66 



ERRATUM. 

P. 112. bottom line, after the word Australia, add and the Islands of the Indian 

Archipelago. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON. 



January 9th, 1 838. 

Thomas Bell, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mr. Gray exhibited a new species of Perameles, in size and ge- 
neral appearance very closely agreeing with Per. nasutus, but pecu- 
liar for its very short white tail, and in having several indistinct 
broad white bands over the haunches. The species inhabits Van 
Diemen's Land, where it frequents gardens, and commits great havoc 
amongst bulbous roots, which it is said to devour with avidity. 
Mr. Gray proposed for it the name of Per. Gu7mii, after its discoverer, 
Mr. Ronald Gunn *. 

It was suggested in the course of some discussion which followed 
Mr. Gray's observations, that the roots upon which this species was 
supposed to feed, were probably attacked for the purpose of procu- 
ring such insects as might be found in them ; and Mr. Owen in re- 
ference to this point alluded to a dissection of a Perameles made by 
Dr. Grant, and published in the Wernerian Transactions, in which 
insects were found to constitute almost the sole contents of the 
stomach and intestines. 

A very large and beautiful Antelope, of a si)ecies hitherto entirely 
unknown, and which had just arrived in England under the care of 
Captain Alexander from the Cape, was in the room for exhibition ; 
and the history of the circumstances under which it had been dis- 
covered, were detailed in the following letter, addressed to the Se- 
cretary, by Capt. W. C. Harris, of the Bombay Engineers. 

Cape Town, South Africa, Oct. 10, 1837. 
Sir, — I beg the favour of your presenting to the Zoological So- 
ciety the accompanying drawing and description of an entirely new 
and very interesting species of Antelope, which I discovered in the 
course of an expedition to the interior of Africa, from which I have 
lately returned. A perfect specimen that I brought down has been 
admirably set up by Monsieur Verreaux, the French naturalist at 
Cape Town, and will be sent to London in the course of a few days, 
to the care of Dr. Andrew Smith. It would appear to belong to 
the sub-genus Aigocerus, and in form, as well as in other respects, 
bears remote resemblance to the Aigocerus Equina, (Roan Antelope 
or Bastard Gemsbok,) with which it has been confounded by many 

* Since described in the Annals of Zoology and Botany, for April, 1838. 
No. LXI. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



persons imperfectly acquainted wth the subject to whom it has 
been exhibited. A comparison of the two animals will, however, 
render the existing difference between them too obvious to demand 
any observation from me. 

During nearly three months that I hunted over the country lying 
between the 24th and 26th parallels of south latitude, within 28° 
and 30° east longitude, I only once met with the Antelope in 
question. On the northern side of the Cashan range of mountains, 
about a degree and a half south of the tropic of Capricorn, I found 
a herd, consisting of nine does and two bucks, and followed them 
untH I captured the specimen from which the enclosed drawing 
was made. 

None of the natives of the country were familiar with the appear- 
ance of the animal when first interrogated on the subject, although 
after conferring amongst themselves, they agreed that it was Koo- 
kame, (Ort/x Capensis,) the Gemsbok ; and, of the many individuals 
to whom it has been shovni, a trader named Robert Scoon is the only 
one by whom it has been recognized. He declares that he saw a 
herd of them some years ago near the very spot I have described, 
but could not succeed in killing one. It is, doubtless, very rare ; 
and, judging from the formation of the foot, entirely confined to the 
mountains. 

The females are somewhat smaller than the males, are provided 
with shorter and slighter, but similarly shaped horns, and are simi- 
larly marked ; a deep chestnut brown, verging upon black, taking 
the place of the glossy black coat of the male. I did not obtain a 
female specimen ; but whilst riding down the buck, I had abundant 
opportunities of narrowly obsendng them within the distance of a few 
yards, and am, therefore, positive as to the correctness of the descrip- 
tion here given. 

I have for the present designated the new Antelope " Aigocerus 
niger;" but of course it will rest with the Zoological Society either 
to confirm that name, or to bestow one more appropriate or more 
scientific ; and I shall be gratified by their doing so. 
I have the honour to be, sir. 

Your most obedient servant, 

W. C. Harris. 

The following description of this interesting addition to the Fauna 
of Southern Africa was appended to the above letter. 

Aigocerus niger. The Sable Antelope. 

Adult male four feet six inches high at the shoulder ; nearly nine 
feet in extreme length. Horns thirty-seven inches over the curve, 
placed immediately above the eyes, rather higher than occurs in the 
Aigocerus Equina ; flat, slender, sub-erect, and then strongly bent 
back similar wise ; at first gradually diverging, and then running 
parallel to each other; three-fourths annulated with about thirty 
strongly pronounced, incomplete rings, more rigid on the edges, but 
chiefly broken on the outside of the horn ; the remaining one fourth 
smooth, round, slender and pointed. Head somewhat attenuated 



towards the muzzle, and compressed lateralh^ Carcase robust. 
Withers elevated. Neck broad and flat. Hoofs black, obtuse, and 
rather short. Hair close and smooth : general colour of the coat 
intense glossy black, with an occasional cast of deep chestnut. A 
dirty white streak commencing above each eye, continued by a pen- 
cil of long hairs covering the place of the suborbital pouch, (of 
which cavity no trace is to be found in this Antelope,) and then 
running down the side of the nose to the muzzle, which is entirely 
white ; the same colour pervading one half of the cheek, the chin 
and the throat. Ears ten inches long, narrow, tapering and pointed ; 
white within, lively chestnut without, with black pencilled tips. A 
broad half crescent of deep chestnut at the base of each ear, behind. 
A small, entire black muzzle. A copious standing black mane, 
five and a half inches high, somewhat inclined forwards, and extend- 
ing from between the ears to the middle of the back. Hair of the 
throat and neck longer than that of the body. Belly, buttocks, and 
inside of thighs, pure white. A longitudinal dusky w^hite stripe be- 
hind each arm. Fore legs jet black inside and out, with a tinge of 
chestnut on and below the knees. Hind legs black, with a lively 
chestnut patch on and below the hocks. Tail black; long hair 
skirting the posterior edge, and terminating in a tuft which extends 
below the hocks. Sheath tipped with black. 

Female smaller than the male, with smaller, but similarly shaped 
horns. Colour, deep chestnut brown verging upon black. 

Very rare. Gregarious, in small families. Inhabits the great 
mountain range which threads the more eastern parts of Mosele- 
katse's territory. 

Dimensions. 

Height at shoulder 54 inches. 

Length of body 44 

Length of neck 17 

Length of head 19 

Length of tail 25 

Length of hind -quarter 19 

Depth of chest 30 

Length of fore-arm 16 

Fore knee to foot 15 

Croup to hock 36 

Hock to foot 18A 

Breadth of neck 16 

Breadth of fore-arm 6 

Breadth of thigh 6 

Breadth of fore-leg 2-| 

Breadth of hind-leg. „ . 3 

Length of horns 37 

Breadth asunder at base 1 

Breadth asunder at tips 9i 

Length of ears lO" 

Breadth of head 9 



A specimen of a marine snake {Pelamys bicolor) presented to the 
Museum by the Rev. William White, Wesleyan Missionary to the 
New Zealand Association, and which, with several others, had been 
picked up dead upon the beach on the west coast of that country, 
was upon the table ; also another portion of the birds collected by 
Charles Darwin, Esq., to which Mr. Gould in continuation drew the 
attention of the Members. 



January 23. 
Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair. 

A selection of the Mammalia procured by Captain Alexander du- 
ring his recent journey into the country of the Damaras, on the South 
West Coast of Africa, was exhibited, and Mr. Ogilby directed the 
attention of the Society to the new a nd rare species which it con- 
tained. \ 

Among the former were the Herpestes melanurus and Cynictis 
Ogilbii of Dr. Smith', the Canis megalotis, &c. The latter consisted 
of five new species, which Mr. Ogilby characterized a'sToBows : 

Macroscelides Alexandri. Fur long and fine, very dark blue- 
black at the root, but pointed with pale sandy-red above, and white 
beneath; ears pretty large, subelUptical, and red behind; whole under 
lip red ; tarsi white ; tail long, hairy, and very much attenuated : 
length 5|- inches ; tail 4| inches. 

Macroscelides melanotis. Of a rather larger size than the for- 
mer, with large head, dark brown or black ears, rather sandy under 
lip, dunnish white throat and abdomen, but pale reddish brown chest ; 
colour of the upper parts much the same, but rather more ashy ; tarsi 
light brown ; tail mutilated : length 6 inches. 

Chrysochloris Damarensis. Brown, wath a silvery lustre both above 
and below ; a yellowish white semicircle extends from eye to eye, 
under the chin, covering the whole of the cheeks, lips and lower jaw ; 
a very marked character which, as well as the peculiar shade of the 
colour, readily distinguishes it from the new species described by Dr. 
Smith : no tail : length 4^ inches. 

Bathyergus Damarensis. A species intermediate in size between 
Capensis and Hottentotus : colour uniform reddish brown both above 
and below, with a large irregularly square white mark on the occiput, 
much larger than in Hottentotus, and another on each side of the neck 
just under the ears ; these two meet on the throat, which is thus 
covered with dirty dunnish white ; tail, a large flat stump covered 
with coarse reddish brown bristles, which stand out from it in aU 
directions like radii ; paws reddish brown : length 8;^^ inches ; tail 
|- inch*. 

Graphiurus elegans. Smaller than Graph. Capensis of Cuv., and 
of a purer and deeper ash colour above ; the chin, throat, and cheeks 
are covered by a large patch of pure white, the rest of the under sur- 
face is mixed grey and ash, and all the tarsi and paws pure white : 
there is a mark of the same colour above and in front of each ear, 
and an obhque white stripe runs from the throat backwards over the 

• This specimen, and the Macroscelides melanotis, were purchased for 
the British Museum, and the remaining three species for the Museum of 
the Zoological Society at the sale of Capt. Alexander's Collection, March 8, 
1838. 



shoulder, just in front of the arms ; an intense black stripe passes 
from the commissure of the mouth, through the eye to the ear ; the 
tail is covered with short coarse hair, pure white above, pure black be- 
low, and pencilled or shaded on each side ; face greyish ash ; whiskers 
abundant, and of a grey colour : length 5 inches ; tail 2| inches. 

Mr. Ogilby observed, that the above species, and the one described 
by F. Cuvier, under the name of Graph. Capensis, aj^peared to him 
to differ in no respect from the genus Myoxus, and that in character- 
ising the present animal, he merely made use of the name Graphiurus 
to indicate its relation to that originally described by Cuvier. 

Mr. Ogilby likewise called the attention of the Society to certain 
peculiarities in the structure of the hand, in a living specimen of a 
new species of Galago, which he proposes to call Otolicnus Garnettii, 
after the gentleman to whom he was indebted for the ojjportunity of 
describing it, and who has already conferred many advantages upon 
scieoce by the introduction of numerous rare and new animals. The 
peculiarity of structure to which Mr. Ogilby alluded, consisted in 
the partially opposable character of the index finger of the fore hands, 
the fingers on these members being divided into two groups, com- 
posed of the thumb and index on one side, and the remaining three 
fingers on the other, as in the Koalas and Pseudocheirs. He re- 
marked that the anterior index in all the inferior Lemuridm was weak 
and powerless, and that it had the same tendency to divide with the 
thumb instead of the other fingers in the rest of the Galagos, as well 
as in the Nycticebi, Microcehi, Cheirogalei, and Tarsii, whilst in the 
Potto it was reduced almost to a tubercle. These genera conse- 
quently formed a little group analogous to the Koalas and Pseudo- 
cheirs among the Didelphidce, being, exclusive of these animals, the 
only Cheiropeds in which this character occurs; and Mr. Ogilby re- 
garded the fact as a strong confirmation of the truth of the relations 
which he had formerly pointed out as subsisting between these two 
families. The Otolicnus Garnettii is of a uniform dark brown colour 
on every part both above and below ; the ears large, black, and 
rather rounded ; the tail long, cylindrical and woolly ; and the size 
of the animal about that of a small lemur, or considerably larger than 
Oto. Senegalensis, 

A communication was then read to the Meeting by Prof. Owen, 
entitled, " Notes on the Anatomy of the Nubian Giraffe." 

These notes contain the general results of the anatomical exami- 
nation of three specimens of the Giraffe, which Mr. Owen had been 
so fortunate as to have the opportunity of dissecting ; one of the 
three (a male) died in the Society's Menagerie, and the remaining 
two (male and female) were in the possession of Mr. Cross of the 
Surrey Zoological Gardens. 

The author agrees with Cuvier in considering that the external cha- 
racters of the Giraffe clearly indicate its position in the oxAQxRuminan- 
tia, to be between the genera Cervus and Antilope ; the true bony ma- 
terial of its horns, which are covered by a periosteum defended by 
hairyintegument, resembling the growing antlers of the Deer; but the 



non-deciduous character of this tegumentary covering to theperios- 
teum, and the consequent permanency of the horns in the GiraiFe, 
reminding us of the persistent nature of these organs as it obtains 
throughout the Antelopes. 

The black callous integument on the upper surface in the horns, 
is noticed as a probable indication of a tendency to develope a su- 
perabundance of epidermic material ; and Mr. (Dwen conceives that 
the strong black hair which grows in a matted tuft around their 
extremities may represent, in an unravelled state, the fibres com- 
posing the horny coverings of the core in the horns of the Antelope. 
A few examples occur among both Deer and Antelopes, in which 
the possession of horns is found in the two sexes, as in the Giraffe ; 
but in this animal these organs present certain peculiar characters 
in the mode of their articulation to the skull, the basis of the horn 
being united by sychondrosis to the frontal and parietal bones, con- 
stituting an epiphysis rather than an apophysis of the cranium. With 
regard to the supposed occurrence of a third horn in the male 
Nubian Giraffe, as the osteological details bearing upon this point are 
given in that part of the memoir which embraces the description of 
the skeleton, Mr. Owen in this place merely observes, that the 
evidence afforded by the examination of the two individuals in ques- 
tion was rather opposed to, than in favour of its existence. 

The general form of the Giraffe is obviously modified with 
especial reference to its exigencies and habits ; the prolongation and 
extensibility of its hair-clad muzzle, the peculiar development, cy- 
lindrical shape and flexibility of its tongue ; the oblique and narrow 
apertures of the nostrils, defended by hair and surrounded with 
cutaneous muscular fibres, enabling the animal to close them at will, 
and thus to protect the olfactory cavity from the fine particles of 
sand which in the storms of the desert would otherwise find ingress, 
are points referred to by the author as exhibiting marked adapta- 
tions of structure in especial harmony with a mode of life consequent 
upon the nature of its food and. its geographical distribution. 

For a description of the general external peculiarities of the body 
the author refers to Riippell's Reise im Nordlichen Africa ; Geoffroy 
in the Annales des Sciences, xi. p. 210 ; Salze, in the Memoires du 
Museum, xiv. p. 68 ; and the 5th and 6th volumes of Sir E. Home's 
Comparative Anatomy. 

Organs of Digestion. 

The Giraffe differs from every other Ruminant in the form of the 
mouth, which resembles that of the Elk in the non-division and ex- 
tensibility of the hair-clad upj^er lip, but differs widely from it in 
the elegant tapering shape of the muzzle. The muscles of the 
tongue, both as to number and arrangement, presented no peculi- 
arities of importance, but the nerves were characterized by the beau- 
tiful wavy course in which they were disposed, and by which dis- 
position they are accommodated to the greatly varying length of 
this organ. The erectile tissue, conjectured by Sir Everard Home 
to be present in the tongue of the Giraffe, and to be the cause of 



8 

its extension, has no existence : the only modifications of the vas- 
cular system worthy of notice were the large size and slight plexiform 
arrangement of the lingual veins at the under part of the base of the 
tongue. The inner surface of the lips, especially where they 
join to form the angles of the mouth, was beset with numerous 
close-set, strong, retroverted and pointed papilla, similar to those 
distributed over the interior of the gullet in the Chelonice ; a struc- 
ture which is also present in other Ruminants. 

The palate was beset with about sixteen irregular transverse 
ridges, having a free denticulate edge directed backwards ; an appa- 
ratus for detaining the food, and insuring its deglutition, which Mr. 
Owen notices as especially required in the Giraffe, by reason of the 
small comparative size of its head and jaws : he also refers to the 
mechanical obstacles, which oppose the escape of the food when re- 
gurgitated, in the Ruminantia generally, as the presence of buccal 
papillcE, &c. as an evidence on which to found an argument of spe- 
cial adaptation or design. This structure is noticed by Cuvier, but 
considered by him as only coexistent with the occurrence of papilla 
upon the lining membrane of the stomach, and as a condition of 
parts which furnishes no obvious indication of any connexion with 
final causes ; with a view of showing that no such relation of coex- 
istence as that imagined by Cuvier, in the presence of papilla upon 
different portions of the alimentary canal, can be positively esta- 
blished, Mr. Owen instances the Turtle, which has these callous 
bodies in great abundance, but entirely restricted to the lining mem- 
brane of the wsopkagus, in which situation their use is sufficiently 
apparent. 

The cesophagus in size was found to be very regular and uniform 
throughout its entire length, being about an inch and three quarters 
in diameter, and surrounded with two strong layers of muscular 
fibres ; the fibres being thickest, and arranged transversely in the 
external layers ; those of the internal being oblique, with an approach 
towards a longitudinal disposition. These fibres on being examined 
with the microscope and compared with those of the stomach, were 
found by Mr. Owen to present a structure which he regards as inter- 
mediate between that which characterizes voluntary and involuntary 
muscular fibre ; their ultimate filaments being aggregated into regular 
sized ultimate fascicles having a parallel disposition, and thus so far 
agreeing with the fibres of the voluntary muscles, but at the same 
time exhibiting an important structural difference in the total ab- 
sence of transverse stria ; the fascicles in fact being perfectly smooth 
and substransparent. 

The mucous membrane of the asophagus was thick and firm, 
lined by a well-developed smooth epithelium, and connected to the 
muscular coat by a very lax cellular membrane. 

As regards the position of the abdominal viscera in the female, 
the paunch occupied the ventral aspect of the anterior two-thirds of 
the short abdominal cavity, resting immediately upon the abdominal 
muscles and their strong e\ss.tic fascia. The great omentum which was 
studded reticularly with fat, as in the Ruminants generally, extended 



from the paunch to below the brim of the pelvis : on raising it a fold 
of the colon appeared immediately below the paunch towards the left 
side ; below this were several convolutions of the small intestines ; 
the obtuse blind end of the ccecum made its appearance in the left 
hypogastric region, and below there was another portion of the 
great colon. 

In the male the abdominal viscera presented nearly the same ap- 
l^earances ; on raising the paunch the spiral coils of the colon (cha- 
racteristic of the Ruminants) came into view, together with the rest 
of the jejunum and ilium, upon the removal of which the third and 
fourth stomachs, and the small liver wholly confined to the right of 
the mesial plane, were exposed. 

The spleen, as usual in the Ruminantia, had its concave surface 
applied to the left side of the first stomach or rumen. 

The pancreas extended transversely behind the stomach within 
the posterior duplicature of the omentum from the spleen to the 
duodenum. 

The kidneys occupied the usual position in the loins, the right 
one a little more advanced than the left ; their figure was rounded 
and compact, as in the Deer and Antelopes, and they were not ex- 
ternally lobated as in the Ox. 

The cells of the reticulum, as in the Reindeer, were extremely shallow, 
their boundaries appearing only as raised lines ; but there was the same 
form and grouping of the cells as obtains throughout the Ruminants 
generally, the arrangement being that by which the greatest number 
are included in the least possible space. 

The folds of the jjsalterium resembled those of most other Rumi- 
nants, each two narrow folds having alternately placed between 
them one of great and one of moderate breadth. 

In the fourth stomach the ru(/(E of the digestive membrane were 
slightly developed, and chiefly longitudinal ; the pylorus was pro- 
tected by a valvular protuberance placed above it just within the 
stomach. 

Theduodenum,which was dilated at the commencement, received the 
biliary and pancreatic secretions about ten inches from the pylorus. 

The small intestines were rather tightly bound to the spine in 
short coils by a narrow mesentery ; their diameter was about four 
inches. 

The ilium ceases to be convolute towards its termination, ascend- 
ing in a straight course, and entering the ccecum near the root of the 
mesentery. 

The ccecum was a simple cylindrical gut, as in other Ruminants ; 
its circumference about six inches. 

The disposition of the colon resembled that of the Deer ; it ex- 
tended about eight feet before the spiral turns commenced, there it 
narrowed, and the separation of the faces into pellets began at this 
point. The coils were not in exactly the same plane, but formed a 
depressed cone, with its concavity next to the mesentery, on the left 
of which the coils were disposed. There were four complete gyra- 
tions in one direction, having the same number of reverse coils in 



10 

their interspace. This part of the intestine measured fourteen feet 
in length. 

The length of the intestines was as follows : 





Cross's 


Cross's 


Zool, 




Female. 


Male. 


Male. 


Small. . . 


. 91ft. Oin, 


88 ft. 


82 ft. 


Large . , 


. 43 2 


43 


40 


CeECum . 


. 2 2 


2 


2 



The liver weighed six pounds eleven ounces avoirdupois ; it con- 
sisted of one lobe of a flattened form, with a small posterior spigi- 
lean process. 

The presence of a gall-bladder, distinguishing the hollow-horned 
from the solid-horned Ruminants, made the investigation of this point 
in the anatomy of the GiraiFe one of extreme interest ; and Mr. Owen 
remarks, that the result of his examination of three individuals shows 
the caution which should be exercised in generalizing upon the facts 
of a single dissection. 

In the first Giraffe (Mr. Cross's female) a large gall-bladder was 
present, having the ordinary position and attachments, but presenting 
the unusual structure of a bifid /wnrfMS. Upon making a longitu- 
dinal incision down its side, it was found to be di\dded throughout 
its length by a vertical septum of double mucous membrane, form- 
ing two reservoirs of equal size ; the organ in fact was double, each 
bladder having a smooth lining membrane, and communicating sepa- 
rately with the commencement of a single cystic duct. 

In the two GirafFessubsequently dissected not a vestige of this organ 
could be detected, the bile in them being conveyed by a rather wide 
hepatic duct to the duodenum. Mr. Owen therefore concludes that the 
absence of the gall-bladder is the normal condition, and that the 
Giraffe in this respect has a nearer aflSnity to the Deer than to the 
Antelopes. 

The pancreas was broader, thinner, and of a more irregular form 
than in the calf or human subject ; it was attached on the left side 
to the diaphragm and posterior part of the stomach, extending trans- 
versely across the spine to the termination of the biliary duct. 

The spleen was of a tolerably regular oval form, but very thin, not 
exceeding one inch and two-thirds at the thickest part. 

In the chest the viscera presented the usual disposition. 

Sanguiferous System. 

The heart measured in the full length of the ventricles eight inches 
and a half, and the same in the transverse diameter of the base. The 
auricles were small as compared with the ventricles, which form a 
rounded cone. The right ventricle terminated two inches from the 
apex. Tlie left flap of the tricuspid valve had its free margin at- 
tached by long chordce tendineee to the septum ventriculorum on one 
side, and to a single columna carnea on the other, which columna also 
gave attachment to some of the chordce tendineee of the right flap of the 
tricuspid ; the rest of the chordce of this flap, and all the chorda of 



11 

the third or internal flap, were attached to a very short and thick 
columna, arising from the septum ; below the left flap of the tricuspid 
valve was a fleshy column, connecting the wall of the right ventricle 
to the septum. 

At the origin of the aorta there was a single small curved bone. 

The arch of the aorta, after distributing the vessels to the heart, 
gave oft', first, a large innominata, which subdivided into the right 
vertebral artery, the right brachial artery, and the common trunk of 
the two carotids ; secondly, the left brachial artery ; thirdly, the left 
vertebral artery. The common trunk of the two carotids was remark- 
able for its length. The cranial plexus of the internal carotid was 
much less developed than in the ordinary grazing Ruminants. 

Nervous System. 

The brain of the GiraflPe closely resembled, in its general form, and 
in the number, disposition, and depth of the convolutions, that of the 
Deer : it was more depressed than in the Ox, and the cerebrum was 
wholly anterior to the cerebellum. The anterior contour of the 
cerebral hemispheres was somewhat truncated. 

The convolutions might be readily divided, as in other Ruminants, 
into primary and secondary ; they averaged a breadth of three lines, 
and were almost symmetrical in the two hemispheres. There was little 
symmetry in the disposition of the primary convolutions in the cere- 
bellum : the middle one on the upper surface, representing the su- 
perior vermiform process, pursued a wavy course from side to side, 
but the inferior vermiform process was straight, and very prominently 
developed ; these, with the lateral convolutions of the cerebellum, 
were subdivided by narrow and, for the most part, transverse folds. 
Mr. Owen also enters into a detailed account of the internal struc- 
ture of the brain ; and concludes his description of this organ by 
giving the following admeasurements : Inches. Lines. 

Total length of the brain 5 3 

Vertical diameter of ditto 2 8 

Breadth of the cerebrum 4 3 

Length of the cerebellum 1 10 

Breadth of ditto 2 5 

Length oi pons varolii 1 

Breadth of ditto 1 6 

Weight of the brain, 14oz. avoirdupois. 
The olfactory nerves were large, as in most Ruminantia, and ter- 
minated in expanded bulbs, in length 1^ inch, in breadth 1 inch : 
these were lodged in special compartments of the cranial cavity. The 
optic nerves and ninth pair were relatively larger than in the Deer. 
The other cerebral nerves presented no peculiarity. 

The spinal chord had a close investment of dura mater, and was 
remarkable for the great length of its cervical portion, which, in the 
Giraff'e dissected at the Zoological Gardens, measured upwards of 
three feet, the entire length of the animal from the muzzle to the 
vent being eight feet. Mr. Owen here particularly describes the ap- 
pearance in the origins of the cervical nerves depending upon the 



12 

elongation of this part of the spinal chord ; the space between the 
lower filaments forming the root of one ner^'e, and the upper filaments 
of the root of the succeeding nerve was not more than the space be- 
tween the individual filaments of each root ; whence it would seem 
that the elongation of the cervical portion of the chord was produced 
by a general and uniform interstitial deposition during foetal develope- 
ment, which thus effected an equable separation of these filaments ; 
so that a single nerve, as in the case of the third cervical, might derive 
its origin from a space extending six inches in length. 

The brachial plexus was principally formed by the first two dorsal 
nerves ; seventeen pairs intervened between it and the large nerves 
forming the lumbar plexus. 

The recurrent nerves were formed by the reunion of several small 
filaments derived from the nervus vagus at different parts of its course 
down the neck, instead of originating as usual in the thorax, and 
being reflected, as a single nerve, round the trunks of the great 
vessels. 

The sympathetic nerve in the neck was found to present five gan- 
glionic enlargements of various sizes. 

Muscles. 

In the dissection of the abdominal muscles no peculiarity of im- 
portance was noticed ; but in the neck there existed a highly inter- 
esting modification of the parts which effect the retraction of the os 
hyoides. The pair of muscles which, as in some other Ruminants, 
combines the offices of sterno-thyroideus and sterno-hyoideus, arose 
in the Giraffe by a single long and slender carneous portion from the 
anterior extremity of the sternum ; this fleshy origin was nine inches 
long, and it terminated in a single round tendon six inches in length ; 
the tendon then divided into the two muscles, each division beco- 
ming fleshy, and so continuing for about 16 or 18 inches ; then each 
muscle again became tendinous for the extent of two inches, and 
ultimately carneous again, prior to being inserted in the side of the 
thyroid cartilage, and continued thence in the form of a/ascia into 
the OS hyoides. 

Mr. Owen observes that this alternation of a non-contractile with a 
contractile tissue, as exhibited by the above structure, displays in a 
most striking manner the use of tendon in regulating the amount of 
muscular contraction. Had the sterno-thyroideus been muscular 
throughout its entire length, the contraction of its fibres would have 
been equal to draw down the larynx and os hyoides to an extent quite 
incompatible with the connections of the adjacent parts ; but the in- 
tervention of long and slender tendons duly apportions the quantity 
of contractile fibre to the extent of motion required. 

The muscle analogous to the omo-hyoideus of other animals was 
adjusted to its office by a more simple contrivance, arising from 
the third cervical vertebra instead of the scapula, the diminished 
length of the muscle enabling it to act upon the os hyoides with the 
requisite power of contraction. 

Mr. Owen remarks that the analogue of the sterno-mastoideus 



13 

should be called sterno-maxillaris, its insertion being by a slender 
tendon into the inner side of the angle of the jaw, after continuing 
fleshy to within a foot of its place of attachment. 

The scaleni muscles, which were most powerfully developed, con- 
sisted of four distinct masses on each side, arising from the fourth, 
fifth, sixth, and seventh cervical vartebree ; they were inserted into 
the manubrium sterni and the first rib. 

The trapezius consisted of two portions ; one, arising from the 
transverse processes of the fifth and sixth cervical vertebra, is lost in 
a strong fascia overspreading the shoulder-joint ; the other arises 
from the ligamentum nucha, and is inserted into the fascia covering 
the scapula. 

The levator scapula arose from the fifth, sixth, and seventh cer- 
vical vertebra, and was inserted into the superior angle of the 
scapula. 

The rhomboideus was single, and chiefly remarkable for its short- 
ness ; it was inserted into the broad elastic cartilage which is con- 
tinued upwards from the base of the scapula. 

The pectoralis major arose from the whole length of the sternum ; 
it was composed of two portions, one superficial, the other deep 
seated ; the former was inserted into the fascia covering the extensor 
muscles of the fore-leg; the latter into the fascia covering the 
brachial plexus. 

With respect to the other muscles acting upon the distal joints 
of the extremities, with the exception of their greater length, they 
were not found materially to diff^er from the corresponding parts in 
other bisulcate mammals. 

The ligamentum nucha was remarkable for its prodigious develope- 
ment ; it commenced at the sacral vertebra, and receiving, as it ad- 
vanced, accessions from each of the lumbar and dorsal vertebra, be- 
came inserted into the spinous processes of the cervical, the extreme 
portion passing freely over the atlas, and terminating by an expanded 
insertion upon the occipital crest. 

The bony attachment of the ligament afforded by the skull was 
raised considerably above the roof of the cranial cavity, the exterior 
table of the skuU being widely separated from the vitreous plate by 
large sinuses, which commencing above the middle of the nasal cavity 
extended as far posteriorly as beneath the base of the horns ; the si- 
nuses were traversed by strong bony septa, forming a support to the 
exterior table. The sphenoidal sinuses were of large size. 

The nasal cavity occupied the two anterior thirds of the skull, and 
the ossa spongiosa were proportionably developed. 

The condyles of the occiput were remarkable for their great extent 
in the vertical direction, and the inferior and posterior parts of the 
articular surface meet at an acute angle ; a structure which enables 
the Giraffe to elevate the head into a line with the neck, and even to 
incline it slightly backwards. 



J 



14 



Male Organs of Generation. 

The testes were elongate, oval, and situated in a short scrotum, on 
each side of which were the rudiments of two mamma. 

The vasa deferentia pursued the same course as in the Deer ; they 
became slightly enlarged at the terminal two inches of their course, 
and the secreting surface of their lining membrane was augmented 
by various irregular folds and sinuses. 

The prostate in being formed of two separate glands presented the 
true ruminant character ; but the lobes themselves, as is the case 
with several of the tj-pical ruminants, presented their own peculiar mo- 
dification, each lobe at its distal extremity forming a large round 
bulbous body, the rest of the lobe diminishing towards its urethral 
portion. 

Two Cowperian glands, each as large as a nutmeg, were situated 
at the base of the bulb of the urethra, surrounded by a special cap- 
sule of muscular fibres ; they had no single central cavity, but three 
or four sinuses conveyed the secretion to the duct, which terminated 
in the bulbous part of the urethra. 

The penis, when retracted, assumed the sigmoid form, as in other 
ruminants, the muscles producing the sigmoid retraction being in- 
serted upon the sides of the corpora cavernosa, near the base of the 
ylans. There was no septum dividing the cavernous texture of the 
penis. 

The glans began by a somewhat sudden expansion, and continued 
to enlarge to its distal extremity, which was smooth and rounded. 
The prepuce was reflected upon the extremity, and not upon the 
root of the glans, so that its division only exposed a small portion of 
the latter. Tlie urethral canal did not open upon the extremity of 
the glans, but was continued forwards for an inch and a half, attached 
to the inside of the prepuce, its parietes being merely membranous, 
and its extremity projecting freely, like a membranous bilabiate tube, 
about a line beyond the inner surface of the prepuce. A similar 
structure obtains in some other ruminants, as the Ram. 

Female Organs. 

The ovaria were irregularly oval, sub-compressed bodies, an inch 
and a half in length and one in breadth. The fallopian tubes had 
the margins of their expanded extremities almost entire. They open 
at the outer margin of a wide ovarian capsule, which does not, how- 
ever, inclose the ovary. The inner surface of the pavilion is beset 
with numerous minute plicce, which converge towards the orifice of 
the oviduct or fallopian tube ; a few small but broad folds imme- 
diately surround the opening. 

The external orifice of the common vagina resembled that of the 
Deer, in coming to a point, within which the clitoris was lodged. 
From this orifice to the communication with the urethra, measured 
five inches, and the length of the proper vagina six inches. The 



15 

vagina was lined by a smooth and polished membrane, disposed in 
numerous fine longitudinal rugce. The os tinea was a large, trans- 
versely oval prominence, having the orifice of the uterus in the centre. 
The length of the common uterus was two inches. The cervix was 
occupied by two circular series of close-set, short, longitudinal la- 
mellar processes, about two lines in breadth, which projected from 
the parietes of the uterus, and had their free margins converging to 
the centre of the canal. Above these, the inner membrane of the 
uterus sent off several thickened processes. Each cornu of the uterus 
was about eight inches in length, and became bent in a spiral form 
when distended with fluid : four longitudinal rows of flattened pro- 
cesses projected from the inner surface, showing that the fatiis is 
developed in the Giraffe by means of a cotyledonous subdivided 
placenta, as in other horned Ruminants, and not, as in the Camel, by 
an uniform vascular villosity of the chorion. 



17 



February 13th, 1838. 
William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mr. Martin exhibited an insectivorous animal which had fallen un- 
der his observation in examining a collection of specimens, presented 
some time since to the Museum, by the late Wilham Telfair, Esq. 

In the Zoological Proceedings for 1833, reference is made to a 
letter of Mr. Telfair's, accompanying a very young insectivorous 
animal, known to the natives of Madagascar by the name " Sokinah," 
and which Mr. Telfair was disposed to refer to the genus Centenes. 
The above specimen being only seventeen days old, its characters 
could not be satisfactorily determined; but the present animal, which 
Mr. Martin considers to be the adult of the same species, appears 
to be more nearly related to the genus Erinaceus than Centenes ; but 
at the same time it differs so materially in the character of its denti- 
tion, as to warrant the establishment of a new genus for its recejJtion . 
Mr. Martin therefore proposed to characterize it under the generic 
appellation of Echinops, with the specific title of E. Telfairi, in 
memory of the lamented and zealous Corresponding Member of the 
Society from whom it had been received. 

Echinops. 

Corpus supernfe spinis densis obtectum. 

Rostrum breviusculum. 

Rkinarium, aures, caudaque ut in Erinaceo. 

Dentes primores J, superiorum duobus intermediis longissimis, 
discretis, cylindraceis, antrorstim versis ; proximis minoribus. 

Canini j^^. 

Molares j^; utrinsecus antico l™°suprk, et 3^"' infra spuriis ; re- 
liquis, ultimo supra excepto, tricuspidatis, angustis, transversim 
positis ; ultimo supra angustissimo ; molaribus infra inter se fere 
sequalibus, ultimo minore. 

Pedes 5-dactyli, ambulatorii ; halluce breviore ; unguibus parvulis, 
compressis ; plantis denudatis. 

Echinops Telfairi. Ech. auribus mediocribus, subrotundatis intiis 
atque extHs pilis parvulis albidis obsitis ; capite superne pilisfus- 
cis; buccis, mystacibus corporeque subtus sordide albis, spinis fus- 
cescenti-albis ad basin, apicibus castanets ; caudd vix apparente. 

unc. lin. 

Longitudo corporis totius 5 2 

ab apice rostri ad auris basin . . 1 2 

tarsi, digitorumque ,, 10| 

■ auris ,, 5 

Habitat. Madagascar ? 

" Sokinah " of the Natives of Madagascar? 

No. LXII. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



18 

In the upper jaw the incisors are four in number, and apart ; the two 
middle are large, sub -cylindrical, elongated, and placed at the apex 
of the jaw ; the two others are small, and seated behind the former. 
Separated from these by a small space, succeed the canines, similar 
in character to the incisors, but stouter and with a slight posterior 
notch. The molars are five on each side : the first false and simple ; 
the three next transversely elongated, with two external tubercles in 
contact, and one internal ; hence their crowns assume the form of an 
elongated triangle, the apex being internal ; the fifth molar is a 
slender lamina transversely placed, but not advancing so far laterally 
as the molar preceding it. 

The under jaw presents two small incisors, somewhat apart from 
each other, and directed obliquely forwards ; behind these there 
follow on each side in succession three larger and conical teeth, di- 
rected obliquely forwards, and which may be regarded as false molars. 
Separated from the last of these by a small space, succeed four molars 
on each side, vertical and smaller than those above, with two tuber- 
cles internally and one externally, so that the worn surface is trian- 
gular, with the apex outwards ; the last is the smallest : the surfaces 
of all are apart, but their bases are in contact. 

Mr. Martin observes, that this system of dentition (very distinct 
from that which characterizes the Tenrecs, (Centenes,) and the ge- 
nus Ericulus of Isidore GeoiFroy) presents us with characters which 
decidedly separate Echinops from Erinaceus, notwithstanding their 
approximation. In Erinaceus the upper incisors are six ; there are 
no canines, but three false molars on each side, and four true molars, 
of which the last is small and narrow ; the others square, with two 
outer and two inner tubercles ; while in the lower jaw, the incisors, 
two in number, are very large, followed on each side by two false 
molars, and four true molars. In Echinops, as in Erinaceus, the feet 
have five toes ; the thumb of the fore-feet is small and seated on the 
■wrist, the other toes are small, and armed with feeble, compressed, 
hooked claws, the last toe the smallest : the toes of the hind-feet 
resemble those of the fore-feet, and the inner and outer are the 
smallest. The snout, ears, tail, and spiny covering of the upper sur- 
face of the body, as in Erinaceus. 

In addition to the above description of the external characters of 
Echinops, Mr. Martin communicated to the Meeting some details of 
the anatomy of the soft parts, but the condition of the specimen was 
not such as to enable him to give any very complete account of the 
appearances presented by the internal organs. 

The skull, as compared with that of Erinaceus, was proportion- 
ally very inferior in size ; it was more level above, and narrower, 
the cranial cavity being contracted, and the muzzle shorter. The 
occipito-parietal ridge was elevated, the zygomatic arches were 
almost obsolete. The palate was narrow, and the posterior /orffwzwa, 
which in the hedgehog are large open fissures, were reduced to mi- 
nute orifices. 

The pelvis was very narrow, and the pubic bones were separate 
in front. 



19 

The vertebral formula was as follows : 

Cervical 7 

Dorsal 15 

Lumbar 7 

Sacral 2 

Coccyeal 8 ? 

The ribs consisted on each side of 8 true and 7 false. 

Mr. Yarrell exhibited a recently preserved example of a new spe- 
cies of Swan, closely allied in external appearance to the well-known 
Domestic Swan, but having the legs, toes, and interdigital mem- 
branes of a pale ash-grey colour, which in the Cygnus olor. 111., are 
deep black. Mr. YarreU observed, that this species had been known 
to him for some years past as an article of commerce among the 
London dealers in birds, who receive it from the Baltic, and di- 
stinguish it by the name of the Polish Swan. In several instances, 
these swans had produced young in this country, and the cygnets 
when hatched were pure white, like the parent birds, and did not 
assume at any age the brown colour borne for the first two years 
by the young of all the other known species of White Swans. 
Mr. Yarrell considered that this peculiarity was sufficient to entitle 
the bird to be ranked as a distinct species, and in reference to the 
unchangeable colour of the plumage, proposed for it the name of 
Cygnus immutabilis. 

During the late severe weather, flocks of this swan were seen 
pursuing a southern course along the line of our north-east coast, 
from Scotland to the mouth of the Thames, and several specimens 
were obtained. The specimen exhibited belonged to the Rev. L. B. 
Larking, of Ryarsh Vicarage, near Maidstone, for whom it had been 
preserved. It was shot on the Medway, where one flock of thirty, 
and several smaller flocks were seen. 

Mr. Waterhouse exhibited a new species of Squirrel from the So- 
ciety's Museum, and characterized it as : 

SciUKUs suBLiNEATUs. Sc. supvci fusco-oUvaceus flttvescente lava- 
tus ; lineis dorsalibus quatuor nigris tribus albescentibus, a hume- 
ris ad uropygium excurrentibus : abdomine fiavescente : caudd ni- 
gra flavoque annulatd. 

unc. lin. 
Longitudo corporis ab apice rostri ad caudae basin. . 6 

ab apice rostri ad auris basin 1 2i 

cuudce (pilis inclusis) 5 

tarsi digitorum(\\ie 1 2^ 

auris 2- 

Habitat ? 

" This animal is less than the Palm Squirrel (Sciurus palmarum, 
Auct.),but like that species has four dark and three pale lines on the 
back : these lines, however, are very narrow, and occupy only the cen- 
tral portion of the back ; they are not continued on to the shoulders, 
neither do they extend over the haunches. The general colour is 



20 

olive-brown, a tint arising from the hairs being each minutely an- 
nulated with deep yellow and black. The throat, chest, and rump, 
are whitish, and the belly is yellow. The hairs covering the feet 
above are annulated like those of the body, but of a deeper tint. 
The tail is cylindrical and rather slender, and exhibits obscure an- 
nulations, each hair being annulated with deep golden yellow and 
black. The fur is short and soft, that on the back is grey at the 
base ; on the under parts the hairs are very obscurely tinted with 
grey at the base. The hairs of the moustaches are numerous, 
moderately long, rather slender, and of a black colour. The head 
is very nearly uniform in colour with the body, it is however less 
yellow." 

Mr. Blyth called the attention of the Society to a peculiarity in 
the structure of the feet in the Trogonida, which he thought had not 
been previously noticed. This family, although zygodactylous, have 
the toes disposed on quite a different principle from the Wood- 
peckers, Parrots, and other birds, which present an analogous struc- 
ture; their first and second toes being opposed to the third and 
fourth, in lieu of the first and fourth to the second and third, in 
consequence of which, that toe, which corresponds to the middle one 
in birds that are not yoke-footed, that is to say, the third or longest 
toe, is the inward of the two forward toes in the Trogon family, and 
the outward in the Woodpeckers and Parrots. 

A continuation of Mr. Owen's paper, on the Anatomy of the Gi- 
raffe was then read, embracing the principal features of interest in 
the osteological peculiarities of tliis animal. 

_ The author, in the first place, details the result of his investiga- 
tion into the evidence bearing upon the supposition of there being in 
the male Nubian Giraffe a third horn, situated anteriorly in the me- 
sial line of the cranium. 

Upon making a section of the skull of the male Cape Giraffe, the 
anterior protuberance was shown to be due only to a thickening and 
elevation of the anterior extremities of the frontal, and the contiguous 
extremities of the nasal, bones ; and in the Nubian Giraffe the ex- 
istence of a third distinct bony nucleus was also satisfactorily nega- 
tived ; for, upon macerating the skulls of individuals which had not 
attained the adult age, the posterior horns became detached from the 
bones of the a-anium ; but no such separation took place in respect 
to the protuberances forming the supposed third horn, which would 
have been the case had its relation to the cranium been that of a 
distinct epiphysis. 

In both the Cape and Nubian Giraffe, the horns were placed im- 
mediately over the coronal suture, which traversed the centre of their 
expanded bases. The frontal bones were distinct and joined by a 
well-marked suture, continued along the posterior two-thirds of the 
frontal protuberance, or as far as the nasal bones. The sagittal 
suture was persistent on both sides external to the horns. The parietal 
bone was single and anchylosed with the occipital and interparietal 
hones. 



21 

The male GiraiFe, in both the Cape and Nubian varieties, has the 
horns nearly twice as large as those of the female ; the expanded 
bases of the homs also in the former, meet in the middle line of the 
skull, but in the female the bases of the horns are at least two inches 
apart. 

The nasal bone was bifurcate at its anterior extremity as in the 
Deer, not simply pointed as in most of the Antelopes. 

With respect to the cervical vertebra of the Giraffe, Mr. Owen 
observes, that they are not only remarkable for their great length, 
but also, as has been recently shown by Dr. Blainville, for the ball and 
socket form of the articulations of their bodies ; the convexity being 
on the anterior extremity, and the concavity posteriorly, agreeing 
in this particular with the vertebra of the Camel. 

The axis was joined to the atlas by the anterior extremity of its 
body and the jirocessus dentatus, which were blended in one common 
articulation, and inclosed in one capsular ligament. The spinous 
process of the axis was developed from the whole longitudinal ex- 
tent of the superior arch, but had a very sUght elevation. In the 
rest of the cervical vertebra, the spinous processes were thin trian- 
gular lamina, their apices rising about an inch and a half from a 
broad base resting upon the middle of the superior arch. Processes, 
analogous to the inferior transverse processes in the Crocodile, ex- 
tended downwards and outwards from the lower part of the anterior 
extremity of each of the cervical vertebra (except the atlas and den- 
tata), but of much smaller size than the corresponding processes in 
the Camel. 

The perforations for the vertebral arteries were large, and present 
in the seventh as well as in the rest of the cervical vertebra ; they were 
situated above the transverse processes in the side of the bodies of 
the vertebra at the base of the superior lamina. Mr. Owen observes, 
that although this position of the arterial foramina is somewhat pe- 
culiar, yet, in this respect, the Giraffe comes nearer the horned 
Ruminants than the long-necked Camelida. 

In viewing the vertebral column of the Giraffe from above, the 
cervical vertebra are seen to present the broadest bodies ; of these 
the third and fourth are the narrowest and longest, the rest gradually 
increasing in breadth and diminishing in length to the seventh : the 
dorsal vertebra thence grow narrower to the ninth, after which the 
vertebra increase in breadth chiefly by the progressive development 
of the transverse processes. 

The sacrum consisted of four vertebra anchylosed together, but of 
these only the first articulated with the ilium. 

Mr. Owen gives the following as the vertebral formula of the 
Giraffe. 

Cervical 7 

Dorsal 14 

Lumbar 5 

Sacral 4 

Caudal 20 



22 

The number of ribs was fourteen pairs, seven true and seven false. 
The first pair was straight, the rest became gradually more and 
more curs'cd to the last. They increased in length to the eighth, and 
then gradually became shorter : in length the increase was to the 
fifth, from which they gradually became narrower. 

The sternum consisted of a single series of six bones, and an ensi- 
form cartilage ; it was chiefly remarkable for its great curvature. 
The first sternal bone was the narrowest and longest ; the succeed- 
ing ones progressively diminished in length, and increased in thick- 
ness. 

As the osteology of the Giraffe has been illustrated by Pander 
and D'Alton, and also described with more detail in the second edi- 
tion of Cuvier's Lerons d' Anatomic Compar^e, Mr. Owen considers it 
Unnecessary to treat at large of the rest of the skeleton, merely gi- 
ving a brief notice of the several bones of the extremities : in con- 
clusion, he remarks that the order Ruminantia, perhaps the most na- 
tural in the mammiferous class, if we look to the condition of the 
organs of nutrition, presents, however, more variet)'- than any of the 
carnivorous orders, in the local development of the organs of rela- 
tion, and the consequent modification of external form : the most 
remarkable of these modifications is undoubtedly that which we ad- 
mire in the Giraff'e, and the anatomical peculiarities, which its internal 
organization presents, are principally confined to the skeleton in re- 
spect to the proportions of its different parts ; and to those parts of 
the muscular and nervous systems immediately relating to the local 
peculiarities in the development of the osseous framework. 



23 



February 28, 1838. 

Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair. 

Some observations were made by M. Bibron upon two European 
species of Triton indigenous to this country, Triton cristatus and Trit. 
marmoratus, which many naturahsts consider to have been errone- 
ously separated. M. Bibron, however, entertains no doubt whatever 
of their being really distinct, and pointed out a character by which 
he states they may readily be distinguished, and which he believed 
to have been hitherto unnoticed. This distinction consists in the 
form of the upper lip, which in Triton cristatus is so largely de- 
veloped as to overlap the under lip posteriorly when the jaws are 
closed, a condition never present in Trit, marmoratus. 

Mr. Ogilby exhibited and characterized, under the name of Mu' 
cropus rufiventer, a new species of Kangaroo which Mr. Gould had 
received from Tasmania, where it is known by the name of Walla- 
bee. The external incisor tooth of the upper jaw was marked by a 
duplication or fold : the general colour of the animal above was 
grayish brown, considerably darker than the wild rabbit, and co- 
piously intermixed on the back with pure black hairs, which in cer- 
tain lights gives this part a perfectly black appearance ; the paws 
and outer surface of the fore-legs are of the same colour ; the tarsus 
and hind paws brown ; the chin, throat, belly, and abdomen, sandy 
red, more or less intense ; ears yellowish red within, brownish black 
without ; tail rather short, dark brown above, dirty yellowish on the 
sides, naked, and granulated two-thirds of its length on the under 
surface; claws long and pointed; nose naked ; length of body 2 feet; 
of tail 1 foot 2 inches. 

Mr. Waterhouse exhibited a drawing, and the tail and jaws of a 
new species of Delphinus, which he characterized as 

Delpiiinus Fitzroyi. Delph. supra niger ; capitis corporisqne 
laterihus, corjioreque subtiis, niveis ; caudd, pedibus, labioque 
inferiore, nigris ; fasciis latis duahus per latiis utrumque ob- 
lique excurrentibus, hujusque coloris fascia utrinque angulo 
oris ad pedem tendente, 

ft. in. lin. 

Total length (measuring along curve of back) 5 4 

Length from tip of muzzle to vent 3 10 9 

Length from tip of muzzle to dorsal fin 2 6 5 

Length from tip of muzzle to pectoral 1 4 5 

Length from tip of muzzle to eye 9 9 

Length from tip of muzzle to breathing aperture (fol- 
lowing curve of head) 10 7 



24 

ft. in. lin. 

Length from tip of muzzle to angle of mouth 7 9 

Length of dorsal fin (along the anterior margin). ... 1 5 

Height of ditto 6 4 

Length of pectoral, (along anterior margin) 1 2 8 

Width of tail 1 4 5 

Girth of body before dorsal fin 3 6 

Girth of body before pectoral fin 2 8 2 

Girth of body before tail fin 7 8 

Girth of head over the eyes 2 

Habitat, Coast of Patagonia, lat. 42° 30'. (AprU). 

" This species, Avhich I have taken the liberty of naming after 
Captain Fitzroy, the Commander of the Beagle, approaches, in some 
respects, to the DelpMnus superciliosus of the ' Voyage de la Co- 
quille,' but that animal does not possess the oblique dark-gray bands 
on the sides of the body; it likewise wants the gray mark which ex- 
tends from the angle of the mouth to the pectoral fins. In the figure, 
the under lip of the Delph. superciliosus is represented as almost white, 
whereas in the present species it is black : judging from the figures, 
there is likewise considerable difference in the form. The figure 
which illustrates this description agrees with the dimensions, which 
were carefully taken by Mr. Darwin immediately after the animal 
was cajjtured, and hence is correct." 

Mr. Gould exhibited two species of the genus Ptilotis, which he 
characterized as Ptil. ornata, and Ptil. fiavigula, 

Ptilotis ornata. Ptil. vertice, alarum marginibus externis, nee 
11071 Cauda olivaceis ; dorso uropygioque brunneis ; guld, genis- 
que olivaceo-fuscis ; pectore corporeque subtiis cineresceulibus, 
singulis plumis notd lata brunned in medio ornatis ; crisso 
pallide badio plumis fusco striatis, penicilld nitidejlavd utrum- 
que colli latus ornante ; notd longitudinali sub oculos olivaced; 
primariis rectricibusque caudce fuscis, his ad apicem externum 
albis ; rostro nigrescente ; pedibus brunneis. 

Long. tot. 6| unc; rostri, |; alee, 3f ; caudce, 3^; tarsi, |. 

Hab. Swan River, Australia. 

Ptilotis fl a vigul a. Ptil. capite, nuchd, getiis, corporeque infe- 

riore nigro-griseis, hoc colore apud abdomen o^issumqiie olivaceo 

tincto ; plumis auricularibus argenteo-cinereis et post has guttd 

Jlavd ; giddjlavd; alis, dorso, cauddque, Jlavescenti-olivaceis ; 

femoribus olivaceis ; rostro pedibusque nigrescentibus. 

Long. tot. 8 unc; rostri, 1; alee, 4^; caudce, 4^; tarsi, 1. 

Hab. Van Diemen's Land and New South Wales. 



25 



March 13th, 1838. 
William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

Mr. Ogilby read a letter from Mr. V. der Hoeven, in which the 
writer expresses his belief that the large Salamander preserved in a 
living state at Leyden ought to be regarded as a species of Harlan's 
genus Menopoma ; its specific characters consisting in the absence 
of the branchial apertures, which are present in the species upon 
which Harlan founded his genus. M. V. der Hoeven thinks it pro- 
bable that the branchial apertures were present in the Leyden Sala- 
mander in the young state, and he proposes to adopt the generic 
term Cryptobranchus in preference to that of Menopoma, and to give 
it the specific name of Japonicus. He further states that his obser- 
vations upon this singular reptile will shortly be published in a 
Dutch Journal. 

Mr. Owen observed, with reference to the opinion of M. V. der 
Hoeven respecting the relations of the Gigantic Salamander of 
Japan to the Menopome of the Alleghany Mountains, that the persist- 
ence of branchial apertures was a structure so likely to influence 
not only the habits of an amphibious reptile, but also the struc- 
tural modifications of the osseous and vascular parts of the re- 
spiratory organs, as to render it highly improbable that the Me- 
nopome should be related generically to a species having no trace 
of those apertures. He thought, therefore, that the question of 
the Menopome and gigantic Japanese Salamander being diflferent 
species of the same genus, could be entertained only on the sup- 
position, that the branchial apertures were a transitional structure 
in the former reptile as they are in the latter. That this was the 
case he considered as highly improbable ; for, besides the ossified 
state of the hyoid apparatus, there was evidence in the Hunterian 
Collection that both the male and female generative organs in the 
Menopome have arrived at maturity without any change having taken 
place in the condition of the branchial apparatus usually considered 
as characteristic of the Menopome. He therefore considered it to be 
undoubtedly generically distinct from the gigantic Salamander of 
Japan, the true affinities of which could only be determined satis- 
factorily after a complete anatomical investigation, especially of its 
sanguiferous, respiratory, and osseous systems. 

Mr. Ogilby exhibited a drawing, made by Major Mitchell, of a 
Marsupial animal found by that officer on the banks of the river 
Murray, during his late journey in the interior of New South Wales. 
Mr. Ogilby stated his original belief that the animal in question be- 
longed to the Perameles, under which impression he had proposed 
to name it Per. ecaudatus, from its entire want of tail, a cha- 

No. LXIII, — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



26 

racter found in no other species of the same group ; but a drawing 
of the fore-foot, afterwards found by Major Mitchell, and likewise 
exhibited to the Society on the present occasion, had considerably 
shaken this first opinion, and induced Mr. Ogilby to suspect that 
the animal may eventually form the type of a new genus. Ac- 
cording to Major Mitchell's drawing, and the notes which he took 
at the time of examining the specimen, it would appear that there 
were only two toes on the fore-feet, which were described as having 
been so perfectly similar to those of a pig, as to have procured for 
the animal the name of the pig-footed bandicoot, among the per- 
sons of the expedition. 

The drawing of the foot, in fact, very closely resembles that of 
the genus Sus in form and characters ; two toes only are represented, 
short, and of equal length ; but there is a swelling at the base of 
the first phalanges, which renders it probable that there may be two 
smaller ones behind. The Perameles, on the contrary, have three 
middle toes on the fore feet, all of equal length, and armed with 
very long, powerful claws, besides a small rudimentary toe very di- 
stinctly marked on eacli side. The form and character of the hind 
feet were perfectly similar to those of the Perameles ; as were also 
the teeth, as far as could be judged from the drawing, except that 
the canines did not appear to suqmss the anterior molars in point of 
size. The ears were long, elliptical, and nearly naked ; the head 
broad between the ears, and very much attenuated towards the muz- 
zle ; the body about the size of a small rabbit, and the fur very much 
of the same quality and colour as in that animal. Mr. Ogilby, after 
expressing his confidence in the fidelity of Major Mitchell's draw- 
ings, and the care with which that gentleman assured him he had 
made the observation in question, expressed his belief that this 
animal would be found to constitute a new genus of Marsupials, 
and proposed for it the provisional name of Charopus, in allusion to 
the described characters of the fore feet. 

The following is the notice of this animal inserted by Major Mit- 
chell in his journal, on the occasion of first discovering it. "June 16, 
1836. The most remarkable incident of this day's journey was the 
discovery of an animal of which I had seen only a head in a fossil 
state in the limestone caves of Wellington Valley, where, from its 
very singular form, I supposed it to belong to some extinct species. 
The chief peculiarity then observed was the broad head and very long, 
slender snout, which resembled the narrow neck of a wide bottle ; but 
in the living animal the absence of a tail was still more remarkable. 
The feet, and especially the fore legs, were also singularly formed, the 
latter resembling those of a Pig ; and the marsupial opening was 
downwards, and not upwards, as in the Kangaroo and others of that 
class of animals. This quadruped was discovered by the natives on 
the ground ; but on being chased it took refuge in a hollow tree, from 
which they took it aUve, all of them declaring that they had never 
before seen an animal of the kind. This was where the party had 
commenced the journey up the left bank of the Murray, immedi- 



27 

ately after crossing that river." Such, Mr. Ogilby remarked, was 
all the information he possessed at present with regard to this sin- 
gular animal ; but Mr. Gould had promised to examine the original 
specimen on his arrival at Sydney, in the Museum of which town it 
had been deposited ; and Mr. Ogilby therefore hoped that, through 
the kindness of that gentleman, he should shortly have it in his 
power to communicate a more detailed description of its form and 
characters to the Society. 

Mr. Waterhouse afterwards called the attention of the Meeting 
to some valuable skins of Mammalia, brought from Africa by Capt. 
Alexander, recently purchased for the Society's Museum. 



28 



March 27th, 1838. 
William Yarrell, Esq., in the Chair. 

A Dugong preserved in spirit having been presented to the Mu- 
seum by Alexander John Kerr, Esq., of Penang, Mr. Ovi'en com- 
municated to the meeting some notes descriptive of the principal 
viscera in this remarkable aquatic mammal, and a statement of the 
relative proportions exhibited by its several parts, in comparison with 
the dimensions of a Dugong published by Sir Stamford Raffles in 
the Phil. Trans., 1820, and of t^vo other specimens wliich Mr. Owen 
had on previous occasions examined in the Society's collection. 

Mr. Owen remarks, that " The external form of the Dugong is 
not so well calculated for moving rapidly through the water as that 
of the Dolphin and other carnivorous Cetacea, which subsist by a per- 
petual pursuit of living animals. In these the snout is conical, and 
peculiarly elongated, and in some, as the Delphinus Gangeticus, the 
jaws are produced to an extreme length, so as to give them every 
advantage in seizing their swift and slippery prey ; whilst, in the 
herbivorous Dugong, the snout is as remarkable for its obtuse, trun- 
cate character;' — a form, however, which is equally advantageous to 
it, and well adapted to its habits of browzing upon the algas and 
fuci which grow upon the submarine rocks of the Indian seas. 

" As, from the fixed nature of the Dugong's food, the motions 
of the animal during the time of feeding must relate more imme- 
diately to the necessity of coming to the surface to respire, its tail, 
the principal locomotive organ of ascent and descent, is propor- 
tionally greater than in the true Cetacea, its breadth being rather 
more than one-third the length of the whole bod)^. 

" But the most important external differences are seen in the 
presence of the memlrana nictitans, in the anterior position of the 
nostrils, and in the situation of the mammee, which are pectoral, or 
rather axillary, being situated just behind the roots of the flippers; 
in the female specimen examined their base was about the size of a 
shilling, and they projected about half an inch from the surface. 

" A considerable ridge extends along the middle of the upper sur- 
face of the posterior part of the back, which is continued upon and 
terminates in the tail. 

" The viscera'y/eve detached from one another, and from their 
natural connexions, in the same way in Mr. Kerr's as in the other 
specimens transmitted to the Society, so as to disable me from as- 
certaining their several relative positions. It may be observed, that 
if this were done merely with a view to their preservation, it was un- 
necessary ; laying open the cavity of the uhdomen, with the addi- 
tion of opening the stomach and the intestinal canal in a few places. 



29 

so as to let the spirit get into the interior of the alimentary canal, 
would answer every purpose. 

Digestive Organs. 

" The mouth and tongue corresponded with the descriptions already 
published of these remarkable structures. The opening of the larynx 
is chiefly defended, during the submarine mastication of the vege- 
table matters constituting the food of the Dugong, by the extreme 
contraction of the faucial aperture, which resembles that of the Ca- 
pybara. It is not traversed by a pyramidal larynx, as in the true 
Cetacea. There are two large parotid glands, situated immediately 
behind the large ascending ramus of the lower jaw. A thick layer 
of simple follicular glands ai'e developed above the membrane of the 
palate, and a glandular stratum is situated betSveen the mucous 
and muscular coats of the lower part of the (esophagus ; a similar 
but more developed glandular structure is present in the oesophagus 
of the Ray. 

" The stomach of this singular animal presents, as Sir Everard 
Home has justly observed, some of the peculiarities met with in the 
Whale tribe, the Peccari and Hippopotamus, and the Beaver : like 
the first, it is divided into distinct compartments ; like the second 
and third, it has pouches superadded to and communicating with it ; 
and, like the last, it is provided with a remarkable glandular ap- 
paratus near the cardia. 

"These modifications obviously harmonize with the difficult digest- 
ibility and low- organized nature of the food of the Dugong. Yet, 
it is a fact which would not have been, a priori, expected, that in 
the carnivorous Cetacea the stomach is even more complicated than 
in the herbivorous species, and presents a closer resemblance to 
the ruminant stomach ; it is divided, for example, into a greater 
number of receptacles, and has the first cavity, like the rumen, lined 
with cuticle ; while in the Dugong, on the contrary, the stomach is 
properly divided into two parts only (of which the second much 
more resembles intestine), and both are lined with a mucous mem- 
brane. 

" The first or cardiac cavity is of a spheroidal or full oval shape, 
with the left extremity, which contains the gland, produced in an 
obtusely conical form towards the diaphragm. The length of this 
cavity was 9 inches, its depth 6^; but it must be remembered that 
it had been opened, and the sides lay flat together. In the smaller 
Dugong, where the stomach had probably been more distended at 
the time of death, this cavity measured 12 inches in length and 7 in 
depth. 

" The (esophagus is very narrow and muscular, and terminates at 
the middle of the lesser curvature rather nearer the right than the 
left extremity of the cardiac cavity. 

" The muscular coat of the stomach is strongly developed, but 
varies in thickness at different parts of the cavity. Where it covers 
the gland at the left extremity it is two lines in thickness, but 



3d 

quickly increases, as it spreads over the wider parts of the cavity, to 
the extent of 8 lines ; then again gradually diminishes, as it ap- 
proaches the pyloric cavity, to a thickness of 1^ line at the greater 
curvature, but, at the constriction separating the two cavities, again 
increases to 6 lines : along the lesser curvature it never diminishes 
in thickness beyond 3 lines, the muscular coat at this part being, as 
in the human stomach, augmented with additional longitudinal fibres. 

" In order to defend the cardia against the pressure of the con- 
tents of the stomach, when acted upon by this powerful muscular coat, 
the (esophagus enters the stomach in a valvular manner, and is sur- 
rounded at its termination by a vast accession of muscular fibres, 
forming a conical mass upwards of an inch in thickness all round 
the canal : the outermost of these fibres run longitudinally ; the 
middle ones decussate each other obliquely ; the innermost are cir- 
cular, and form a sphincter around the cardia. The diameter of the 
canal so surrounded was 3 lines, the inner surface being gathered 
up in irregular transverse ruga ; the cellular coat is increased in 
thickness at its termination, and protrudes the inner membrane into 
the stomach like the os tinea of the womb. 

" The inner surface of the stomach was puckered around the 
cardia, and presented a few small, irregular ruga; along the lesser 
curvature and about the orifice leading to the second cavity, but the 
remainder was tolerably even and smooth. The inner membrane 
is a thin, soft membrane, with a finely reticulate surface. To the 
left of the cardia there projects into the stomach a rounded mam- 
milloid eminence, whose base is 2 inches in diameter, and whose 
apex presents an oblique crescentic orifice about 3 lines in diameter ; 
on drawing aside the margins of this orifice, I unexpectedly found that, 
instead of its being the outlet of a simple mass of follicular glands, 
as would appear from the figures and description in Sir Everard 
Home's Account of the Anatomy of the Dugong, it led to a wide, 
flattened, \vinding simis, and that its circumference was formed by the 
termination of a membrane spirally disposed in about eight or ten 
turns, and increasing in breadth at each gyration, having both sur- 
faces covered with the orifices of numerous glandular foUicles, and 
the interspaces filled with a cream-like secretion. This structure, 
which adds another peculiarity to the stomach of the Dugong, and 
one met with in the cacum only in a few other mammalia, viz. that 
of having its blind end occupied by a spiral membrane, I have found 
in all the specimens dissected at the Society ; and in each case the 
gland was infested by Ascarides, hereafter to be described, which 
left impressions upon the spiral membrane. 

" The orifice leading to the pyloric cavity of the stomach re- 
sembles in some respects a true pylorus ; besides the additional 
muscular fibres, the greater part of Avhich are circularly disposed, it 
is provided Math a circular and valvular production of the inner 
membrane of the stomach of 3 lines in extent ; diameter of the 
orifice 9 lines. Immediately beyond this valve are the orifices of 
the two csecal appendages, situated 1^ inch apart at the upper and 



31 

rather towards the posterior side of the cavity ; these orifices were 
about an inch in diameter, but the inferior orifice was the larger 
of the two. The appendages were of the same length, viz. 5 inches ; 
the circumference of the anterior and superior was 5^ inches, that 
of the lower one 4^ inches ; but this difference in capacity depended 
on the different state of dilatation in the two pouches ; for on laying 
them open, the narrower one had its inner surface thrown into nu- 
merous small rtigcE, while very few appeared in the wdder pouch in 
consequence of the dilatation. Small quantities of comminuted sea- 
weeds were found in both these receptacles. 

" The muscular coat of these pouches was one line and a half 
thick, and arranged obliquely. There were no particular glandular 
appearances on the mucous coat. They seem to vary in their relative 
dimensions in different individuals. In the small female Dugong 
examined by Sir Everard Home, the posterior inferior pouch was seven 
inches and a half in length, while the other was only three inches, but 
the diameter of the latter was twice that of the longer pouch. These 
gastric cteca are interesting from repeating so closely the structure 
which characterizes the stomach of some of the lowest animals, in 
which they sometimes represent the whole of the superadded gland- 
ular apparatus of the digestive system. 

" The pyloric cavity of the stomach is, as I have before observed, 
more like an intestine, being elongated and narrow ; indeed this cir- 
cumstance and the resemblance of the orifice of communication to a 
true pylorus appear to have deceived the dissectors who furnished 
Sir Stamford Raffles with the otherwise very accurate notes on the 
anatomy of the Dugong, published in the 110th vol. of Phil. Trans., 
1820, since they describe these appendages as opening into the sto- 
mach near the junction of the duodenum ; but the true commence- 
ment of that intestine is twelve inches beyond the orifices of the 
sacculi. The circumference of the pyloric cavity at its commence- 
ment was nine inches ; it dilated a little beyond the orifices of the 
sacculi, and then gradually diminished to the pylorus, which is an 
orifice of about half an inch diameter. The muscular coat of this 
compartment of the stomach varies from two to three lines in thick- 
ness, the longitudinal fibres which run along the lesser curvature of 
the preceding cavity are continued on the same aspect of this one, 
passing between the two sacculi, and apparently adapted so as to 
close their orifices by drawing towards the cardia the part of the 
stomach that is to the right of them. The inner membrane of the 
pyloric cavity is similar to that of the cardiac, and is thrown into a 
few rugce. 

" Beyond the pylorus the mucous membrane of the intestine is for a 
few inches slightly rugous like that of the stomach, it is then thrown 
into decided transverse wavy rugce ; at five inches distance from the^;y- 
lorus the duodenum recei^'es the biliary and pancreatic secretions on a 
mammillary eminence, three lines broad. Beyond this part the trans- 
verse rugcB are crossed by longitudinal ones, and the inner membrane 
puts on a reticular appearance ; this disposition continues for about six 



82 

feet, wlien the transverse folds gradually disappear, and the longitudi- 
nal disposition predominates through the remainder of the smallintes- 
tines. The whole length of this part of the canal, in the Dugong last 
dissected, was twenty-seven feet ; the diameter of the canal uniformly 
about one inch. The muscular coat throughout, two and a half lines 
thick, the external longitudinal layer being half a line in thickness. 
The cellular or nervous and mucous coats together were two lines in 
thickness. The orifices of the intestinal glands described by Home, 
(ut sup. p. 318,) were very distinct in the first specimen dissected, 
arranged in a zig-zag line — thus .•.•.-.•. • — upon the mucous 
membrane, along the side of the intestine next the mesentery, and 
occasionally crossing from one side to the other of the line of attach- 
ment ; they were continued all the way to the cacum. 

" It would seem that this appendage was present in all the her- 
bivorous Cetacea; Steller describes it as of large size, and sacculated, 
in the Northern Manatee (Stellerus). Daubenton has given a figure 
of the bifid ccccum in the Southern Manatee (Manatus Americanus). 
It is interesting to observe that a cuput-coli is present in those of 
the true Cetacea, as the Balcenidce, which subsist on animal food of 
the lowest organized kind. 

" Where the ilium enters the caput-coU in the Dugong it is sur- 
rounded by a sphincter almost as thick and strong as is that at the 
cardia. The terminal orifice is transverse and irregular. 

" The ccecum is a conical cavity, but in neither instance was it so at- 
tenuated at the extremity as in the specimen from which Sir E. Home's 
representation is taken. Its length six inches ; diameter at the base 
or eutry of ilium four inches. The muscular coat increases rapidly 
in thickness towards the apex, near which it is one inch in thickness ; 
its inner surface is smooth, and there is no appearance of glands in the 
mucous membrane. This circumstance, combined with its conical 
form, its great muscularity, and complete serous outer covering, give 
it a great resemblance to the left ventricle of the bullock's heart. 
Its capacity indeed is trifling as compared with the great development 
of the rest of the large intestine ; and it contains no particular 
glandular structure ; the chief peculiarity of this ccecum is the 
strength of its muscular tunic, and it might, without the simile 
being far-fetched, be termed, in the Dugong, the heart of the large 
intestines, since here its principal function is evidently to give a first 
powerful impulse to the motion of the long column of matter con- 
tained in the large intestines. There is no trace of a constriction 
at the commencement of the colo?i above the ilio-ctecal orifice ; but 
the great intestine is continued for a little way of equal dimensions 
with the base of the ccecum, and then soon diminishes to a diameter 
of one inch and a half, which continues to near the termination of 
the canal, which becomes again wider to the amis. The parietes of 
the large intestines are thinner than those of the small ; the muscular 
coat consists of a thin layer of longitudinal, and a thicker layer of 
circular fibres ; the mucous membrane is generally smooth. 

" Towards their termination the large intestines again become 



33 

wider. The inner membrane is produced into a few irregular folds, 
and for half an inch within the anus is of dark leaden colour, the 
pigmentum being apparently continued inwards for that extent. 

" From the complexity of the stomach, the great extent of the 
alimentary canal, its vast muscular power, and glandular appendages, 
the digestive functions must be extremely vigorous in this animal. The 
vigour of the digestive functions obviously relates, in the herbivorous 
section of Cetacea, to the low organized indigestible character of their 
nutriment ; but the complicated stomach and long intestinal canal of 
the carnivorous Cetacea must have other relations than to the kind 
of food. These modifications of the digestive system, for example, 
cannot be so explained in the Grampus, which preys on the highly 
organized mammalia of its own class. It is not to the nature of 
the food, but to the quantity of nutriment that is required to be 
obtained from it, that I conceive the peculiarities of the digestive 
system in the carnivorous Cetacea to relate. In no other Carnivora 
is the same quantity of blood, the same mass of fat to be eliminated 
from the raw material of the food : the digestive system is, there- 
fore, perfected in these warm-blooded carnivorous Mammalia to 
meet the contingencies of their aquatic life. 

" The omentum is continued from the great curvature both of the 
cardiac and pyloric divisions of the stomach ; though short, it is 
much more distinctly developed than in the carnivorous Cetacea ; it 
contains no adipose matter. 

" The mesentery like the omentum was thin, with little fat, and a 
few absorbent glands of the size of French beans were scattered in it. 
The absorbents going to these glands were very small." 

Having described various other particulars connected with the chy- 
lopoietic viscera, and the individual dilFerences which they presented 
in the three specimens dissected, Mr. Owen proceeded to observe as 
follows : — 

" The views taken by Cuvier of the natural affinities of the Du- 
gong and other herbivorous Cetacea, as expressed in his latest clas- 
sification, in which they form part of the same order as the carnivo- 
rous Cetacea, axe undoubtedly questionable, and have been dissented 
from by De Blainville and other eminent authorities in zoology. If, 
indeed, the object of every good classification be, what Cuvier states 
it to be, to ejiable the naturalist to express in general propositions 
structures and attributes common to each given group, the conjunc- 
tion of the Dugong with the Dolphin fails in this respect in regard 
to almost all the important points of internal organization. 

" It is this question which may give interest to the pi-esent ana- 
tomical details, some of which are not new, and which I should not 
have intruded upon the notice of the Society had they previously been 
considered with reference to the important zoological question still 
at issue. 

" In proceeding with our investigation of the abdominal viscera, 
we find, with respect to the biliary organs, that the Dugong deviates 
in a marked degree from the ordinary Cetacea in the presence of a 



34 

well-developed gall-bladder. Daubenton found a gall-bladder in the 
Manatee ; but the jjresence of this organ is not constant in the her- 
bivorous Cetacea, for in the Northern Manatee {Stellerus borealis, 
Cuv.), according to Steller*, the gall-bladder is wanting, and its 
absence seems to be compensated by the enormous width of the duc- 
tus communis choledochus, which would admit the five fingers united. 
The liver in the Dugong is more flattened, and more divided than in 
the true whales. It consists of three lobes, with a small Spigelian lohu- 
lus continued from the root of the left lobe. The middle of the three 
lobes is the smallest, and presents a quadrate figure, with its free 
margin projecting forwards, notched for the reception of the suspen- 
sory and round ligament, and, in one of the specimens, obtusely 
bifurcate ; it overhangs, as it were, the gall-bladder, which is lodged 
in the middle of its concave or under surface. The gall-bladder was 
four inches in length and one inch in diameter at its fundus ; it re- 
ceives the bile in a peculiar manner ; not, as in other Mammalia, by 
a junction of the cystic with the hepatic duct, with or without he- 
pato-cystic ducts, but by two large hepato-cystic ducts exclusively, 
which pierce its cervix obliquely, just as the ureters convey the renal 
secretion to the urinary bladder. The orifices of the above ducts are 
half an inch apart, and three inches distant from the fundus vesicce. 
The cervix contracts gradually into the cystic duct, which exclusively 
conveys the bile to the intestine. It was six inches in length, and 
two lines in diameter; but became dilated just before it entered the 
duodenum, and, as it passed between the coats of that gut, its lining 
membrane was developed into reticulate folds, presenting the only 
appearance of a valvular structure in the course of the duct. Three 
wide vena hepaticee from the left side, and one on the right side of 
the liver, join the inferior cava at the upper and posterior edge of the 
liver, which is not perforated by that vein. 

" In the Dugong No. 2, the pancreas, which was situated below 
and behind the pyloric compartment of the stomach, was seven inches 
in length ; thick and obtuse at the splenic or left end, where its di- 
ameter was two inches, and gradually becoming smaller towards the 
duodenum. Its secretion is carried from the component lobules by 
from twenty to thirty ducts, each about two lines in diameter, to a 
very wide common excretory canal, which terminates below, but on 
the same prominence, with the cystic duct ; at a much greater rela- 
tive distance from the pylorus than in the true Cetacea. In one of 
the Dugongs dissected by me I found two small accessory spleens, 
in addition to the larger rounded one, which measured four inches 
in length ; but in the other specimens this alone was present. 

Circulating System. 

" All the three specimens presented the same remarkable extent of 
separation of the two ventricles of the heart which Raffles and Home 
have described in the individuals dissected by them, and which Riip- 

* See Novi Co/nmenlarii Acad. Scient. Petrop. t. it 17ril. 



35 

pell * observed in the Dugong of the Red Sea (Halicore tabernaculi, 
R.). This condition of the heart was first noticed by Daubenton in 
the fcetus of the Manatee ; and is also described by the unfortunate 
Steller in the genus worthily consecrated to his name, in which, how- 
ever, the apical cleft of the heart extended upwards only one third 
of the way towards the base. In the Dugong it reaches half-way 
towards the base. The carnivorous Cetacea do not participate with 
the herbivorous section in this interesting structure. 

" I found in each of the specimens that the foramen ovale was com- 
pletely closed, and the ductus arteriosus reduced to a thick ligament- 
ous chord, permeable for a short distance by an eye-probe from the 
aorta, where a crescentic slit still represented the original communi- 
cation. In the smoothness and evenness of their exterior, and their 
general form, the auricles of the Dugong resemble those of the Turtle 
(Chelone) : the appendix can hardly be said to exist in either. The right 
auricle is larger than the left ; the musculi pectinati are well deve- 
loped, especially in the left : they are irregularly branched, and with 
many of the small round fasciculi attached only by their two extre- 
mities to the auricular parietes. The free wall of the right ventricle 
scarcely exceeds at any part a line in thickness, and is in many places 
even less. The tricuspid valve is attached to three fleshy columns 
by chorda: tendinete given off from the sides and not the extremities 
of the cohmneE, both of which extremities are implanted in the walls 
of the ventricles. There are several other columnm carnece passing 
freelv from one part of the ventricle to another, like the musculi pec- 
tinati of the auricles, and which have no connection with the tricus- 
pid valve. The mitral valve is adjusted to its ofhce by attachments 
to two short and transversely-extended columnce. The thickness of 
the parietes of the left ventricle varies from half an inch to an inch. 
The valves at the origins of the great arteries present the usual struc- 
ture. The primary branches from the arch of the aorta corresponded 
in each specimen with the description and figure by Home. There 
is one superior cava only, not two as in the elephant. The pulmo- 
nary veins terminate in the left auricle by a common trunk an inch 
in length. 

" With respect to the vascular system of the Cetacea, Hunter f, 
speaking of the true whales, observes, " Animals of this tribe have 
a greater proportion of blood than any other known, and there are 
many arteries apparently intended as reservoirs for arterial blood ;" 
and then he proceeds to describe the extraordinary intercostal and 
intravertebral plexuses in the true Cetacea. As no mention is made 
in the anatomical descriptions of the herbivorous Cetacea, by Dau- 
benton, Steller, Cuvier, Raflfles, and Home, respecting the existence 
or otherwise of similar plexuses in the several specimens examined 
by them, I pursued with much interest this part of the dissection of 
our Dugongs ; but could detect no trace of this very striking modi- 

• Beschreihung des im Rothen Meere vorkommenden Dugong. 4to. Frank- 
furt, 1833, p. 106. 

t Philos. Trans. 1787, p. 415. 



36 

fication of the intercostal vessels. Here again, in enunciating a 
general anatomical proposition regarding Cuvier's Cetacea, the her- 
bivorous species must be exceptionally cited apart. 

Respiratory System. 

" The peculiar form, structure, and position of the lungs have been 
so accurately described and figured by Raffles, Home, and Riippel, 
that I have only to observe the close agreement with these accounts 
which the structure of the parts presented in the three Dugongs dis- 
sected by me ; Daubenton* and Humboldtf describe and figure a 
precisely similar condition of the respiratory apparatus in the Ma- 
natee. Steller describes the same extension of the lungs along the 
dorsal aspect in the Stelleriis, which he aptly compares to the posi- 
tion of the lungs in the bird, but without their fixation to the pari- 
etes of the chest, so characteristic of that class. The Chelonian 
reptiles, perhaps, offer a closer resemblance % to the herbivorous Ce- 
tacea in this respect ; and it is worthy of remark that the air-cells 
of the lungs are larger in the Dugong than in any other Mammals. 
In the carnivorous Cetacea the air-cells are remarkably minute, and 
the lungs more compactly shaped and lodged in a shorter thorax. 

" Existing, as both the herbivorous and carnivorous Cetacea do, un- 
der such peculiar circumstances, — as air-breathing animals constantly 
dwelling in an element the access of which to the lungs would be 
immediately fatal, — it might be sujjposed that the mechanism of the 
larynx, or entry to the air-passage, would be similarly modified in all 
the species, in order to meet the contingencies of their aquatic ex- 
istence. But we can as little predicate a community of organization 
in the structure of this part as of the circulating or digestive systems 
in the Cetacea of Cuvier, The Dugong and the Dolphin present, in 
fact, the two extremes in the Mammiferous class, in the develope- 
ment of the epiglottis, which is one of the chief internal character- 
istics of that class. In the true Cetacea, and the Delphinida in par- 
ticular, it is remarkable for its great length, while in the Dugong it 
can hardly be said to exist at all. As the larynx, however, has only 
been noticed cursorily in the previous anatomical accounts of the 
Dugong, I beg to offer a description of this part, as it appeared 
in the three .specimens dissected. 

" The glottis is very small and presents the form of the letter T, the 
superior transverse part of the opening being, however, crescentic 
instead of straight, with the horns extended a little way outside of 
the vertical slit. This is bounded on each side by the thin convex 
borders of the arytenoid cartilages ; the epiglottis makes a short ob- 
tuse pyramidal projection in front of the glottis ; on each side of this 
projection there is a slightly-produced crescentic fold of the mucous 

* Buffon, vol. xiii. 

f Wiegmann's Archiv fur NaturgescMchte, 183S, pi. ii. fig. 5. 

X This resemblance is further exemplified in the shortness of the trachea, 
the completeness of its cartilaginous rings, the length of the bronchial tubes, 
and the extension of their cartilaginous structure far into the substance of 
the lungs in the Dugong. 



37 

membrane ; exterior to this fold the pharyngeal membrane is puck- 
ered up into numerous minute irregular plications, in the intervals 
of which are the orifices of numerous mucous follicles, which are also 
scattered about the immediate neighbourhood of the glottis. 

" In the largest Dugong dissected (No. 2.), the thyroid, cncoid, and 
arytenoid cartilages presented several bony granulations, scattered 
irregularly through their substance : in older animals their ossification 
may become more complete. 

" The mesial fissure, which is commonly pi'esent in other Mammalia 
at the inferior margin of the thyroid, is here continued through the 
whole of that cartilage, dividing it into two distinct lateral moieties, 
connected above by dense fibrous texture, and below by membrane 
merely and cellular and adipose tissue. Each portion presents an 
irregular elongated rhomboidal figure, of which one extremity forms 
the point of junction with its fellow above-mentioned, while the oppo- 
site angle is prolonged into the inferior cornu, and is similarly 
and closely connected by a strong ligament to a prominence on the 
side of the cricoid cartilage ; the intermediate angle on the posterior 
margin of the thyroid feebly represents the superior cornu. Length 
of the thyroid cartilage, 2 inches 9 lines ; breadth of each lobe, 1 inch 
3 lines. The cricoid cartilage is the lai^gest ; it forms a complete 
ring. The broad posterior surface is not rounded, but bent so as to 
offer three facets, one narrow in the middle, which expands above 
and below, and two broad lateral ones ; and the inferior margin de- 
scribes three straight lines. The superior margin is very thick, and 
presents on each side an elliptical, convex, articular surface for the 
arytenoid cartilage. The anterior margin of the cricoid is rounded 
and convex, and slightly notched above. Longitudinal diameter of 
the cricoid posteriorly, 1 inch 9 lines ; ditto anteriorly, 8 lines : cir- 
cumference of cricoid, 6 inches. Each arytenoid cartilage is in form 
of a short irregular three-sided pyramid ; the inner surface flat, the 
anterior and outer surface convex ; the posterior and outer surface 
concave ; the base is excavated, to fit the articular convexity of the 
cricoid, with which it is connected by a synovial and fibrous capsule ; 
the apex is compressed and extended in the antero-posterior direc- 
tion ; it forms the convex lateral margin of the glottis above de- 
scribed. A short space, however, intervenes between the anterior 
part of the arytenoid, and the thyroid cartilages, which is occupied 
as usual by an elastic, dense, and pretty thick chorda vocalis, and 
the investing laryngeal membrane. There is a small pit between 
the anterior attachments of the chorda, but no sacculus is developed 
from this or any other part of the larynx. The mucous membrane 
of the larynx is smooth for the extent of five lines after it is re- 
flected over the apical margins of the arytenoid cartilages, and then 
begins suddenly to be disposed in numerous narrow pZ/cfi", which in- 
crease in breadth as they descend into the trachea, and are arranged 
somewhat obliquely, diverging in a penniform manner from the mid- 
dle line of the anterior surface of the tube. At the back part of the 
larynx and trachea these ruga are longitudinal. 

"The epiglottis cannot be said to exist as a distinct cartilage in the 



Dugong ; the small pyramidal prominence in front of the glottis is 
formed by a ligamentous or fibrous substance, the boundaries of 
which cannot be defined, as it passed insensibly into the cellular sub- 
stance filling the posterior interspace of the divisions of the thyroid, 
of which cellular substance it seems to be a mere condensation. The 
usual muscle, called hyo-epiglottideus, is, however, continued from 
the anterior part of this pseudo-epiglottis. The distance from the in- 
sertion of the chorda vocales to the apex of the epiglottis is 9 lines. 
The muscles of the larynx are powerfully developed. The aryteno- 
idei obliqui and transversi are represented by a single pair of mus- 
cles, which derive a broad and extensive origin from the posterior 
and external ridges of the arytenoid cartUages, and converge to be 
inserted into a small round cartilage in the posterior interspace of 
the arytenoids. These muscles, through the advantage afforded to 
them by this middle fixed fulcrum (which ought therefore to be re- 
garded as their point of origin), act with great power upon the ary- 
tenoid cartilages, drawing them together, and thus forcibly closing 
the narrow glottis. They are directly opposed by strongly developed 
thyreo-arytenoidei, which pass obliquely backwards from the internal 
and interior part of each division of the thyroid cartilages to the pos- 
terior and outer part of the arytenoids, which they draw apart, and 
thus open the glottis. The crico-arytenoidei arise from the anterior 
border of the cricoid, and are so inserted as to draw the arytenoidei 
forwards as well as outwards. The crico-thyroidei cover the whole 
of the fore part of the cricoid cartilage. The sterno-thyroidei, and 
thyreo-hyoidei are extremely powerful. 

" The thyroid gland formed an irregular bilobed mass, the greater 
part of which lies in front of the conjoined bronchial divisions of the 
trachea. There are but three true tracheal rings anterior to the bi- 
furcation of the air-tul)e : of these, the first of these is remarkable 
for its superior size, wliich forms an intermediate transition between 
the cricoid and the second tracheal ring. The tube is somewhat 
flattened from before backwards ; its circumference is 5 inches ; its 
antero-posterior diameter 1 inch. In the Balasnidce the tracheal 
rings are deficient at the anterior part of their circumference. The 
spiral disposition of the cartilages of the air-tubes, of which Home 
has given a figure, in the Dugong, is described with more detail by 
Steller in the Northern Manatee. It is a structure which best 
facilitates the lengthening and shortening of the lungs, whose change 
of bulk in respiration, owing to their peculiar form and position, pro- 
bably takes place chiefly in that direction. 

" Amongst the true Cetacea we have observed that it is those which 
subsist on the lowest organized animal substance, as the Balcenida, 
which approach the nearest to the herbivorous species, in having the 
additional complexity of the ceecum cceli ; and it is interesting to find 
that the same affinity is manifested in the structure of the larynx. 
The epiglottis and arytenoid cartilages, for example, are relatively 
shorter in the Balcenoptera than in Delphinus ; and, as Mr. Hunter 
has observed, they are connected tpgether by the membranes of the 
larynx only at their base ; and not wrapped together or surrounded 



39 

by that membrane as far as their apices, as in the Dolphins. In the 
Balanoptera also, the apices of these cartilages are not expanded, as 
in the Dolphins, but diminish to an obtuse extremit3^ These points 
of resemblance to the condition of the larynx in the Dugong and 
Manatee are carried still farther in the Mysticete Whale, at least in 
t\iefmtus dissected by me, and in which both the epiglottis and ary- 
tenoid cartilages were relatively much shorter, and the thjrroid car- 
tilage larger and more convex than in the Piked Whale {Balanoptera) . 
The thyroid curtilage is, however, a single piece in both genera of 
BalanidiE, though deeply notched above and below ; and the larynx 
presents several interesting individual peculiarities, which, however, 
the minute and accurate descriptions and illustrations of this organ 
in both the Balcetiopterce and Balcence, published by Prof. G. Sandi- 
fort*, preclude the necessity of further dwelling upon. 

Uropoietic System. 

" If we were acquainted with the structure of the urinary organs 
of the herbivorous Cetacea as it is exemplified in the Dugong alone, 
■we should have to establish as marked a distinction in this respect 
between them and the true Cetacea, as in the preceding organic 
systems. Instead of the numerous and minute lobuli or renules, 
into which the kidney is subdivided in the Dolphins and Whales, it 
presents in the Dugong a simple, compact form, with an unbroken 
external surface ; the tubuli uriniferi terminate upon two lateral se- 
ries oie\e\enMammillce, which project into a single elongated cavity 
or iwlvis, from which the ureter is continued. The accurate Steller f, 
however, describes the kidney in the Northern Manatee as being 
subdivided, like that of the Seal and Sea-Otter. John Hunter ^ also 
ascribes a similar lobulated structure to the Manatee, including it 
with the Seal and White Bear among the animals occasionally inha- 
biting the water. Daubenton§, however, in his anatomical descrip- 
tion of the Manatus Americanus, merely observes : " Les reins (A. pi. 
iviii. fig. 6.) etoient oblongs et places I'un vis-a-vis I'autre" ; and his 
figure gives no indication of the lobulated structure. Home does 
not notice this interesting point in his Anatomy of the Manatee || . 
This want of uniformity in the structure of the kidney in the her- 
bivorous Cetacea is, however, of less moment with reference to their 
natural affinities ; since in the Pachyderms we find some species, as 
the Rhinoceros, and, though in a less degree, the Elephant, present- 
ing a subdivided kidney, while others, as the Tapir and Hog, have it 
entire. 

Generative System. 

" The generative organs being those which are most remotely re- 
lated to the habits and food of an animal, I have always regarded as 
affording very clear indications of its true affinities. We are the 

* Nieuwe Verhandelingen der Koninklitk, Niederlandishe Institmit, Deel. 
iii. p. 224, pi. I.— V. 
t Loc. cit. t On Whales, Phil. Trans., 1787, p. 412. 

§ Buftbn, xiii. p. 428. || Phil. Trans., 1821. 



40 

least likely, in the modifications of these organs, to mistake a merely 
adaptive for an essential character. The true Cetacea, as is well 
known, have no trace of vesiculce seminales ; but I found these bags 
present and of large size in the male specimen of our Dugongs. 
These accessory secerning vesicles measured each four inches in 
length, and two inches in diameter at their fundus, where they were 
widest, and their glandular parietes thickest. The internal surface 
of the remainder of the cavity was reticulated. The vasa deferentia 
are short, and disposed in irregular convolutions. Each cms penis 
was attached to the lower expanded extremity of the ischia, which 
were anchylosed to the ilia on each side*. Iiithe true Cetacea the 
retractores penis run along the sides to the under surface of the pe- 
nis ; while in the Dugong the corresponding muscles are inserted 
into the dorsum penis, as in the elephant : they meet and join in a 
strong tendon half way between the cms and the glans jienis. In 
the true Cetacea the body of the penis consists of a single corpus ca- 
vernosum, grooved above for the passage of the vena dorsalis, and 
more deeply excavated below for the lodgement of the urethra and 
its surrounding vascular structure. But the Dugong presents a 
marked deviation from the cetaceous structure of the same part, 
which presents in a transverse section a division of the corpus caver- 
nosum into two lateral portions, with a middle ligamentous septum, 
as in the Pachyderms ; the vascular and erectile tissue also bears a 
greater proportion to the surrounding ligamentous structure than in 
the true Cetacea. 

'■ In the Dugong the ducts of the vesicula; seminales and testes 
communicate together before terminating in the urethra. 

" Daubentont has given a figure of the vesiculce seminales in the 
Foetal Manatee. Steller does not describe the parts of generation 
in the Stellerus. 

" The testes are abdominal in the Dugong, as in the rest of the Ce- 
tacea ; but they also have a similar position in the Elephant. 

Osseous System. 

" After the excellent and elaborate descriptions of the osteology of 
the Dugong, by Cuvier, Riippel, and others, but little remains to be 
said on this subject. The bones are chiefly remarkable, as in the 
Manatee, for their dense texture, and the non-development of me- 
dullary cavities in them : this reptile-like condition of the skeleton 
is further exemplified in the loose connexion of the bones of the 
head. The bones are not loaded with oil, as in the Cetacea. All 
the specimens presented 7 cervical and 19 costal vertebrce, corre- 
sponding to the 1 9 pairs of ribs ; but the number of the remaining 
vertehrce exceeded that ascribed to the Dugong by Home and Cu- 
vier, there being at least 30, making in all 55. Riippell assigns to 

* The separate conditions of these rudimental pelvic bones in the Du- 
gong is shown in Mr. Clift's figure of the Skeleton of the young Female 
Dugong. In the true Cetacea the parts analogous to the ischia are alone 
present: they serve a similar purpose to that in the Dugong. 

\ hoc. ciL, pi. Iviii. fig. 6. 



41 

the Halicore Tabermculi, 7 cervical, 19 dorsal, 3 lumbar, 3 pelvic, 
and 27 caudal vertebra: ; in all 59 vertebra. J found, as he also 
describes, that the first four pairs of ribs reached the sternum, through 
the medium of cartilages ; all the others terminated freely in the mass 
of abdominal muscles : the 10th to the 15th are the longest, the last 
is the shortest. The affinity of the Dugong to the Pachydermata is 
thus again illustrated by the great number of the ribs. The lower 
jaw is articulated to the cranium by a true synovial capsule, reflected 
over cartilaginous surfaces, and not, as in the carnivorous Cetacea, 
by a coarse and oily ligamentous substance. 

Dentition. 

" My attention was particularly directed to the state of the denti- 
tion in the Dugongs of different sexes, which I have thus had the 
good fortune to examine ; from which it would appear that, as in 
the Narwhal, the permanent tusks of the female are arrested in their 
growth, and remain throughout life concealed within the substance 
of the intermaxillary bones and the alveolar integument. The ca- 
vity of the tusk is in like manner filled up by the secretion of the 
pulp which retrogrades in the course of its absorption, and hence 
the tusks are solid, like the corresponding tusks in the female Nar- 
whal, or at least present only a shallow cavity at their expanded 
and distorted base. The form of the tusk from this part is irregu- 
larly cylindrical, and it diminishes to an obtuse point at the opposite 
or lower extremity, which is perceptible only in the dry skuU. 

" It is remarkable that in all cases the external parietes of the aU 
veolus of the abortive tusk is wanting opposite its base, and this 
occurs even in the young female Dugong, when the base of the per- 
manent tusk is near the lower extremity of the deflected portion of 
the intermaxillary bone ; but as the pulp and the base of the tooth 
ascend, (or rather appear to ascend, in consequence of the elonga- 
tion of the bone and the teeth,) the vacuity also ascends, and is situ- 
ated in the adult at the upper part of the external surface of the de- 
flected portion of the intermaxillary bone*. In the male the per- 
manent tusks project beyond the jaws, and manifest, by the deep 
conical cavity at their base, the persistence of the formative pulp 
and their continual growth and renovation. These tusks also differ 
from those of the female, in not being expanded at their bases, but 
continuing of uniform diameter from one end to the other ; the pro- 
jecting extremities of the tusks are bevelled off from within, out- 
wards and downwards, and terminate in a sharp chisel-edge. Only 
a very small portion of the tusk projects from the jaw, (in which 
circumstance the Narwhal differs most widely from the Dugong,) at 
least seven- eighths of the tusk are imbedded in its socket, and the 
socket is entire throughout its whole extent, the exterior of the In- 
termaxillary bones generally presenting an unbroken surface, which, 

* The skull of the female Dugong figured by Ruppell {loc. cit.) exhibits 
this characteristic vacuity in the parietex of the socket of the tusk. The 
contained teeth were cylindrical and conical. 



42 

independently of the projecting tusks, unerringly characterizes the 
skull of the male Dugong. 

" It has been suggested that the use of the projecting tusks in the 
Dugong is to detach fuci from the rocks to which they adhere : 
one can hardly, however, assign any important function in relation 
to nutrition to parts which are limited to the male sex ; but it must 
be remembered that the function was assigned by a physiologist who 
supposed that the tusks in question were specific and not sexual 
characters, and that the imperfect tusks, which are peculiar to the 
female, were the predecessors of the projecting tusks, and, in fact, 
deciduous teeth. This opinion of Sir Everard Home was first called 
in question by Dr. Knox*, who, having detected the supposed de- 
ciduous tusks in the head of a nearly full-grown Dugong, rejected with 
great justice the opinion of Home, that they are deciduous teeth ; 
and he truly observes, that no evidence had been given to prove 
the existence of deciduous tusks at all in the Dugongf. 

" I need hardly observe that the tusks of the Dugong, being im- 
planted in the intermaxillary bones, are to be regarded, like the tusks 
of the Elephant, as incisors. Now both sexes of the Dugong, as of 
the Elephant, do, in fact, possess deciduous or milk-tusks, but they 
are much smaller than the female permanent tusks or supposed de- 
ciduous teeth of Home. 

" In a recent cranium of a male Dugong, sent to the Zoological 
Society in spirits, I found in the upper jaw the deciduous incisors 
or tusks coexisting with the permanent ones. They were loosely 
lodged, by one extremity, in conical sockets immediately anterior to 
those of tlie permanent tusks, and adhered by their opposite ends 
to the integument, which externally presented no protuberance or 
other indication of them. They were two inches in length, sUghtly 
curved, subcjdindrical, tapering to both extremities, the fang-end 
being the smallest, and perforated by an aperture leading to the ex- 
tremely contracted cavity in which the remnant of the exhausted 
matrix was lodged. From a comparison of the jaws of the dissected 
specimens, and several crania of different ages, it appears that not 
more than 20 grinders are developed in the Dugong, viz. 5 on each 
side of each jaw. Of these the first is shed before the last or fifth 
comes into use. In the dry skull I have seen the last molar pro- 
jecting from its socket, before either the deciduous incisor or the 
first molar had been shed, but its crown presented the primitive 
tuberculate apex, and had not penetrated the gum. The molares 
increase very regularly in size from the first to the last. The fang 
of the first and second is soon completed and solidified by the pro- 
gressive absorption of the pulp : that of the third retains for a longer 
period its pulp and expanded conical cavity, but it becomes at length 
contracted to a point, and is pushed out ; the fourth and fifth mo- 

* Edinb. Phil. Trans, xi. p. 389. 

f " The milk-tusks of the Dugong have never been seen b)' any one ; 
that is, I have not heard of the existence of any preparation showing the 
germs of the milk or permanent teeth, together or in succession." — Dr. 
Knox, loc. cit. p. 398. 



43 

lares, which may be regarded as the permanent teeth, retain through 
the greater period of life the wide conical cavity for their pulp, thus 
resembling the grinders of the Edentata : the pulp of the last molar 
becomes, in the progress of its development, extended in the antero- 
posterior direction, and contracted transversely in the middle, so as 
to give a sub-bilobed form to the mature grinder. Thus the molar 
teeth of the Dugong succeed each other, as in the Elephant and true 
Cetacea, in the horizontal, not in the vertical direction. The first 
deciduous molares are shed before the deciduous incisors. They 
are always much eaten away by the absorbents, especially about the 
neck. 

" In the skull of a male Dugong which had molares ^^, the sock- 
ets of the deciduous incisors were obliterated, and the points of the 
permanent ones projected from their sockets. 

" In only one out of seven crania of the Dugong which I have ex- 
amined, have I found incisors in the lower jaw ; they were two in 
number, one in the corresponding socket of each ramus, which sock- 
ets were much deeper than the rest. These teeth were smaller and 
more bent than the deciduous incisors of the upper jaw. They are 
obviously analogous to the rudimental teeth which have been de- 
scribed in the jaws of the foetal Whale. The Dugong in which these 
were found was eight feet in length ; the remaining six toothless al- 
veoli in the anterior part of the lower jaw were also present, though 
much shallower than those containing the teeth. In the other re- 
cent heads examined by me, the alveoli in the deflected portion 
of the lower jaw contained ligamentous processes given off from 
the internal surface of the thick callous integument covering that 
part of the jaw : they serve the purpose of fixing more firmly to 
the bone this dense and almost horny plate, ■which is beset exter- 
nally vidth short coarse bristles, and is doubtless used in scraping 
and tearing off the sea-weeds and other alimentary substances which 
maybe fixed to the rocks. 

" It is obvious that the different form and condition of the tusks thus 
observed in the heads of Dugongs of the same size and age, might be 
regarded as indicating a specific instead of a sexual difference. Dr. 
Knox inclines to the former opinion * ; I have however adopted the 
latter view, not hastily or hypotheticaUy, but as the result of a mi- 
nute comparison of the forms and proportions of all the crania which 
have come under my observation, and of which I have embodied the 
principal results in the subjoined table. 

* This able comparative anatomist observes, " The tusks differ as much 
in form in the two crania, as the tusks of the Asiatic Elephant differ from 
those of the African one, and therefore naturab'sts would say, that these 
animals must be specifically different." I hesitate, however, in asserting 
this positively, and would rather say that it amounts with other data, such 
as the belief, on the part of the Malays, in whose seas these animals reside, 
that, to a great probability, there are two distinct species of Dugong now 
inhabiting the Eastern Ocean. — loc. cit, p. 395. 



44 



Male.* 

5-5 
Molares r— 



Female.t 

2-3 
Molares — 



Male, 3 



2-2 
Molares — 



Cranium. 

Length of the cranium 

Prom the occipital crest to the upper border of 

the nasal aperture 

Length of nasal aperture 

Breadth of ditto 

From the lower border of the nasal aperture to 

the end of the intermaxillary bone , 

Breadth of occiput 

Smallest interspace of the temporal ridges 

Greatest distance between zygomatic arches 

Greatest distance between postorbital processes 

of the frontal bone 



Lower Jaw. 

From the condyle to the lower part of the sym- 
physis 

From the condyle to the base of the ascending 
ramus , 

Breadth of ascending »*a»w2w 

Length of dental (molar) series , 

Length oi Aa^xw^ symphysis 

Breadth of ditto 

From outside of one condyle to that of the other 

From the condyloid to the coronoid process 



ni. lin. 

13 11 

4 10 

4 

2 6 



6 
2 

2 
4 
2 
6 
2 




10 

6 
2 
3 
o 



in. lin. 
14 8 

5 
5§ 
2 9 



10 

6 
2 
2 
5 
2 
6 
2 



7 

4 

3 

10 



6 
10 


G 
6 
7 



in. lin. 
14 6 







811 
10 

211 
4 



11 3 

6 6 
3 
2** 
5 2 
2 3 

7 
2 7 



" The short and thick neck, fin-like fore-legs, want of hind-legs, 
caudal tegumentary fin, smooth, naked, and almost hairless integu- 
ment, are all modifications of external form, by which the Dugongs 
and Manatees are adapted to play their part in the waters : but the 
kind of part which they are to play in that element depends on or- 
ganic characters which mainly if not exclusively reveal their true 
affinities. Now we have seen that the whole of the internal struc- 
ture in the herbivorous Cetacea differs as widely from that of the 
carnivorous Cetacea, as do their habits : that the amount of varia- 
tion is as great as well could be in animals of the same class, exist- 

* Deciduous and permanent tusks in place ; the first molar, left side, 
lower jaw shed. Outer wall of sockets of permanent tusks entire. 

\ Deciduous tusks shed and their sockets obliterated ; the points of the 
permanent tusks protruding from their sockets : the shallow cavity at their 
base exposed by the absorption of the wall of the socket at that part. 

I Sockets of deciduous tusks obliterated, permanent ones protruded to 
the usual extent and worn by use : their sockets entire. 

§ This dimension increases as the intermaxillary bones are lengthened 
in the antero-posterior direction. 

II The increase of this dimension is due to the greater development of 
the lower part of the intermaxillary bones in correspondence with the sexual 
condition of the tusk. 

^ This dimension of course diminishes with the increased development 
of the temporal muscles consequent upon the fitness of the tusk for use. 

«* The increasing breadth of the last molar compensates for the loss of 
the small anterior molars. 



45 

ing in the same great deep. The junction of the Dugongs and 
Manatees with the true Whales cannot therefore be admitted in a 
distribution of animals according to their organization. With much 
superficial resemblance they have little real or organic resemblance 
to the Walrus, which exhibits an extreme modification of the am- 
phibious carnivorous type. I conclude, therefore, that the Dugong 
and its congeners must either form a group apart, or be joined, as 
in the classification of M. De Blainville, with the Pachyderms, with 
which the herbivorous Cetacea have the nearest affinities, and to 
which they seem to have been more immediately linked by the now 
lost srenus Deinotherium." 



Admeasurements. 




Zool. Soc. 
No. 1. 
1831. 



Zool. Soc. 

Female. 

No. 2. 

1831. 



Zool. Soc. 
Male. 
No. 3. 
1838. 



No. 

1. 

2. 
3. 



5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 



Total length of the animal 

Greatest circumference 

Length of head from nostrils to occi 

put 

Length of head from nostrils to end 

of snout 

Width of snout 

Depth of snout 

Length of cliin 

Breadth of chin 

Distance from nostrils to the eyes... 

Distance from eyes to ears 

Distance from eyes to flipper 

Length of the flippers 

Breadth of flippers ., 

Breadth across belly from fin to fin . 

Distance between the marnmcB 

Breadth of tail from tip to tip 

Circumference of root of tail 

Distance from amis to centre of tail 

Distance from anus to penis 

Total length of intestines 

Total length of small %\ith cacum... 

Total length of large 

Total length of large with ccecum... 

From end of snout to flipper 

Circumference of neck 

Diameter of orifice of eye-lids 



ft. in. 
8 6 
6 



1 









1 
1 



1 
1 

2 
1 

2 

1 

115 
44 
72 



3^ 
9.^ 
4 
5 

52 
6^ 
6 

5^ 
4 
8 
11 
5 
7 
9 
9 
2 






2 



ft. 
6 



60 
20 
46 



ft. 
7 
4 



37 

64 

65 

1 

2 





a 
8 
5 
4 

43 
54 
5i 



11 J 

1 1 



11 
101 




8 
2 
6 
9 
04 



ft. in. 
6 10* 



3JL 



10 



2 6 



27 6 
50 



Some prepared specimens belonging to the genera Siphuncnlus 
and Asterias, collected by Mr. Harvey upon the Devonshire coast, 
and presented to the Society, were upon the table, to which Mr. Owen 
drew the attention of the Meeting. The Chairman read an extract 
of a letter from the former gentleman, in which he stated that a con- 
siderable number of the Red-band Fish (Cejwla rubescens) had been 
picked up on the beach near Teignmouth. One of these specimens 
sent by Mr. Harvey was exhibited by Mr. Yarrell, who observed 



46 

that these fish are rarely captured, owing to their keeping very near 
the bottom, and their shape allowing them to pass through the 
meshes of the fishermen's nets. In severe storms, however, shoals 
of this Cepola are sometimes killed by being driven against the bot- 
tom, or dashed against the rocks, and are then thrown on shore dead. 
Mr. Yarrell remarked that he had heard of two or three instances 
of this kind recently occurring on the British coast. 



47 



April 10, 1838. 
Rev. John Barlow in the Chair. 

ITie first communication laid before the meeting was a description 
by Mr. Owen of the organs of deglutition in the Giraffe, being a 
supplementary note to his former memoir on the anatomy of that 
animal. 

Mr. Owen observes that since the Giraffes have been at the Gar- 
dens, they have not been known to utter vocal sounds, except once, 
at the time of coition, when the male uttered a cry like that of the 
Deer ; and the incapacity of the species in this respect would seem 
to be indicated by the structure of the glottis, the rinia of which 
is permanently open for the space of a line, so that the chords 
cannot be brought into mutual apposition. 

The modifications of the organs of deglutition accompanying this 
open condition of the fissure leading into the windpipe are very re- 
markable, and unlike any of the few deviations from the ordinary 
structures of the fauces and glottis hitherto noticed by anatomists 
in other animals (as in the Elephant, Camels, Cetacea and certain 
Rodentia, &c.). 

On looking down the mouth into the fauces the cavity appears to 
be as completely closed as in the Capibara ; but instead of narrowing 
in an infundibular form to a small circular depression, it is termi- 
nated by a transverse slit through which projects a soft, rounded, 
valvular ridge, formed by the broad superior margin of the epiglottis, 
which is folded down upon itself at that part. The surface of the 
fauces is broken by large risings and depressions, or is coarsely 
corrugated. 

On looking at the velum palati from behind, it is seen to descend 
to the margins of the glottis in the interspace between the epiglottis 
and the large arytenoid cartilages ; and on raising the soft palate, a 
small process, or rudimental uvula, is seen, continued from the middle 
of its inferior margin into the open laryngeal fissure ; but it only fits 
into the posterior part of this open fissure ; the anterior part is 
defended by two processes of the mucous membrane of the larynx 
which are continued from the angle between the epiglottis and glot- 
tis. These processes ai'e thick, of a triangular form, with their apices 
turned backwards and inwards, so as to cover and close the anterior 
part of the glottis : when the soft palate is raised to bring them 
into view they seem like two accessoiy epiglot tides; but they consist 
merely of a duplicature,of mucous membrane. 

At the posterior part of the soft palate there is an oval glandular 
body about one inch in long diameter. 

The tonsils are well-developed glands communicating with the 
fauces by a single wide opening, or fossa, and thus exhibiting a 

No. LXIV. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 



48 

higher type of structure than they present in the human subject, 
where the mucous folUcles terminate by several separate apertures. 
They are two inches in length and one in breadth. 

Mr. Owen then proceeded to read the first part of a paper on 
the Anatomy of the Apteryx ; the body of that bird having recently 
been presented to the Society's Museum by the Earl of Derby. The 
results of the anatomical examination, communicated to the Meeting 
on this occasion, embrace a detailed description of the parts con- 
nected with the digestive apparatus. 

Commencing with the beak, Mr. Owen notices the general super- 
ficial resemblance which it bears to that of the Curlew and Ibis, 
though it diflfers essentially from this organ in the slender-billed 
waders, by having the perforations of the nostrils near the apex, 
and the base covered with a cei-e. The cere terminates anteriorly 
in a concave or lunated curve, resembling that of the Rhea. Two 
narrow grooves extend from the angles or cresses of the cere along 
each side of the mandible, the upper groove being continued to the 
truncated extremity of the mandible, the lower one leading into the 
external nostril, which forms, as it were, the dilated termination of 
the groove, and this occupies a position of which there is no other 
known example throughout the class of birds. 

The cere was about an inch in length, furnished at its sides with 
short stiff plumes and hairs, while at its base a number of long black 
bristles are given off, the presence of which, in conjunction with the 
extension of sensitive skin upon the beak, is considered by Mr. 
Owen to indicate the importance of the sense of touch to the Apte- 
ryx, and to correspond with the account given of its nocturnal 
habits. The general form of the beak is adapted for insertion into 
crevices and holes, in search of insects, which were found to consti- 
tute in part the contents of the gizzard. 

The tongue, as in all the struthious birds, was short and simple, 
yet presented nevertheless a greater relative development. It was 
of a compressed, narrow, elongated, triangular form, with the apex 
truncate and slightly notched ; the lateral and posterior margins 
entire : 8 lines in length, 4 lines broad at the base, 1 line across 
the apex. The anterior half consisted of a simple plate of a white, 
semitransparent, horny substance, gently concave above ; behind 
this the exterior covering, which is lost in, or blended with, the 
horny plate, gradually becomes distinct, and assumes the character 
of a mucous membrane : it was reflected over the posterior margin 
of the tongue, forming a crescentic fold, with the concavity towards 
the glottis ; but here, as well as on every other part of tlie tongue, 
it was devoid of spines or papilla. The lining membrane of the 
pharynx, behind the glottis, formed two elongate, square-shaped, 
smooth, thick, and apparently glandular foldf or pi-ocesses, the ob- 
tuse free margins of which project backwards, like lappels, into the 
pharynx ; beyond which the lining membrane is produced into close- 
set, narrow, somewhat wavy, longitudinal folds. 

The (esophagus at its upper extremity was half an inch in diameter, 



49 

but rapidly diminished to a breadth of three lines, of which size it 
continued to the commencement of the proventriculus ; its position 
was to the right of the cervical vertebra, and a little behind and to 
the right of the trachea, to which latter it was closely connected. 

The muscular coat of the asophagus was about half a line in thick- 
ness, and its fibres were arranged in two layers ; iu the internal 
layer the fibres presented a longitudinal arrangement, while in the 
external their disposition was circular. Tiie length of the tube was 
about eight inches, and its dilatibility was indicated by the lining 
membrane being disposed in narrow longitudinal ruga. 

The proventriculus was one inch two lines in length and half an 
inch in diameter, and situated in the axis of the (esophagus, of which 
it formed an immediate continuation ; the gastric glands were de- 
veloped around its entire circumference, their orifices opening in the 
meshes of a reticulated surface, produced hy the longitudinal ruga 
of the oesophageal membrane, changing their character after entering 
t\ie proventriculus, and bi-anching, as it were, over its surface. 

The stomach was small, measuring less than two inches both in 
its longitudinal and transverse diameters : in shape it had more 
the character of a membranous stomach than of a gizzard, being 
of a regular oval-rounded form. The muscular fibres were not ar- 
ranged in the definite masses called digastrici and laterales, but 
radiated from two tendinous centres of about two-thirds of an inch 
in the longest diameter. Upon the inner surface of the gizzard were 
two protuberances, one at the lower and one at the upper end of the 
posterior part. The situation of the latter was such with respect 
to the cardiac and pyloric openings, that Mr. Owen conceives it 
would tend to close these openings during the forcible contraction 
of the fibres at the upper jDart of the gizzard, and thus probably in 
some measure regulate the passage of food into this cavity, by re- 
taining a portion in the proventriculus, until the gizzard should have 
become emptied of its previous contents. 

A narrow pyloric passage of about three lines in length extended 
from the upper extremity of the gizzard into the duodenum ; there 
was no sphincter present, and no pyloric pouch, as in the Ostrich, 
but the cuticle was continued into the duodenum about three lines 
beyond the pylorus. 

Upon removing the abdominal muscles, the two lobes of the liver 
were seen to occupy the anterior part of the cavity, extending from 
above the notches of the sternum, to midway between the sternum 
and the cloaca. 

The stomach was entirely concealed by a large omental adipose 
process, continued from that of the peritoneum, and upon the longi- 
tudinal division of which so much of the stomach was exposed as 
projected between the lobes of the liver ; its position was towards 
the left side of the abdomen. 

The space below the stomach and liver was occupied by long and 
simple loops of intestine, extending obliquely and nearly parallel 
with each other from the upper and right to the lower and left side 



50 

of the abdomen. The lowest and largest superficial loop was formed 
by the duodenum, and the whole were hid by an omental covering 
thickly charged with fat. 

The interspace of the duodenum was occupied by the two lobes of 
a narrow and elongated j?awcre«s, the pointed extremity of the an- 
terior lobe extending freely beyond the bend of the duodenum, and 
immediately beneath it appeared the end of the rectum and cloaca. 

Upon dissecting away the omental processes and raising the ex- 
posed loops of intestine, the rectum was seen extending forwards 
about two inches along the mesial line, and then receiving the ilium 
and extremities of two c(£ca : the anterior half only of the rectum had 
an investment oi peritoneum. 

Upon raising the liver, and drawing aside the stomach, the duo- 
denal loop was seen extending in a curved direction, and about four 
inches in length, from the right side of the gizzard as before noticed ; 
having formed that loop, the intestine bends abruptly backwards, 
upon itself to the right, and then forms a second loop three and a 
half inches long, which is continued down the right side of the ab- 
domen. Three similar but somewhat shorter loops are there formed 
to the left of the preceding, after which the intestine returns to near 
the commencement of the duodenum behind the stomach, and close 
to the root of the mesentery, whence it descends to form a fifth long 
loop situated at the left side of the abdomen behind the others, and 
then becoming looser terminates after a short convolution in the 
rectum. 

The cacu were each five inches in length, and attached throughout 
their whole extent to diiferent parts of the last folds of the ilium. 

The small intestines had a general diameter of three lines, their 
size slightly diminishing on approaching the rectum. The c<cca at 
their commencement rather exceeded in diameter that of the ilium, 
their capacity slightly increasing to near their blind extremities, 
where, having attained the diameter of about five Hnes, they sud- 
denly taper to an obtuse ])oint. The anterior half of the rectum 
was contracted and the lining membrane thrown into longitudinal 
folds, but these gradually subsided in the second or dilated portion. 
The rectum communicated with the urinary dilatation by a small 
semilunar aperture, from wliich several short ruga radiated. This 
compartment of the cloaca was not expanded into a large receptacle 
as in the Ostrich, but offered the same proi)ortional size as in the 
Emeu, measuring about two-thirds of an inch in length and the 
same in diameter. The external compartment of the cloaca con- 
tained a large single /jew/s retracted spirally, and one inch and a half in 
length when extended. It was traversed by an urethral groove, the 
sides of which were not beset with papilla as in the Gander, but 
simply wrinkled transversely. At the back part of the cloaca there 
was a small bursa half an inch in length, and communicating by a 
wide longitudinal aperture with the external compartment. 

The gizzard contained a greenish yellow pulpy substance, and 
numerous filamentary bodies, amongst which a few slender legs of 



51 

insects and portions of the down of the Apteryx were the only re- 
cognizable organized parts ; it also contained a few pebbles. 

In the small intestines a little pulpy material was present, simDar 
to that in the gizzard, but of a darker colour. 

The caeca contained a larger quantity of similar, but more fluid 
matter, in which the legs of insects were again discernible. 

The liver consisted of two large lobes, connected by a narrow 
isthmus, the right being the larger and of a subtriangular figure ; 
the left was more quadrangular in shape. 

The gall bladder, one inch and a half in length, was appended by 
its cervix to the inner margin of the right lobe of the liver, the 
medium of attachment being formed by the nutrient vessels of the 
gall-bladder, and by two short cyst-hepatic ducts, with a reflection 
of serous membrane upon them. A cystic duct was continued in 
length rather more than two inches, to half way between the lower 
bend of the termination of the duodenum. 

The hepatic duct terminated a few lines below the cystic ; both 
ducts were larger than usual. 

The pancreas consisted as usual of two elongated subtriedral 
lobes, lodged chiefly in the anterior part of the duodenal interspace ; 
one of the lobes extended upwards to the nght as far as the spleen. 
The secretion was carried by two short and thick ducts, which ter- 
minated close to the hepatic and cystic upon a small longitudinal 
ridge. 

The spleen presented no peculiarities ; its size was about that of 
a hazel-nut. 

With respect to the physiological relations of the apparatus 
just described, Mr. Owen remarks that the whole is harmoniously 
co-adapted to the instruments of prehension which characterize the 
Apteryx. 

A beak framed to seize and transmit to the gullet small objects, 
is succeeded by a simple and narrow muscular canal. The food 
being of an animal nature, and taken in small and successive quan- 
tities, is digested as fast as it is obtained, and therefore the (esophagus 
is not required to be modified to serve as a reservoir, either by its 
extreme width, or a partial dilatation. The proventriculus, in the 
comparative simplicity of its glands, and the gizzard, in its small size 
and medium strength, more forcibly bespeak structures adapted for 
the bruising and chymification of animal substances presenting, as 
do worms and the softer orders of insects, a moderate resistance. 

The length of the intestines, which somewhat exceeds that of the 
slender-billed insectivorous waders, and the size of the caca, are con- 
sidered by Mr. Owen to indicate an intention, that this bird, which 
is so remarkably restricted in its locomotive powers, should have 
every needful or practicable advantage in extracting from its low- 
organized animal diet, all the nutriment that it can yield. 



52 



April 24th. 
R. C. Griffith, Esq., in the Chair. 

Some notes by Mr. Martin were read. On the visceral anatomy 
of the Sjiotted Cavy, Cmlogenus subniger, taken from the examina- 
tion of a male specimen which had died suddenly in the Menagerie 
of the Society. The length of the head and body along the spine 
measured about 1 foot 10 inches. 

On opening the abdomen, the large folds of the caecum presented 
themselves, occupying the whole of the umbilical and epigastric re- 
gions, while to the left appeared the coils of small intestine ; and a 
jjortion of the stomach was seen to emerge from below the edge of 
the left jiortion of the liver. The omentum was of very small extent, 
destitute of fat, and crumpled up beneath the stomach. 

The duodenum commenced in the form of a large pear-shaped 
sac, which measured in length 2f inches, when the intestine as- 
sumed its ordinary size, namely about half an inch in diameter. The 
dimension of the sac at its largest part was four inches in circum- 
ference. This pyriform commencement of the duodenum obtains in 
many Rodents, and also in some Insectivora ; among the former may 
be noticed the Coypus, Capromys, and Ancema : in the insectivorous 
animal lately described (Zool. Proc. 1838, p. 17.) under the name 
of Echinops Telfairi, the same structure also is remarkable. The 
course of the duodenum was as follows : leaving the pylorus and 
loosely attached by mesentery, it described an arch over the 
right kidney, whence it passed over the spine to the left kidney ; it 
then turned back to the spine, and there making several abrupt con- 
volutions merged into the jejummi. In the sacculated part two 
areola of glandular follicles were apparent through the parietes. 
As in the Agouti, (Zool. Proc. 1834, p. 82.) the stomach had a con- 
striction between its cardiac and pyloric portion ; in which point 
(as does the Agouti,) it differs from the Acouchi, the dissection of 
which will be found in the Proc. of Com. of Sci. &c., 1831, p. 75. The 
length of the stomach lying on the table undistended, or but slightly, 
was 6 inches; the cardiac portions swelled out to the extent of nearly 
2 inches beyond the entrance of the wsopkagus, and its pyloric ex- 
tremity swelled out into a process on each side, as in the Agouti. 
A muscular band, commencing at the entrance of the oesophagus, 
passed longitudinally along the stomach, contracting the greater 
curve into sacculi, especially at the constricted portion. The length 
of the oesophagus within the abdomen was one inch and a quarter. 

The length of the small intestines was very great, the measure- 
ment being 21 feet 8 inches. 

The caecum was large, irregularly , multitudinously , but not deeply 
sacculated ; in form it was gently conical, terminating in a subacute 



53 

apex ; its length 2 feet 4 inches, its basal circumference about 7 
inches. When blown up it formed a spiral turn and a half. Tlie 
large intestines at their commencement were about 7 inches in circum- 
ference, the decrease being gradual. The lining membrane of the 
colon formed a series of regular longitudinal strix, gradually disap- 
pearing as the intestine narrowed, until at length they finally disap- 
peared. The colon in its course followed the circular sweep of the 
cceciim to which it was attached by a riband of mesentery l^- inch 
in breadth. 

At about two feet from its origin the colon merges into a flat layer 
of circular folds, the intestine making four distinct gyrations ; from 
this part to the anus the intestine measured 9 feet 3 inches. 

The circular fold above noticed is analogous to the long loose 
fold observed in the same parts of the intestine in other Rodentia, 
as the Coypus, and Capromys, and which is noticed in the respective 
accounts of the dissection of those animals in the Zoological Pro- 
ceedings. 

At a little distance above these circular folds, and throughout 
the remainder of the intestinal canal, thefceces assumed a knotted 
character. 

The liver formed a right and left portion ; the right portion was 
divided into two parts, of which the innermost was the smallest ; 
the left portion was divided into four nearly equal lobuli ; between 
the first and second of which (reckoning from the centre) projected 
the gall bladder, very large, and distended with bile of a dark green 
colour ; its shape was oval, being 2^ inches long, but it was evidently 
over-distended. On turning up the liver a large hepatic duct was seen 
running from its base, for the length of an inch, to join the cystic duct, 
nearly 2 inches from the origin of the latter ; the common duct thus 
formed was 1|- inch in length, and terminated at the neck of the 
duodenal sac 2| inches from the pyloric orifice. 

The spleen of a prismatic figure, 2^ inches long, was somewhat 
closely adherent to the cardium ; its colour was dark. Spreading 
in the mesenteric membrane below the stomach, and between this, 
the spleen, and the duodenal fold, lay the pancreas, a large foliaceous 
gland of an irregular figure. 

The vena porta was large and gorged with blood. 

The kidneys were nearly in a parallel line with each other; their 
figure was elongated, (being 3 inches in length by one in breadth at 
the middle,) and at their upper apex, internally, lay the renal cap- 
sules, long cyhndrical bodies, of an ochreous colour, and extending 
to the emulgent vessels. 

The right kidney lay much closer to the vena porta than did 
the left ; the vena porta in fact passed over the renal capsule on the 
right side, while the upper apex of the kidney was in contact with 
it. The length of the renal capsules was 1^ inch, their figure vermi- 
form. 

There was no marked line of division between the cortical and 
medullary substances of the kidney. The urinary tubuli converged 
into three obtuse papilla ; the pelvis was very small. 



34 

The lungs consisted of three right and two left lobes. The 
heart was round, and firm in texture, the left ventricle being very- 
stout ; the apex exhibited a slight tendency to a bifid figure. The 
aorta at its arch sent off first an arteria innominata, which divided 
into a right subclavian, and a right and a left carotid ; then secondly, 
at a quarter of an inch further, a left subclavian, in an undivided 
condition. 

The thyroid glands were very small. 

The tongue was Sg inches long, fleshy, rounded at the tip ; the 
upper surface villose, with fine close hairy papillee ; at its base were 
numerous, large, mucous follicles. 

The j)hary7ix was funnel-shaped and prolonged ; the oesophagial 
orifice being at the root of the epiglottis, and about large enough to 
admit a common black lead pencil. The cesophugus was longitudinally- 
corrugated internally. 

The epiglottis was deeply notched, and with patulous and slightly 
curled edges. 

The arytenoid cartilages were prolonged. 

The upper corner of the os hyoides consisted of three portions. 

The sublingual glands were about the size of a nutmeg, or scarcely 
so large ; the rings of the trachea (of course imperfect,) amounted 
to 33. 

The clavicles were imperfect. If inch in length, and united to 
the sternum by a cartilaginous continuation nearly an inch long. 

The generative organs agreed closely with those of the Acouchi. 
The epididymis appeared externally through the abdominal ring, en- 
veloped in a cremaster, to which both the internal oblique and the 
traiisversalis muscles appeared to contribute. The penis was retro- 
verted at the pubes, and before the skin of the body was taken off, 
was invisible, being completely retracted -within the preputial fold. 
At the angle which it makes on the pubes, where it is retroverted, 
there is spread a slip of fibres from the external oblique. 

The length of the penis, from the pubes to the extremity of the 
glans, was 21 inches; the extreme j^ortion for 1;^ inch enclosed an 
osseous stylet. The apex of the glans and its subsequent portion 
for an inch on the under surface were covered with close-set minute 
horny papilla directed backwards ; and along the dorsum was a 
double row of retroverted sharp horny points, each point decreasing 
from the first to the last ; the number in each row being five. Its 
extremity was bifid, the orifice entering into a cavity, whence ante- 
riorly issued the urethra, which, posteriorly, was continued into a 
rugous canal of considerable depth, having at the bottom two pointed 
osseous spurs, which are capable of being protruded. 

The length of the penis, from the apex of the glans to the bulb, 
was four inches. The length of the membranous part, two inches. 

The testes lay within the abdominal ring; they were oval in form, 
and \\ inch long. The epididymis, on laying open the muscular sac, 
was seen to consist of an assemblage of contorted tubes, from which 
emerged the vas deferens ; the length of this, to its entrance at the 
base of the vesiculce seminales, being 5^ inches. The vesiculce semi' 



55 

nales were large, and foliated at their upper part ; their length was 
2|- inches. 

The morbid appearances were as follows : 

The vessels of the brain gorged with blood, and deep blush occu- 
pied the whole surface. The abdominal viscera were adherent to 
each other and to the peritoneal lining of the abdomen. The blad- 
der was distended with urine, so as to be as thin as fine transparent 
paper ; it extended above the iimbilictis, and was adherent to the 
peritoneum. The urine exuded through its parietes, as the moisture 
with which it was perpetually bedewed proved by the smell. There 
was bloody fluid in the abdomen ; and the gall-bladder was distended 
as large as an egg. 

' Mr. Waterhouse exhibited a new species, from the Society's Col- 
lection, of Gerbillus, and a new Herpestes, which were accompanied 
with the following descriptions. 

Herpestes fusca. Herp.fusca ; pilis nigra flavoque annulatis, ad 
basin fuscescentibus ; guld fusco-flavd ; caudd, quoad longitudinem, 
corpus fere csquante, pilis longissimis obsitd. 

unc. lin. 

Longitudo capitis corporisque 18 

caudce 17 

■ tarsi digitorumque 3 6 

Hab. India (Madras ?) 

" This species is about equal in size to the Herpestes major or 
urinatrix of the Cape, and hence is larger than any of the Indian 
species hitherto described. It approaches in colour nearest to Herp. 
brachiurtis of Mr. Gray, but may be distinguished by its very long 
and bushy tail. The claws of the fore feet are remarkably large and 
of a brown colour ; the longest claw measures upwards of three 
quarters of an inch ; the feet are blackish. Each hair of the back 
is grayish brown at the base, then pale brown, and the apical half is 
black, generally with about three or four yellowish rings. At a little 
distance the animal appears to be of a deep brown colour. 

" The skins from which the above description was taken were 
purchased at a sale of zoological subjects, the greater portion of 
which were from Madras. As, however, there were some from the 
Nilgherries, it is possible these specimens may have come from that 
quarter. The dimensions of a skull, accompanying one of these 
specimens, are as follows : — 

inch. lin. 

Total length of skull 3 6 

Width of skull 2 

Length of palate 1 91 

Width of palate between posterior molars . . 7^ 

Width of ditto between canines 5| 

Length from incisors to hinder portion of last 

molar 1 4| 



56 

Gerbilltts CuviERi. Gerb. suprd. colore flavescenti-cinnamomeo ; 
guld, abdomine, pedibtisque niveis ; auribus mediocribus ; caudd 
longissimd ; tar sis long is. 

unc. lin. 
Longitude ab apice rostri ad basin caudae .... 7 1 

■ CRuda 8 

ab apice rostri ad basin auris 1 6 

tarsi digitorumque 1 8| 

auris 7 

fi^f^^^ Hab. India. (No. 473. in Catal. of the Mammalia in the Zoolo- 

Hc^.^ ' Sical Society's Museum.) 

" General colour very bright cinnamon yellow; the hairs of the 
■Ms i^tf. 5i^,c xipper parts of the body gray at the base; cheeks whitish, a wliite 
, spot above, and extending behind the eye ; the feet and the whole 
of the under parts of the animal white; the hairs of the same colour 
at the base as at the apex ; tail brownish above, dirty- white be- 
neath, the apical third furnished with long blackisli hairs ; ears 
blackish, sparingly clothed with white hairs ; hairs of the moustaches 
black, some of those nearest the mouth white. 

" This species of Gerbilltts, which I have great pleasure in naming 
after M. F. Cuvier, who has published so excellent a monograph on 
the grouj) to which it belongs, I have reason to believe has long been 
confounded with the animal described by Major- General Hardwicke, 
in the eighth volume of the Linnean Transactions, under the name of 
Dipus Indicus. The chief character which induces me to consider 
it as a distinct species, consists in the comparatively great length of 
the tarsus. In a specimen of Gerb. Indicus, which exceeds the present 
animal in size, I find the tarsus to be only 1 inch and 6 lines in 
length ; and in a specimen in the Paris Museum the foot was only a 
quarter of a line longer, this animal being likewise larger than the 
specimen Avhich famished the above description. In the same mu- 
seum there is also a specimen of the present species, in which the 
tarsus measured 1 inch 9 lin. ; the length of the animal being 7 inches 
10 lin. In the specimen of Gerb. Indicus, and that of Gerb. Cuvieri, 
belonging to the Zoologicd Society's Museum, there is a consider- 
able difference in the colouring, the latter being paler, and of a much 
brighter hue than the former ; but whether this diff'erence is constant 
I am not aware." 



57 



May 8, 1838. 
The Earl of Sheffield in the Chair. 

Mr. Waterhouse brought before the notice of the Meeting an ex- 
tremely interesting series of skins of Mammalia, which had recently 
been given to the Society's Museum by George Knapp, Esq., who 
had received them from the Island of Fernando Po. 'I'lie collection 
included the following seven species, which were considered by Mr. 
Waterhouse as hitherto undescribed ; namely, two new Colobi, form- 
ing a most important addition to that group of Quadrumana of which 
our knowledge is so extremely limited, from the small number of skins 
brought to Europe ; two new species of Cercopithecus ; a new An- 
telope, a new Otter, and a new species of the genus Genetta. 

These were severally named by Mr. Waterhouse, and the follow- 
ing descriptions and specific characters communicated to the Meet- 
ing for publication in the Society's proceedings. 

CoLOBUs Pennantii. Col. suprh nigrescens, ad latera fulvescenti- 
rufus; subtiis flavescens ; cauda fusco-rdgricante ; genis albis. 

unc. lin. 

Longitudo capitis corporisque 27 

caudce 29 

Hab. Fernando Po. 

" The prevailing colour is bright rusty-red; the head, back of the 
neck, and the central portion of the back, are black ; the cheeks and 
throat are white or dirty white ; chest, fore part of the shoulders, 
the under parts of body and inner side of the limbs are dirty yellow ; 
inner side of the thighs whitish ; the hairs of the tail are brownish 
black. The fur is long and not very glossy ; that on the head and 
fore parts of the body being the longest. There is no soft under 
fur ; the hairs are of an uniform colour to the base, or at least in a 
very slight degree paler at that part. ITie portion of the back which 
is described as black partakes slightly of the rusty hue which prevails 
over the other parts of the body ; it occupies but a narrow portion 
of the back, and blends indistinctly into the ru.st colour. ITie lower 
parts of the limbs are removed, but as they are black at the knee, 
and also assume a deep hue below the elbow, it is probable the re- 
maining portions are black externally ; but internally, as far as can 
be seen, the limbs are yellowish or yellow white. 

" There was scarcely any perceptible difference in the colouring in 
all the specimens examined by me, from Fernando Po, amounting to 
about eight in number. They invariably had white or dirty-white 
cheeks and throat. 

"This species is the nearest yet found to the Bay Monkey of Pen- 
nant, but differs in having the throat and cheeks white, and in ha- 

No. LXV. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



58 

ving three distinct shades of colour on the body : Pennant's animal 
having the cheeks of a pale bay colour, and the body deep bay above, 
and pale bay beneath. It might be argued that by 'deep bay' 
Pennant meant to designate the peculiar colour described by me as 
black vi^ith a rusty hue : if so, he could scarcely apply the term ' very 
bright bay ' to the parts which I call yellow. If, however, even this 
were the case, there is still another distinct tint which he has not 
mentioned, and that is the bright rusty-red colour of the sides of the 
body and limbs. On the whole, therefore, I think I am right in ap- 
plying a name to the animal here described, which it must be remem- 
bered is from a different locality; that of the Bay Monkey being 
Sierra Leone. There is another circumstance which should lead us 
to be cautious in pronouncing any species which differs as much as 
that here described, as identical with Pennant's animal, since it so 
happens that each red Colobus discovered has in its turn been re- 
ferred to the Bay Monkey, or to the Simla ferruginea of Shaw, which 
is the same animal, and has had one or both of these names applied, 
but has been changed upon the discovery of the next species ; in 
consequence of which much confusion has arisen. I think we had 
better let the Bay Monkey stand until we can find an animal agree- 
ing with Pennant's description. 

Colobus Satanas. Col. niger ; vellere longissimo. 

unc. lin. 

Longitudo capitis corporisque 31 

■ caud(e 36 

Hab. Fernando Po. 

" Of this species I have seen three skins from the same locality; 
one of these was very imperfect ; the other two were perfect, with 
the exception of the hands and feet. Its uniform black colour will at 
once distinguish it either from Colobus leucomeros, or Col. ursinus, 
the former having white thighs and a white throat, and the latter 
having a white tail, and long grey hairs interspersed with the black 
on the neck. The longest hairs on the back measure ten inches. 
The fur is but slightly glossy, and the hairs are of an uniform colour 
to the base. There is no under fur. 

Cercopithecus Martini. Cere, pilis corporis supra nigro et 
Jlavescenti-albo annulatis; capite supra, hrachiis cauddque ni- 
gresceniibus ; gulci abdomineque griseo-fuscesceniibus. 

unc. lin. 

Longitudo capitis corporisque 22 

caudce 26 

Hab. Fernando Po. 

"Of this animal I have seen but two skins : both very nearly agree 
in colouring but differ slightly in size ; the dimensions are from the 
larger specimen. The face, hands, and feet, are unfortunately 
wanting. It appears to be most nearly allied to Col. nictitans ; the 
hairs of the upper parts of the body, however, are more distinctly 
annulated, and the general tint is somewhat greyish. Each hair is 



59 

grey at the base, and has the apical portion black, with, generallj-, 
three yellowish white rings. The crown of the head and the fore 
legs are black ; the hind legs are blackish, the hairs being but ob- 
scurely annulated. The throat is dirty white, the belly and inner 
side of the legs at the base are of a brownish colour. The tail is black 
above, and somewhat grizzled at the sides. At the base of the tail 
beneath there are some deep reddish brown hairs. The naked cal- 
losities are small. The hairs on the fore part of the crown of the 
head are black, annulated with brownish white, and so are those 
on the side of the face immediately below the ear. The fur is tole- 
rably long, and but loosely applied to the body. 

" In the smaller specimen the under parts of the body are some- 
what paler than those in the larger, being brownish-grey. 

" I have named this species after my fellow curator Mr. Martin. 

Cercopithecus erythkotis. Cere, griseus ; inlis corporis supra 
flavo nigroque annulatis ; guld genisque albis; brachiis 7ii- 
grescentibus ; caudd splcndide rufd, lined nigrescente per par- 
tem superiorem excurrente, apice nigrescente ; regione anati 
auribusque rufis. 

unc. lin. 

Longitudo capitis corporisque 17 

. Cauda 23 

Hob. Fernando Po. 

" This beautiful little species is about the same size as the Mou- 
stache Monkey {Cere, cephus), and has undoubtedly a close affinity to 
that animal ; it may, however, be distinguished by the bright rusty- 
red hairs which cover the ears internally, its brilliant red tail, and 
by the hairs in the region of the anus being also of a bright red. 

" The hairs on the upper parts of the body are black annulated 
with yellow ; on the hinder part of the back the yellow assumes a 
deep golden hue, but, unlike the Moustache Monkey, the black pre- 
vails over the yellow. On the sides of the body and the outer side 
of the hinder legs, the hairs are greyish ; and on the belly and inner 
side of the limbs, they are greyisli-white. The fore legs are blackish 
externally ; a dark mark extends backwards from the eye to the ear ; 
below this, on the cheeks, there is a tuft of white hairs, beneath 
which the hairs are grizzled black and yellow, — in these respects 
bearing a close resemblance to the Moustache Monkey. The face 
is imperfect, and the feet have been removed from the sldn ; these 
parts, therefore, cannot be described. 

Genetta Poensis. Gen. fulvescenli-fusca; dorso lineis nigris 
fonflnentibus et irregularibus notato; laleribus maculis nigris 
crebre adspersis ; caudd nigra, annulis fulvis interruptis. 

unc. lin. 

Longitudo capitis corporisque 26 

caudcE 18 

Hab. Fernando Po, 

" This species probably approaches nearest in affinity to the Ge- 



60 

netta Pardina, Is. GeofF., but is distinguished from all the African 
species with which I am acquainted, by its deep rich yellow-brown 
colouring, and by the great number of dark markings and spots with 
which its body is adorned. 

" On the back of the neck there are three or four slender longitu- 
dinal black lines, which are irregular and indistinct, especially near 
the head. On each side of these slender lines there is a broad, ir- 
regular black mark, which commencing behind the ear runs back- 
wards and outwards over the shoulders ; here the slender black lines 
appear to divide, for as many as seven can be traced ; the outer- 
most of these diverge, and are soon broken into irregular spots, 
which are scattered over the sides of the body. The intermediate 
lines are also broken into oblong spots, excepting that line which 
runs along the spine of the back, which is uninterrupted, and be- 
comes broader on the middle of the back. On the hinder half of 
the back there are, on each side of and parallel with the spinal 
black mark, two lines formed by confluent spots. The sides of the 
neck are adorned with numerous oblong spots. The muzzle is black ; 
there is a slender black line between the eyes, a yellow spot below 
the anterior angle of each eye ; the tip of the muzzle is also yellow. 
The lips are blackish, and the eyes are encircled with black hairs ; 
the hairs of the moustaches are brown, black and brown. The ears 
are black at the base externalljr ; internally they are covered with 
yellowish hairs. The limbs are brownish-black. The tail is black ; 
on the basal half there are five narrow yellowish rings, and on the 
apical half there are about four rings of a brownish colour, and 
somewhat indistinct. The fur is short, glossy, and adpressed. 

LuTRA PoENsis. Lut. mtide Jusca ; gents menlo guldque fulves- 
centibus. 

una. lin. 

Longitudo capitis corporisque 24 3 

caudce 13 

Hah. Fernando Po. 

" The only specimen of this Otter which I have seen Is smaller 
than the common European species (Lutra vulgaris) ; its colour is 
much brighter, being of a rich yellowish brown ; the sides of the 
face (immediately below the ears), the sides of the muzzle, and the 
throat, are of a rich deep golden yellow with a faint brownish hue. 
The ears are small, and covered with hairs of the same colour as 
those on the top of the head. The tip of the muzzle is bare. The 
moustaches and long bristly hairs on the sides of the face are brown, 
paler at the base, and blackish at the apex. The tail is about equal 
to half the whole length of the animal. l~he fur is short, and the hairs 
are nearly erect ; the under fur is of a brownish-white colour, glossy 
silk-like nature, and tolerably abundant. There are no feet to the skin. 

Antilope Ogilbyi. A7it. splendide fuscescenti-aurata, suhtUs pal- 
lidior, lined dorsali nigra; collofusco lavato; caudd brevietjloc- 
cosd, nigrescente, pilis albis suhlus interspersis. 

Hub. Fernando Po. 



61 

" The small bushy tail, the character of the fur, which is short and 
closely adpressed, and the colouring, all indicate in this species, I 
imagine, an affinity to the Ant. scripta, with which it appears to agree 
in size. The brown neck, deeper and richer colouring, and the ab- 
sence of white markings on the body, however, will serve to distin- 
guish it from that species. As in Ant. scripta, there is a black line 
along the spine of the back. 

" The skin from which the above description is taken is without 
head or limbs. The length from the shoulders to the root of the 
tail is about two feet eight inches. The tail is about four and a 
half inches. 

" If my conjectures regarding the affinities of this animal prove 
correct, it will belong to the sub- genus TragelapJms of Hamilton 
Smith, or to the more extended group to which Mr. Ogilby has ap- 
plied the name of Calliope. 

" I have taken the liberty of naming this animal after the author 
last mentioned, whose careful researches in the Ruminant animals 
have thrown considerable light on the affinities of the species." 

Mr. Waterhouse then proceeded to notice two skins which had been 
just brought from Sierra Leone by Major Henry Dundas Campbell, 
(late Governor of that Colony,) and sent by him for exhibition at 
the Society's evening meeting, with a promise on the part of Major 
Campbell to present them to the Museum, in the event of his being 
able to make an arrangement with a party to whom he had parted 
with them as an article of commerce. One of these specimens was 
a remarkably line skin of a species of Colohus, described by Mr. 
Ogilby in the Society's Proceedings under the name of Col. ursinus ; 
the skin, however, upon which Mr. Ogilby founded his species was 
imperfect, and until the opportunity afforded by the inspection of 
the present specimen, nothing was known of the colour of the head 
and face, which prove to be greyish white. 

The other skin was a new species of the genus Cercopithectis, for 
which the name of Cere. Campbelli was proposed, with the following 
character. 

Cercopithecus Campbelli. Cere, vellere perlongo, subxericeo, 
per dorsum medium diviso ; capile corporeque anteriore grises- 
eenti-olwaceis, pilis nigra Jlavoque annulatis ; corptore posteriore 
femorihusque extus intense cineraceis ; gidd, abdomine, artubus- 
que internis albis ; brachiis externa nigris ; caudd jnlis nigris ct 
sordide jlavis indutd, apice nigra, pilisque longioribus instrueto. 

luic. lin. 

Longitude eapitis corporisque 20 

caudce 28 

Hab. Sierra Leone. 

"This species appears to be most closely allied to the Cereopitheeus 
Pogonias of Mr. Bennett ; it has not, however, the black back which 
serves to characterize that animal. 

" The most remarkable characters in this animal are its long fur. 



62 

and the hairs being divided on the back, as in most of the species of 
the genus Colobus. The average length of the hairs of the back is 
about two and a half inches ; on the hinder half of the back, how- 
ever, they exceed three inches. These hairs are grey at the base, 
and the remaining portion of each hair is black, with broad yellow 
rings, the latter colour prevailing. On the posterior half of the 
body, and the outer side of the hinder legs, the hairs are of a deep 
slate grey, and almost of an uniform colour ; some of those on the 
middle of the back are obscurely freckled with deep yellow, and 
those on the thigh are very indistinctly freckled with white. The 
belly, inner side of limbs, fore part of thigh, chest and throat are 
white. The hairs of the cheeks and sides of neck are very long, and 
of a greyish white colour, grizzled towards the apex with black and 
yellow ; some whitish hairs tipped with black are observable across 
the fore part of the forehead. The inner side of the ears is fur- 
nished with very long hairs of a greyish white colour, obscurely an- 
nulated with grey and pale yeUow ; these hairs vary from three 
quarters to one inch in length. The fore legs are black externally, 
and the hairs on this part are comparatively short. The hairs on 
the upper side of the tail are grizzled with black and dirty yellow, 
and on the under side with black and brownish white. The apical 
portion of the tail, which is furnished with longish hairs, (as in Cere. 
Pogonias), is black, the black hairs occupying about one third of 
the whole length of the tail. 

" I have named this animal after the late Governor of Sierra Leone, 
Major Campbell, that gentleman being its discoverer." 

Mr. Ogilljy exhibited and described various species of Kangaroo 
Rats {Hypsiprymnus) from the Society's Collection, and read extracts 
relating to them from a paper which he had prepared upon the sub- 
ject so long ago as the year 1832 ; and which, though partly read 
before the Linnean Society at that time, had never been made public, 
owing to the imperfection of the materials then in this country for 
the perfect illustration of the genus. Reserving the detail of his 
observations for an express monograph, Mr. Ogilby briefly charac- 
terized the following species : — 

1. Hyp. setosus: described in the Proceedings for 1830-31, 
p. 149. 

2. Hyp. myosurus: easily distinguished from all the other species 
by its much shorter tail and tarszis ; the former organ being scaly, as 
in the true Rats. 

3. Hyp. melanotis : a large species with longer ears than its con- 
geners, and readily distinguished by the dark brown colour of the 
hair which covers the organs, as Avell as by its superior size. In 
the Zoological Society's Museum. 

4-. Hyp. formosus : a beautiful small species of a light russet- 
brown colour, the latter half of the tail white. This species has been 
for many years in the Collection of the Linnean Society. 

5. Hyp. Phillippi : pale brown, with a slight shade of i-usset above, 
dirty white beneath ; tail long, cylindrical, covered with short, ad- 



63 

pressed yellowish white hairs beneath, and with reddish brown 
woolly fur on the upper surface, terminated by a tuft of dirty yel- 
lowish brown; ears elliptical; head small and attenuated; tarsus 
long, and of a pale greyish white colour ; middle upper incisors not 
so much longer in the lateral as in Hyp. murinus, and lower shorter 
and slenderer ; the canines are nearly in contact with the lateral in- 
cisors, and of the same form and size. This is the species described 
in Governor Phillipp s Voyage ; that figured by White appears to 
be Hyp. myosunis. Described from two specimens in the Linnean 
Society's Collection. 

6. Hyp^Cuniculus : in size and colour something resembling Hyp. 
Phillippi, but of a clearer grizzled brown colour, something Uke that 
of the wild rabbit ; a dark brown patch marks the nose ; tail long, 
cylindrical, and terminated by a tuft of coffee-coloured wool ; upper 
middle incisors very large, separated from one another and truncated ; 
the lower of the same form, but considerably shorter than in any 
other species, and the canines much smaller than the contiguous 
lateral incisors, and separated from them by a distinct bar or vacant 
space ; by aU which characters this animal differs from Hyp. Phillippi, 
as well as by its larger and thicker head and clearer grey colour. 

7. Hyp. murinus : of nearly the same colours as the last two spe- 
cies, but readily distinguished by its short, thick head, blunt, unat- 
tenuated muzzle, and very short ears bordered with red : the teeth 
also afford a very distinctive character ; the lower incisors are twice 
as long as in the last species, the upper not much longer than the 
lateral, and the canine only half the size of the contiguous incisor, 
and nearly in contact with it, being separated only by the third part 
of a line ; the tail is furnished with an erect crest of black hair for 
three or four inches towards the tip : this is the " Potoroo" of the 
French Zoologists, as Mr. Ogilby had verified by comparison with 
the Paris specimens. Mr. Ogilby remarked that by an oversight 
for which he was accountable, the Society's specimen of this animal 
is called Hyp. setosus in the recently published Catalogue of the 
Mammalogical part of the Collection. 

Mr. Martin then brought before the notice of the Meeting three 
species of Chameleon from Fernando Po, forming part of Mr. Knapp's 
donation, and upon which he proceeded to offer the following obser- 
vations. 

" Among the collection of specimens from Fernando Po lately pre- 
sented to the Zoological Society are three chameleons of peculiar 
interest. One of them is the Cham, tricornis, or Oweni of Mr. Gray ; 
the second is the Cham, cristatus of Mr. Stutchbury, described and 
figured in the 3rd Part of the 17th Vol. of the Linn. Trans. The 
third appears to me to be undescribed. 

" M^'ith regard to the specimen of Cham, cristatus, I may be per- 
mitted to point out some trifling differences between it and the 
figure given by Mr. Stutchbury, The crest ceases to be elevated 
over the loins and base of the tail, degenerating into an acute ridge, 
whereas in the figure it continues for a considerable distance along 



64 

the upper aspect of the tail, and is as elevated over the loins as over 
the chest. The tail is shorter in proportion in the present specimen; 
the indentations Avhich margin the casque are less bold and decided, 
and the casque itself is less produced posteriorly. The dorsal crest 
is supported by only ten spinous processes. The colour is slate gray, 
with a yellow abdominal line, but "without the orange and dark reti- 
culated lines observed by Mr. Stutchbury in his specimen. 
Length of head and body .... 3| inches. 



tail 2| 



" As the specimen described and figured by Mr. Stutchbury came from 
the river Gaboon, Western Equinoctial Africa, and the specimen be- 
longing to the Zoological Society from Fernando Po, it is possible that 
they may be examples of permanent varieties ; but I am rather in- 
clined to attribute the difference to age or sex, or to both combined. 
Mr. Stutchbury's specimen is probably an adult male ; that belonging 
to the Zoological Society is a young female. The Cham. Oweni, Graj' 
(Cham, tricornis. Gray), differs from a specimen from Fernando Po, 
(collected by Lieut. Allen) in the possession of the Society, only in 
having the horns less developed. With respect to the species I regard 
as undescribed, I beg to offer the following observations : — 

" At a first glance this Chameleon might be confounded with Cham. 
Senegalensis, or with Cham, dilepas ; the grainlike scales of the body 
and the general contour of the head and body being much alike in 
each. When, however, we come to examine more closely, we shall 
find sufficient reason to regard it as entirely distinct. Both in 
Cham. Senegalensis and its immediate ally (if it be truly a separate 
species), Cham, dilepas, the dorsal ridge and also the median line of 
the throat and abdomen are strongly denticulate. In this, however, 
neither the dorsal ridge, nor the abdominal or gular median line, 
present any such character. In Cham. Senegalensis the tail is re- 
markably stout at the base, the skin behind the knee-joint is close, 
and there is a sort of heel, or angular projection (at least in the 
specimens before me), at the posterior junction of the two portions 
of the hind-foot. In the Chameleon which I regard as undescribed 
the tail is slender at the base and long, the skin behind the knee- 
joint is loose and fanlike, and there is no angular projection or 
heel. 

" The granulations of the body, it may also be obsen'ed, are much 
less acutely elevated (being smaller and rounder) than in Cham. 
Senegalensis. 

" The casque between the eyes is comparatively narrower, being 
there contracted ; it is broader and more rounded however posteriorly, 
and is less produced. The middle line or keel is a little more dis- 
tinct ; and between the eyes the casque is more deeply and abruptly 
concave ; a very small flap or ear, which indeed might easily be over- 
looked, is produced from the posterior part of the casque, and lies on 
each side of the^neck, as in Cham, dilepas ; but as we have said, in 
this species the dorsal ridge and the median line of the throat and 
belly are strongly denticulate, or as Daudin said of its ally the 
Cham. Senegalensis, ' denteUs en scie.' 



65 

"Regarding then this species as hitherto undescribed, I propose for 
it the name of Chamaleon Bibroni, as a tribute of respect to M. Bibron, 
of the Musee d'Histoire Naturelle of Paris, the merit of whose work 
on Reptiles, from which I have derived so much advantage, I am 
anxious thus publicly to acknowledge ; and to whom, during his late 
visit to London, I am indebted for assistance and information, while 
engaged with the collection of Sauria, in the possession of this So- 
ciety. 

"The characters of Cham. Bibroni may be summed up as follow : 
Casque (or upper surface of the skull) flat, with a very slight occi- 
pital keel ; contracted and concave between the eyes, rounded pos- 
teriorly : superciliary ridge very little elevated, and becoming obso- 
lete over the nostrils ; a small flap on each side from the posterior 
edge of the casque lies on the neck ; the dorsal ridge and median 
line, both of the throat and belly, destitute of a denticulated crest. 
The grains of the body and limbs small and close-set, those of the 
casque flat and angular. 

Cham;eleon Bibroni. Galea j)land ; rnx apud occiput carinatd ; 
inter oculos angustd et concavd ; postice rotundatd, et loho par- 
vulo utrinquc instructd ; margine superciliari parum elevato, et 
super nares ohsoleto ; culmine dorsali, linedque media per gu- 
lam et abdomen tendente, absque denticulis ; corpore granis par- 
vis et confertis tecto ; gated lamellis angularibus. 

Longitudo corporis cum capite 4 unc. 

caud(e 5^ 

Hab. in Insula Fernando Po. 

" In proportion to the size of the body the head of Cham. Bibroni 
is short, and particularly the muzzle, which is very acute at the apex. 
Viewed from above the helmet it would present an elongated oval, 
rounded behind and acute anteriorly, were it not for its contraction 
between the eyes, which is not the case in Ch. Senegalensis . The 
accessory lobes at its posterior part are very small, and might easily 
be overlooked. Perhaps, however, they may be larger in the male, 
(for the present individual, it is to be observed, is a female,) but of 
this I have no means of judging. The length and slendemess of 
the tail are remarkable. The granulations of the body are small 
and even. The general colour is purplish black, passing on the 
sides of the belly, on the loins, and posterior limbs, into olive gi-een ; 
the inside of the limbs, and the median line of the abdomen, are pale 
reddish yellow." 



66 



May 22, 1838. 
Richard Owen, Esq., in the Chair. 

A letter was first read, dated Sierra Leone, February 19, 1838, 
addressed to Mr. Rees, the Assistant Secretary, from F. Strachan, 
Esq., Corresp. Memb. 

The writer in this letter expresses the warm interest which he 
takes in the furtherance of the Societj^'s scientific objects, and states, 
that both himself and his friends are making exertions to procure skins 
and living animals. Referring to the Chimpanzee, Mr. Strachan ob- 
serves, that only two had been brought over to Freetown during the 
late rains, both of which he believes to be on their way to England ; 
he also remarks, that there would be no great difficulty in procuring 
a young Hijjjwpotamus, and that it might probably outlive the voy- 
age to England if brought home in a man of war. 

The Rev. F. W. Hope exhibited a piece of deal, perforated through- 
out by the Limnoria terebrans, and in which many of these destruct- 
ive animals might still be detected. Mr. Hope stated that the piles 
of the pier at Southend, which were of oak, had been cased with 
deal, and then surrounded with a sheathing of iron, to protect them 
from the ravages of the Limnoria ; but, instead of producing the de- 
sired effect, this plan appeared to have accelerated their destruction, 
as the Liynnoria made its way from beneath between the sheathing 
and the pier, and very quickly destroyed the deal casing, as showir 
by the piece he exhibited. Mr. Hope believed that wood could not 
by any means be effectually protected from this animal if exposed to 
its attack ; and that iron, protected from the decomposing action of 
the water by some varnish, although requiring a much greater out- 
lay at first, would in the end be found the least expensive of the 
two. 

A specimen of the Anchovy, interesting from the circumstance 
of its having been captured in the Tliames, was exhibited by Mr. 
Yarrell, who remarked that although this was the first instance of 
the kind that had fallen under his observation, yet as the Anchovy 
is plentiful along parts of the Devonshire and Cornwall coast, it was 
not improbal)lc that its occurrence in the above river would be occa- 
sionally detected, if the nets of the white- bait fishermen were ex- 
amined. 

Mr. Waterhouse then laid before the Meeting a collection of spe- 
cimens received from Mr. Cuming, consisting of a considerable num- 
ber of birds, with skins oi Mammalia, &c.: among the latter were 
several new or rare species, including specimens of the genera Tar- 
sius, Galeopithecus, Scitirus, and Paradoxurus. 

The scientific value of the above donation was much increased by 
some manuscript notes made by Mr. Cuming upon several of the ani- 



67 

mals.givingtlieirnative names, and information relative to theirhabits. 
Of one of these, a species oi Galeopithecus, Mr. Cuming remarks : — 

" The Caguang is an inoffensive animal, inhabiting lofty trees in 
dark woods, and is known to feed upon the leaves of the Nanka or 
Jack Fruit ; it suspends itself from the upper branches of the tree by- 
all its feet, which gives it a large appearance, as it brings them all 
four together. 

" It flies heavily for about a hundred yards on an inchned jjlane, 
but readily ascends the trees by its strong claws ; it makes a weak 
noise similar to geese when at rest : when the calls of nature ope- 
rate on the animal, it erects its tail and membrane up to the back 
part of the neck, which gives it a most singular appearance. They 
are easily taken by the natives throwing nets over them, or by cut- 
ting down the tree on which they are ; and before they can clear 
themselves of the branches are taken hold of by the hand. I never 
saw one of them attempt to bite. When the female has young she 
is very easily taken. They appear much attached to their young, 
which are always hanging at the breast. Of late years great num- . 
bers of them have been taken for the sake of their skins, which meet 
with a ready sale at Manilla. They are found on the islands of Bo- 
hol and Mindanado." 

Another of the specimens was the Tarsius spectrum of GeofFroy, of 
which Mr. Cuming's memoranda furnished the following interesting 
details : — 

" The Malmag is a small animal living under the roots of trees, 
particularly the large bamboo of these islands. Its principal food is 
lizards, which it prefers to all other. When extremely hungry. I 
have known it to eat shrimps and cock-roaches, and give a great pre- 
ference to those which are alive. It is very cleanly in its habits, never 
touches any kind of food that has been -partly consumed, and never 
drinks a second time from the same water. It seldom makes any 
kind of noise, and when it does emit sound it is a sharp shrill call, 
and only once. On approaching it in its cage, it fixes its large full 
eyes upon the party for a length of time, never moxdng a muscle : 
on drawing nearer, or putting anything near it, it draws up the 
muscles of the face similar to a monkey, and shows its beautiful 
sharp regular set teeth. It laps water like a cat, but very slowly, 
and eats much for so small an animal. It springs nearly two feet at a 
time. It sleeps much by day, is easily tamed, and becomes quite 
familiar, licking the hands and face, and creeping about your person, 
and is fond of being caressed. It has an aversion to the light, al- 
ways retiring to the darkest place. It sits upon its posteriors when 
it feeds, holding its food by its fore paws ; when not hungry, it will 
ogle the food for a considerable time. A male and female are gene- 
rally seen together : the natives of these islands make sure of taking 
the second having secured the first. They are extremely scarce in 
the island of Bohol, and only found in the woods of Jagna and the 
island of Mindanado. 

" The calls of nature seldom operate ; the fceces are similar to those 
of a dog, and large for so small an animal. 



68 

" It produces one at a time. I had the good fortune to procure a 
female without knowing her to be with young : one morning I was 
agreeably surprised to find she had brought forth. The young ap- 
peared to be rather weak, but a perfect resemblance to its parent : 
the e^'es were open and covered with hair ; it soon gathered strength, 
and was constantly sucldng betwixt its parent's legs, and so well 
covered by its mother, that I seldom could see anything of it but its 
tail : on the second day it began to creep about the cage with apparent 
strength, and even climb up to the top by the rods of which the cage 
was composed. Upon persons wishing to see the young one when 
covered over by the mother, we had to disturb her, upon which the 
dam would take the young one in its mouth, in the same manner as a 
cat, and carry it about for some time ; several times I saw her when not 
disturbed trying to get out ofthe cage, with the young one in hdr mouth 
as before. It continued to live and increase in size for three weeks, 
when unfortunately some person trod upon the tail of the old one, 
which was protruded through the cage, a circumstance which caused 
'its death in a few days : the young one died a few hours after, which I 
put into spirits. The skin, with its tail crushed, is in the box with the 
other animals. I should recommend its being placed in the attitude of 
springing, with the body a little bent forward ; ear erect and round ; 
eyes very full of light ; chestnut colour ; pupil black and small ; the 
nails or claws two in number, erect, such as they are at all times. 

Jagna, Isle of Bohol, August 1837. " ^- Fuming." 

Among the collection sent by Mr. Cuming to the Society were 
specimens of two species of Saurian Reptiles, upon which, at the 
request of the Chairman, Mr. Martin offered some remarks. 

The first species to which he adverted was the Istiiinis Amboi- 
nensis of Cuvier : two specimens of this rare reptile, both males, were 
procured by Mr. Cuming in the Island of Negros. The Jsfiurus 
Amhoinensis, from the circumstance of the male being furnished with 
an elevated crest or fan, supported by the spinous processes of the 
base of the tail, in which respect it agrees with the Basilisk, was 
placed by Daudin in the same genus with this latter reptile, and 
characterized as the Basiliscus Amhoinensis, and in this arrangement 
Daudin was followed by most succeeding viriters. So little allied, 
however, in reality, are these two reptiles (though possibly they 
may be the representatives of each other in different quarters of the 
globe), that they belong to two different sections of the Saicria, of 
which one has the Old World, the other the New World, for 
its range. The Basilisk (Basiliscus mitratus, Daud.), with all 
the American genera of the Iguanian group or Eunotes of Dumeril 
and Bibron, belong to the section of that group termed Pleuro- 
donta, distinguished by the situation of the teeth, which rise from 
a furrow along the internal aspect of each jaw ; whereas the 
Istiurus, with all the Old World genera of the Iguanian group, 
(the genus Brachylophiis, of which there is only one species, alone 
excepted,) belong to the section termed Acrodonta, distinguished 



69 

by the teeth being firmly fixed along the very ridge of each 
jaw, instead of having an insertion in a lateral furrow. The 
first discovery of the true characters of the Istiurus is due to Mr. 
Gray, who instituted a genus for the reception of this species, and 
also of two others allied to it, (one of these being the Physignathus 
Cocincinus of Cuvier,) under the title of Lophura. In the last edi- 
tion of the R^gne Animal, Cuvier, though he admits the justness of 
Mr. Gray's views respecting the Amboina Lizard, still retains the 
"•enus Physignathus for the Cochin Chinese one, but he changes 
the term Lophura into Istiurus ; his reason being that the word Lo- 
phura approaches too nearly the term Lophyrus already applied by 
Daudin to a diiferent genus. MM. Dumeril and Bibron adopt the 
generic title proposed by Cuvier, and also receive into the genus the 
Physignathus Cocincinus, under the title Istiurus Physignathus ; they 
add, moreover, a third species under the name of Istiurus Lesueuri, 
originally described by Mr. Gray as the Lophura Lesueuri. Mr. 
Martin observed, that the presence of the elevated fan at the base 
of the tail, which occurs only in the males of Istiurus Atnboinensis, 
was a circumstance of interest, inasmuch as it involves a structural 
difference between the osteology of both sexes. In the common 
Water Newt, the male of which acquires fanlike membranes at a 
certain season of the year, the membrane is unsupported by an 
osseous frame-work, and is deciduous, or rather temporary ; but in 
this animal, while the use of such a fan may be in all probability 
connected with sexual functions, it is a persistent appendage. The 
locality from which the specimens were derived gives them addi- 
tional value. 

The next species to which Mr. Martin requested the attention of 
the meeting was a Varanus from the Isle of Mindanado, which he 
regarded as hitherto undescribed. 

This Varanus, he observed, appeared to be closely allied to Va- 
ranus chlorostigma, Dum. and Bibr., differing, nevertheless, materi- 
ally in the character of the scales of the body, and in the distribu- 
tion of its markings. As in Varanus chlorostigma and Var. hivittatus, 
the suborbital scales consist of a crescent of plates, broader than 
long, encircled by small plates, which latter cover the suborbital 
margin. The nostrils are rounded, and placed on each side of the 
muzzle rather nearer the apex than in Var. chlorostigma ; the teeth 
are also compressed with sharp edges very minutely dentated ; the 
head is more produced than in Var. chlorostigma, being, in this re- 
spect more like that of Var. hivittatus ; and the scales are larger, 
coarser, and more irregular. 

For this new Varanus, Mr. Martin proposed the name of Varanus 
Cumingi. 

Varanus Cumingi. Varan, caudd compressd, naribus fere rO' 
tundatis et rostri apicem versus jiositis ; lamellis suhorbitalibus 
incequalibus, septem vel octo ceteris quoad magnitiidinem prce- 
stantibus latissimis, lineamque semilunarem efficientibus ; dentibus 
compressis, acutis, et delicate serratis ; corpore supra vigro, 
gultis ocellisque Jlavis ornato; abdomine aurantiaco. 
Hah. apud Insulam Mindanado. 



70 

The head of this Varamis is elongated as in Var. bivittatiis, 
and the nostrils have the same situation, but are rounded, and the 
nasal pouches are situated as in Var. chlorostigma. The poste- 
rior teeth are larger than the anterior, but all are recurved, com- 
pressed, with sharp edges and point, and very minutely serrated. 
The upper surface of the head is covered with flat polygonal scales, 
arranged in a system of circles. On the superorbital region seven 
or eight scales, much broader than long, form a sort of crescent. 
The scales of the back of the neck are large, oval, convex, and di- 
stinctly encircled with small, granulous scales ; on the sides of the 
neck they become smaller. The rami of the lower jaw are covered 
with rather large oblong scales disposed in parallel lines ; and 
the throat and interspace between the rami are furnished with 
scales of a similar character, but very small. On the back, the scales 
are oval, and slightly keeled ; the largest are those down the middle 
of the back, whence they become gradually smaller as they ap- 
proach the sides. The scales of the axillee are very small, flat, and 
circular ; those covering the outer aspect of the arms, large, pointed, 
andsubcarinate. The thighs are covered anteriorly with large square 
flat scales, having indications of a keel, while the leg from the 
knee downwards is covered externally wdth pointed scales, each 
strongly and sharply keeled. On the inside of the thighs the scales 
are moderate and circular. The scales of the abdomen and tail re- 
semble those of Varanus bivittatus, but the double ridge of the tail 
is comparatively more feeble and less elevated. The toes are long, 
the claws large, compressed, and hooked. 

The ground colour of the upper surface is black ; the apex 
of the muzzle, a transverse bar behind the nostrils, a second 
about an inch beyond, a smaller between the eyes, and a large 
space on the top of the head, are bright yellow ; the edges of the 
upper lip are yellow, and a yellow stripe extends from the back 
of the eye to the ear ; an irregular, but somewhat triangular mark 
of yellow occupies the back of the neck, whence a line of yellow 
spots, or, as in one specimen, a continuous line, runs between the 
shoulders. The back is crossed by yellow spots, or by ocelli, form- 
ing six or seven interrupted bars ; sometimes the back is more irre- 
gularly marked, the interrupted bars being obscure, and the inter- 
spaces numerously dotted with j'ellow scales amidst the black : one 
of the three specimens is thus coloured ; the limbs externally are irre- 
gularly spotted with yellow, and the tail is banded with the same. 
The whole of the under surface, from the chin to the base of the 
tail, the axilla:, and inside of the thighs, are orange yellow. 

Length of the largest of the three specimens (each apparently 
adult). ft. inch. 

From the muzzle to the posterior margin of the ear 3 

From the ear to the root of the tail 1 3 

TaU 2 4 



71 



June 12, 1838. 
The Rev. F. W. Hope in the Chair. 

Mr. OAven communicated to the Meeting another portion of the 
results attending his examination of the body of the Aptcryx, em- 
bracing a description of the parts connected with the function of re- 
spiration, and their general relations, as shown in this extraordinary 
bird, to that structure of the respiratory organs which is so eminent- 
ly characteristic of the entire class. 

Mr. Owen remarks, that the system of respiration in birds is so 
obviously framed with especial reference to the faculty of aerial pro- 
gression, and the peculiarities in the former exhibit so marked a phy- 
siological relation to the lattei', that in the A])teryx, where the wings 
are reduced to the lowest known rudimentary condition, the exami- 
nation of the accompanying modifications in the respiratory apparatus 
presented a most interesting subject for inquiry. 

Upon carefully removing the viscera from the abdomen, Mr. Owen 
was both gratified and surprised at finding no trace of air-cells in 
the abdominal cavity ; the diaphragm being entire, and pierced only 
for the transmission of the asopkagus and larger blood-vessels, as in 
the Mammalia. 

The position of the diaphragm was almost horizontal, like that of 
the Dugong, differing from it principally in relation to the heart and 
pericardium, which projected into the abdominal ca^'ity, as through a 
hernial aperture, the aponeurosis of the diaphragm being continuous 
over the pericardium ; an approach towards the oviparous type in the 
disposition of the viscera being thus preserved. 

In the origins of the diaphragm Mr. Owen found the crura of the 
lesser muscle exhibiting a gi-eater degree of development than is 
known to exist in any other bird ; the crura were entirely tendinous, 
and arose from slight projections at the sides of the last costal ver- 
tebree, their fibres expanding and being lost in the large aponeuro- 
tic centre ; at the point of their expansion to join the aponeurosis a 
small proportion of muscular fibre was observed. 

The abdominal surface of the diaphragm, as in the Mammalia, was 
principally in contact with the convex surface of the liver, but the 
thoracic surface of the former was separated from the lungs by a se- 
ries of small but well-marked air-cells, one of w'hich projected 
slightly through the anterior aperture of the thoracic-abdominal 
cavity at the base of the neck ; the Apteryx thus still retains the 
ornithic type of structure, although presenting us with the only 
known instance, in the feathered race, of a species in which the recep- 
tacular portion of the lungs is not extended into the abdomen. 

The lungs were each of an irregular sub-compressed triedral fi- 
gure, broader anteriorly and contracted towards the posterior ex- 
No. LXVI. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 



72 

tremity ; they were fixed to the posterior part of the chest in a plane 
nearly parallel with the axis of the trunk, and were perforated by 
large apertures for the passage of air from the bronchial tubes into 
the air-cells. 

The bronchial divisions of the trachea entered the lungs about one- 
fifth of their length from the anterior end, and immediately formed 
four principal branches, two (a small one and the largest) suppljang 
the respiratorj'^ portion of the lung itself, and the other two termina- 
ting by openings into the thoracic air-cells previously noticed. The 
course of these divisions of the trachea is severall}' described by Mr. 
Owen, and he eilso enters into details respecting the number and po- 
sition, &c. of the air-ceUs. 

In the simplicity of its structure the trachea resembled that of the 
struthious birds, but there was no trace of a dilated membranous 
pouch as in the Emeu. The trachea consisted of I'iO small rings, 
becoming gradually smaller to the last 20, and alternately overlap- 
ping and being overlapped at the sides, during the relaxation of the 
tube. The upper larynx was not defended by any rudimental epi- 
glottis, nor provided with retroverted spines or papilla ; a small 
process projected from its anterior part halfway across the laryngeal 
area. There was no lower larynx; the rings of the bronchi, with 
only a slight diminution of thickness, were continued from the 
last two of the trachea, which latter were increased in size. The 
trachea was closed below by a membrane completing the bronchifJ 
cartilages at their under part, and the half-rings of the bronchi were 
completed by a tympaniform membrane both above and below. 

There were two of the so-called sterno-tracheales muscles arising 
one from the inner surface of each coracoid. 

Mr. Owen remarks that the fixed condition of the lungs, and the 
existence of air-cells between the lungs and the diaphragm, clearly 
prove that inspiration cannot be effectually performed by the action 
of the diaphragm alone, but that it takes place in the Apteryx as in 
other birds, by the sternum being depressed, and the angle between 
the vertebral and sternal ribs being increased. 

A communication was then read to the Meeting by Dr. Cantor, 
entitled, " A notice of the Hamadryas, a genus of Hooded Serpents 
with poisonous fangs and maxillary teeth." 

Dr. Cantor commences with obsers'iug, that " since Dr. Russell em- 
bodied the results of his investigations in his unequalled work upon 
Indian Serpents, the attention which this branch of Indian zoology 
has received has been chiefly confined to occasional discoveries of 
single species ; and yet from experience I have been convinced how 
rich this branch is, and how much still is left to be illustrated, not 
only with regard to species, but also with regard to the habits and 
the geographical distribution of this order of reptiles, the number 
and variety of which forms so prominent a feature in the zoology of 
Southern Asia. 

" The venomous serpent, to which I shall here call attention, is the 
type of a new genus ; which, from its inhabiting hollow trees and 



73 

frequenting the branches, I propose to call Hamadryas. Its charac- 
ters induce me to assign it a place between the genera Naja, Lau- 
renti, and Bimgarus, Daudin, which two forms it will be found to 
connect together. 

Hamadryas. 

Caput latum, subovatum, deplanatum, rostro brevi obtuso, scutis 

quindecim superne tectum. 
Buccce tumidse. 

Oculi magni prominentes, pupilld rotunda. 
Nares late apertse, duorum scutorum in confinio. 
Oris rictus peramplus, subundatus. 
Tela antica, pone qua dentes maxillares. 
Collum dilatabile. 
Corpus crassum, teres, squamis Isevibus, per series obliquas dis- 

positis, imbricatim tectum. 
Cauda brevis, apice acuto, scutis et scutellis tecta. 

Hamadryas Ophiophagus. Ham. superni olivaceo-viridis, siriis 
sagittalibus nigris cinctus, abdomine glauco, nigra marmorato. 

Scuta abdominalia a 215 ad 245 
Scuta subcaudalia a 13 ad 32 
Scutella subcaudalia a 63 ad 71 

Hab. Bengal. 

Hindustanee name, ' Sunkr-Choar.' 

" For the description and anatomical details, I beg to refer to my 
provisional description, published in the Asiatic Researches, vol. xx. 
p. 87., while I shall here confine myself to some general remarks 
upon the haliits, the effects of the poison, and the history of this 
serpent. 

" The Hamadryas, like the Bungarus, Hydrus, and Hydrophis, has 
a few maxillary teeth behind the poison-fangs, and thus like the lat- 
ter connects the venomous serpents with isolated poison-fangs to the 
harmless, which possess a complete row of maxillary teeth. 

" Of the terrestrial venomous serpents the Bungarus is chiefly cha- 
racterized by a distribution of the teeth similar to that of the Hama- 
dryas, which, also partaking of the chief characteristic of the genus 
Naja, viz. that of forming a hood or disc, constitutes an immediate 
link between the genera Bungarus and Naja. 

" In consequence of the strong resemblance in the general appear- 
ance between the Naja and the Hamadryas, when first my attention 
became attracted to the latter, I thought I could refer this serpent 
to that genus ; and it was not until I was able to examine a speci- 
men whose poison-fangs were untouched (those of the first speci- 
mens I saw having been drawn by the natives, who are greatly 
afraid of this serpent), that I discovered the maxillary teeth behind 
the poison-fangs. 

" Hamadryas ophiophagus differs from the Naja tripudians : 

1. By its maxillary teeth. 

2. By the strongly developed spines on the os occipitale inferius. 



74 

3. By tlie integuments covering the head. 

4. By the integuments covering the abdominal surface of the tail. 

5 . By its colour. 

6. By its size. 

"According to the natives the Hamadryas feeds chiefly upon other 
serpents ; in one I dissected I found remains of a good-sized Mo- 
nitor, which fact may account for its. arboreal habits, as I have in 
Bengal, along the banks of the rivers, observed numbers of those 
large lizards among the branches of trees watching for birds. 

'.' ^}^^ power of abstaining from food, generally speaking, so charac- 
teristic of the serpents, is but in comparatively small degree possessed